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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 8/2014

01-08-2014 | Brief Report

Brief Report: Generalisation of Word–Picture Relations in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

Auteurs: Calum Hartley, Melissa L. Allen

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 8/2014

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Abstract

We investigated whether low-functioning children with autism generalise labels from colour photographs based on sameness of shape, colour, or both. Children with autism and language-matched controls were taught novel words paired with photographs of unfamiliar objects, and then sorted pictures and objects into two buckets according to whether or not they were also referents of the newly-learned labels. Stimuli matched depicted referents on shape and/or colour. Children with autism extended labels to items that matched depicted objects on shape and colour, but also frequently generalised to items that matched on only shape or colour. Controls only generalised labels to items that matched the depicted referent’s shape. Thus, low-functioning children with autism may not understand that shape constrains symbolic word–picture–object relations.
Voetnoten
1
The BPVS scores of 4 children with ASD and 1 typically developing child were marginally below the lowest raw score with a standardised age equivalent (of 2.3 years). Consequently, we conservatively assigned these children a receptive language ability of exactly 2 years. This research is particularly relevant to individuals with language impairments who have difficulty with standardised assessments, display challenging behaviours and receive picture-based communication training.
 
2
Seven children with ASD were functionally non-verbal (no spoken words), 7 had some words and produced utterances of 1–3 words in length (including echolalic utterances) and 3 could speak some short phrases over 4 words long. Participants’ experience using PECS varied between 5 months and 10 years. Their progress ranged from Stage 1 to fully-trained user (see Frost and Bondy 2002). The pictures used by participants to communicate varied individually, with coloured drawings/symbols and black-and-white drawings/symbols the most common. Several children used a mixture of picture types that varied in iconicity and only four children in the sample used “some” colour photographs.
 
3
As our ASD sample only consisted of males, we conducted two follow-up analyses to rule-out a possible effect of Gender. Firstly, the data from the TD children were entered into a 2(Gender) × 8 (Item) mixed ANOVA, which showed that Gender had no influence on their generalisation of word–picture relations. Secondly, we reran the between-groups analyses including only the male TD children. Exclusion of the female TD children yielded exactly the same Group × Item interaction and simple main effects as the primary analyses.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Brief Report: Generalisation of Word–Picture Relations in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children
Auteurs
Calum Hartley
Melissa L. Allen
Publicatiedatum
01-08-2014
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 8/2014
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2074-1

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