Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The location-, word-, and arrow-based Simon effects are usually attributed to the result of a direct route (the spatially corresponding stimulus–response association, activated automatically) that interferes with an indirect route (the association of task-relevant information and response, activated in accordance with the instructed stimulus–response mapping). We examined whether and how distinct direct routes (stimulus-location–response position and location word–response position or arrow direction–response position associations) affect responding on the basis of the same indirect route (a stimulus color–response association) in a Simon-like task. For this task, left–right keypresses were made to indicate the ink colors of location words or left- or right-pointing arrows, presented eccentrically in left or right locations. The location-based Simon effect occurred at the levels of mean reaction time (RT) and RT distribution in the word Simon-like task, whereas the word-based Simon effect only occurred at the level of RT distribution. In the arrow Simon-like task, the location-based Simon effect did not occur at the level of mean RT, but did at the level of RT distribution, whereas the opposite pattern occurred for the arrow-based Simon effect. These results could imply that one direct route influences the effects of the other direct route on the responses, depending on the task context.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Andrews, S., & Heathcote, A. (2001). Distinguishing common and task-specific processes in word identification: A matter of some moment? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 27, 514–544.
Ansorge, U., & Wühr, P. (2004). A response-discrimination account of the Simon effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 30, 365–377. PubMed
Balota, D. A., & Spieler, D. H. (1999). Lexicality, frequency, and repetition effects: Beyond measures of central tendency. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 32–55. CrossRef
Barber, P., & O’Leary, M. (1997). The relevance of salience: Towards an activation account of irrelevant stimulus–response compatibility effects. In B. Hommel & W. Prinz (Eds.), Theoretical issues in stimulus–response compatibility (pp. 135–172). Amsterdam: North-Holland. CrossRef
Bundesen, C. (1991). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523–547. CrossRef
Carpenter, R. H. S. (1988). Movements of the eyes. London: Pion.
De Houwer, J., Beckers, T., Vandorpe, S., & Custers, R. (2005). Further evidence for the role of mode-independent short-term associations in spatial Simon effects. Perception & Psychophysics, 67, 659–666. CrossRef
De Jong, R., Liang, C.-C., & Lauber, E. (1994). Conditional and unconditional automaticity: A dual-process model of effects of spatial stimulus-response correspondence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 20, 731–750. PubMed
Eimer, M., & Schlaghecken, E. (1998). Effects of masked stimuli on motor activation: Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 1737–1747. PubMed
Ellinghaus, R., Karlbauer, M., Bausenhart, K. M., & Ulrich, R. (2017). On the time-course of automatic response activation in the Simon task. Psychological Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-017-0860-z.
Heathcote, A., Popiel, S. J., & Mewhort, D. J. K. (1991). Analysis of response time distributions: An example using the Stroop task. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 340–347. CrossRef
Hommel, B. (2000). The prepared reflex: Automaticity and control in stimulus–response translation. In S. Monsell & J. Driver (Eds.), Control of cognitive processes: Attention and performance XVIII (pp. 247–273). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lu, C.-H., & Proctor, R. W. (1995). The influence of irrelevant location information on performance: A review of the Simon and spatial Stroop effects. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2, 174–207. CrossRef
Luo, C., & Proctor, R. W. (2018). The location-, word- and arrow-based Simon effects: An ex-Gaussian analysis. Memory & Cognition, 46, 497–506. CrossRef
Massidda, D. (2013). Retimes: Reaction time analysis. R package version 0.1-2.
Miles, J. D., Yamaguchi, M., & Proctor, R. W. (2009). Dilution of compatibility effects in Simon-type tasks depends on categorical similarity between distractors and diluters. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 71, 1598–1606. CrossRef
Notebaert, W., De Moor, W., Gevers, W., & Hartsuiker, R. J. (2007). New visuo-spatial associations by training verbo-spatial mappings in the first language. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 1183–1188. CrossRef
Plourde, C. E., & Besner, D. (1997). On the locus of the word frequency effect in word recognition. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 51, 181–194. CrossRef
Pratte, M. S., Rouder, J. N., Morey, R. D., & Feng (2010). Exploring the differences in distributional properties between Stroop and Simon effects using delta plots. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 72, 2013–2025. CrossRef
Proctor, R. W., Miles, J. D., & Baroni, G. (2011). Reaction time distribution analysis of spatial correspondence effects. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 242–266. CrossRef
Proctor, R. W., & Vu, K.-P. L. (2002). Mixing incompatibly mapped location-irrelevant trials and location-relevant trials: Influence of stimulus mode on spatial compatibility effects. Memory & Cognition, 30, 281–293. CrossRef
Proctor, R. W., & Vu, K.-P. L. (2006). Stimulus–response compatibility principle: Data, theory, and application. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis.
Proctor, R. W., Yamaguchi, M., Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2013). Dissociation of S–R compatibility and Simon effects with mixed tasks and mappings. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39, 593–609. PubMed
Proctor, R. W., Yamaguchi, M., Zhang, Y., & Vu, K.-P. L. (2009). Influence of visual stimulus mode on transfer of acquired spatial associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 434 – 445. PubMed
Simon, J. R. (1990). The effects of an irrelevant directional cue on human information processing. In R. W. Proctor & T. G. Reeve (Eds.), Stimulus-response compatibility: An integrated perspective (pp. 31–86). Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Spieler, D. H., Balota, D. A., & Faust, M. E. (1996). Stroop performance in healthy younger and older adults and in individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 22, 461–479. PubMed
Tipper, S. P., Weaver, B., & Houghton, G. (1994). Behavioural goals determine inhibitory mechanisms of selective attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 809–840. CrossRef
Tipples, J. (2002). Eye gaze is not unique: Automatic orienting in response to uninformative arrows. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 314–318. CrossRef
Umiltà, C., & Nicoletti, R. (1990). Spatial stimulus-response compatibility. In R. W. Proctor & T. G. Reeve (Eds.), Stimulus-response compatibility: An integrated perspective (pp. 89–143). Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Vu, K. P. L., Ngo, T. K., Minakata, K., & Proctor, R. W. (2010). Shared spatial representations for physical locations and location words in bilinguals’ primary language. Memory & Cognition, 38, 713–722. CrossRef
Wang, H., & Proctor, R. W. (1996). Stimulus–response compatibility as a function of stimulus code and response modality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 22, 1201–1207.
Wascher, E., Schatz, U., Kuder, T., & Verleger, R. (2001). Validity and boundary conditions of automatic response activation in the Simon task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27, 731–751. PubMed
Weeks, D. J., & Proctor, R. W. (1990). Salient-features coding in the translation between orthogonal stimulus and response dimensions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119, 355–366. CrossRef
White, D., Risko, E. F., & Besner, D. (2016). The semantic Stroop effect: An ex-Gaussian analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23, 1576–1581. CrossRef
Wiegand, K., & Wascher, E. (2005). Dynamic aspects of stimulus–response correspondence: evidence for two mechanisms involved in the Simon effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31, 453–464. PubMed
Zhang, J., & Kornblum, S. (1997). Distributional analysis and De Jong, Liang, and Lauber’s (1994) dual-process model of the Simon effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23, 1543–1551.
- How different direct association routes influence the indirect route in the same Simon-like task
Robert W. Proctor
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
An International Journal of Perception, Attention, Memory, and Action
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772