Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 7/2014

01-07-2014 | Original Paper

Effects of Observing Eye Contact on Gaze Following in High-Functioning Autism

Auteurs: Anne Böckler, Bert Timmermans, Natalie Sebanz, Kai Vogeley, Leonhard Schilbach

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 7/2014

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Observing eye contact between others enhances the tendency to subsequently follow their gaze and has been suggested to function as a social signal that adds meaning to an upcoming action or event. The present study investigated effects of observed eye contact in high-functioning autism (HFA). Two faces on a screen either looked at or away from each other before providing congruent or incongruent gaze cues to one of two target locations. In contrast to control participants, HFA participants did not depict enhanced gaze following after observing eye contact. Individuals with autism, hence, do not seem to process observed mutual gaze as a social signal indicating the relevance of upcoming (gaze) behaviour. This may be based on the reduced tendency of individuals with HFA to engage in social gaze behavior themselves, and might underlie some of the characteristic deficiencies in social communicative behaviour in autism.
Voetnoten
1
Note that the term ‘observed eye contact’ refers to the observation of eye contact between other agents (not the experience of being looked at oneself).
 
2
The control group entailed numerically more women than the HFA group and there are indications of larger gaze cueing effects in women (Bayliss et al. 2005). Though the HFA and control group did not differ significantly in terms of age and gender, both variables were included as covariates in additional analyses. Results revealed no interactions of Gender with any of the other factors or with any of the interactions [Fs(1, 50) ≤ 1.9, p ≥ .16, η2 ≤ 0.038] and no effect of Age with any of the factors or interactions [Fs(1, 50) < 1].
 
3
It needs to be mentioned that the condition in which the two faces are looking at each other, as opposed to looking away, constitutes a situation in which (a) participants’ attention is drawn to the centre of the screen and (b) the two faces are looking at something together with the participant. Control experiments in the original paper suggest that the enhanced gaze cueing effect after observing direct gaze is not due to either of these potential confounds. Enhanced gaze following was not found when participants’ attention was directed towards the center by non-social cues or when one face looked at an object before providing gaze cues (Böckler et al., 2011).
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Bakeman, R., & Adamson, L. (1984). Coordinating attention to people and objects in mother–infant and peer–infant interaction. Child Development, 55, 1278–1289. PubMedCrossRef Bakeman, R., & Adamson, L. (1984). Coordinating attention to people and objects in mother–infant and peer–infant interaction. Child Development, 55, 1278–1289. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baldwin, D. (1995). Understanding the link between joint attention and language. In C. Moore & P. Dunham (Eds.), Joint attention: Its origins and role in development (pp. 131–158). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Baldwin, D. (1995). Understanding the link between joint attention and language. In C. Moore & P. Dunham (Eds.), Joint attention: Its origins and role in development (pp. 131–158). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (1989). Joint-attention deficits in autism: Towards a cognitive analysis. Developmental Psychopathology, 3, 185–189. CrossRef Baron-Cohen, S. (1989). Joint-attention deficits in autism: Towards a cognitive analysis. Developmental Psychopathology, 3, 185–189. CrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (1991). Precursors to a theory of mind: Understanding attention in others. In A. Whiten (Ed.), Natural theories of mind: Evolution, development and simulation of everyday mindreading (pp. 233–251). Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Baron-Cohen, S. (1991). Precursors to a theory of mind: Understanding attention in others. In A. Whiten (Ed.), Natural theories of mind: Evolution, development and simulation of everyday mindreading (pp. 233–251). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Massachusetts: MIT Press. Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Massachusetts: MIT Press.
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (2003). The essential difference: The truth about the male and female brain. New York, NY: Basic Books. Baron-Cohen, S. (2003). The essential difference: The truth about the male and female brain. New York, NY: Basic Books.
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Cohen, D. (2000). Understanding other minds: Perspectives from developmental neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Cohen, D. (2000). Understanding other minds: Perspectives from developmental neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Barresi, J., & Moore, C. (1996). Intentional relations and social understanding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 107–154. CrossRef Barresi, J., & Moore, C. (1996). Intentional relations and social understanding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 107–154. CrossRef
go back to reference Bayliss, A. P., di Pellegrino, G., & Tipper, S. P. (2005). Sex differences in eye gaze and symbolic cueing of attention. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 631–650. PubMedCrossRef Bayliss, A. P., di Pellegrino, G., & Tipper, S. P. (2005). Sex differences in eye gaze and symbolic cueing of attention. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 631–650. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1987). Beck depression inventory-manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation. Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1987). Beck depression inventory-manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Böckler, A., Knoblich, G., & Sebanz, N. (2011). Observing shared attention modulates gaze following. Cognition, 120, 292–298. PubMedCrossRef Böckler, A., Knoblich, G., & Sebanz, N. (2011). Observing shared attention modulates gaze following. Cognition, 120, 292–298. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bölte, S., Holtmann, M., Poustka, F., Scheurich, A., & Schmidt, L. (2007). Gestalt perception and local-global processing in high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1493–1504. PubMedCrossRef Bölte, S., Holtmann, M., Poustka, F., Scheurich, A., & Schmidt, L. (2007). Gestalt perception and local-global processing in high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1493–1504. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bristow, D., Rees, G., & Frith, C. D. (2007). Social interaction modifies neural responses to gaze shifts. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2, 52–61. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Bristow, D., Rees, G., & Frith, C. D. (2007). Social interaction modifies neural responses to gaze shifts. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2, 52–61. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Carhart-Harris, R. L., & Friston, K. J. (2010). The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: A neurobiological account of Freudian ideas. Brain, 133, 1265–1283. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Carhart-Harris, R. L., & Friston, K. J. (2010). The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: A neurobiological account of Freudian ideas. Brain, 133, 1265–1283. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chawarska, K., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. (2003). Automatic attention cueing through eye movement in 2 year old children with autism. Child Development, 74, 1108–1123. PubMedCrossRef Chawarska, K., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. (2003). Automatic attention cueing through eye movement in 2 year old children with autism. Child Development, 74, 1108–1123. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Clark, A. (2013). Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36, 181–204. PubMedCrossRef Clark, A. (2013). Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36, 181–204. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Clark, H. H., & Krych, M. A. (2004). Speaking while monitoring addressees for understanding. Journal of Memory and Language, 50, 62–81. CrossRef Clark, H. H., & Krych, M. A. (2004). Speaking while monitoring addressees for understanding. Journal of Memory and Language, 50, 62–81. CrossRef
go back to reference Csibra, G. (2010). Recognizing communicative intentions in infancy. Mind and Language, 25, 141–168. CrossRef Csibra, G. (2010). Recognizing communicative intentions in infancy. Mind and Language, 25, 141–168. CrossRef
go back to reference Driver, J., Davis, G., Ricciardelli, P., Kidd, P., Maxwell, E., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1999). Gaze perception triggers reflexive visuospatial orienting. Visual Cognition, 6, 509–540. CrossRef Driver, J., Davis, G., Ricciardelli, P., Kidd, P., Maxwell, E., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1999). Gaze perception triggers reflexive visuospatial orienting. Visual Cognition, 6, 509–540. CrossRef
go back to reference Farroni, T., Csibra, G., Simion, F., & Johnson, M. H. (2002). Eye contact detection at birth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(14), 9602–9605. CrossRef Farroni, T., Csibra, G., Simion, F., & Johnson, M. H. (2002). Eye contact detection at birth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(14), 9602–9605. CrossRef
go back to reference Friesen, C. K., & Kingstone, A. (1998). The eyes have it! Reflexive orienting is triggered by nonpredictive gaze. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5, 490–495. CrossRef Friesen, C. K., & Kingstone, A. (1998). The eyes have it! Reflexive orienting is triggered by nonpredictive gaze. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5, 490–495. CrossRef
go back to reference Greene, D., Colich, N., Iacoboni, M., Zaidel, E., Bookheimer, S. Y., & Dapretto, M. (2011). Atypical neural networks for social orienting in autism spectrum disorders. Neuroimage, 56(1), 354–362. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Greene, D., Colich, N., Iacoboni, M., Zaidel, E., Bookheimer, S. Y., & Dapretto, M. (2011). Atypical neural networks for social orienting in autism spectrum disorders. Neuroimage, 56(1), 354–362. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ham, J., & Tronick, E. Z. (2006). Infant resilience to the stress of the still-face. Annals New York Academy of Science, 1094, 297–302. CrossRef Ham, J., & Tronick, E. Z. (2006). Infant resilience to the stress of the still-face. Annals New York Academy of Science, 1094, 297–302. CrossRef
go back to reference Happé, F. G. E. (1993). Communicative competence and theory of mind in autism: A test of relevance theory. Cognition, 48, 101–119. PubMedCrossRef Happé, F. G. E. (1993). Communicative competence and theory of mind in autism: A test of relevance theory. Cognition, 48, 101–119. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hill, E. L., & Frith, U. (2003). Understanding autism: Insights from mind and brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, 358, 281–289. CrossRef Hill, E. L., & Frith, U. (2003). Understanding autism: Insights from mind and brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, 358, 281–289. CrossRef
go back to reference Kuzmanovic, B., Schilbach, L., Lehnhardt, F. G., Bente, G., & Vogeley, K. (2011). A matter of words: Impact of verbal and nonverbal information on impression formation in high-functioning autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 604–613. CrossRef Kuzmanovic, B., Schilbach, L., Lehnhardt, F. G., Bente, G., & Vogeley, K. (2011). A matter of words: Impact of verbal and nonverbal information on impression formation in high-functioning autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 604–613. CrossRef
go back to reference Kylliäinen, A., & Hietanen, J. K. (2004). Attention orienting by another’s gaze direction in children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 435–444. CrossRef Kylliäinen, A., & Hietanen, J. K. (2004). Attention orienting by another’s gaze direction in children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 435–444. CrossRef
go back to reference Kylliäinen, A., & Hietanen, J. K. (2006). Skin conductance response to another person’s gaze in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 517–525. PubMedCrossRef Kylliäinen, A., & Hietanen, J. K. (2006). Skin conductance response to another person’s gaze in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 517–525. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Loftus, G. R., & Masson, M. E. J. (1994). Using confidence intervals in within-subject designs. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1, 476–490. CrossRef Loftus, G. R., & Masson, M. E. J. (1994). Using confidence intervals in within-subject designs. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1, 476–490. CrossRef
go back to reference Mundy, P. (2003). Annotation: The neural basis of social impairments in autism: The role of the dorsal medial-frontal cortex and anterior cingulate system. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 793–809. PubMedCrossRef Mundy, P. (2003). Annotation: The neural basis of social impairments in autism: The role of the dorsal medial-frontal cortex and anterior cingulate system. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 793–809. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mundy, P., Block, J., Delgado, C., Pomares, Y., Van Hecke, V. A., & Parlade, M. V. (2007). Individual differences and the development of joint attention in infancy. Child Development, 78, 938–954. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Mundy, P., Block, J., Delgado, C., Pomares, Y., Van Hecke, V. A., & Parlade, M. V. (2007). Individual differences and the development of joint attention in infancy. Child Development, 78, 938–954. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mundy, P., Sigman, M., & Kasari, C. (1994). Joint attention, developmental level, and symptom presentation in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 389–401. CrossRef Mundy, P., Sigman, M., & Kasari, C. (1994). Joint attention, developmental level, and symptom presentation in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 389–401. CrossRef
go back to reference Nation, K., & Penny, S. (2008). Sensitivity to eye gaze in autism: Is it normal? Is it automatic? Is it social? Development and Psychopathology, 20, 79–97. PubMedCrossRef Nation, K., & Penny, S. (2008). Sensitivity to eye gaze in autism: Is it normal? Is it automatic? Is it social? Development and Psychopathology, 20, 79–97. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pierno, A. C., Becchio, C., Wall, M. B., Smith, A. T., Turella, L., & Castiello, U. (2006). When gaze turns into grasp. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 2130–2137. PubMedCrossRef Pierno, A. C., Becchio, C., Wall, M. B., Smith, A. T., Turella, L., & Castiello, U. (2006). When gaze turns into grasp. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 2130–2137. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Reddy, V. (2003). On being the object of attention: Implications for self-other consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(9), 397–402. PubMedCrossRef Reddy, V. (2003). On being the object of attention: Implications for self-other consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(9), 397–402. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Richardson, D. C., & Dale, R. (2005). Looking to understand: The coupling between speakers’ and listeners’ eye movements and its relationship to discourse comprehension. Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 29, 1045–1060. CrossRef Richardson, D. C., & Dale, R. (2005). Looking to understand: The coupling between speakers’ and listeners’ eye movements and its relationship to discourse comprehension. Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 29, 1045–1060. CrossRef
go back to reference Schilbach, L. (2010). A second-person approach to other minds. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(6), 449. PubMedCrossRef Schilbach, L. (2010). A second-person approach to other minds. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(6), 449. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Schilbach, L., Bzdok, D., Timmermans, B., Fox, P. T., Laird, A. R., Vogeley, K., & Eickhoff, S. B. (2012). Introspective minds: Using ALE metaanalyses to study commonalities in the neural correlates of emotional processing, social and unconstrained cognition. PLoS One. Schilbach, L., Bzdok, D., Timmermans, B., Fox, P. T., Laird, A. R., Vogeley, K., & Eickhoff, S. B. (2012). Introspective minds: Using ALE metaanalyses to study commonalities in the neural correlates of emotional processing, social and unconstrained cognition. PLoS One.
go back to reference Schilbach, L., Eickhoff, S. B., Cieslik, E. C., Kuzmanovic, B., & Vogeley, K. (2011). Shall we do this together? Social gaze influences action control in a comparison group, but not in individuals with highfunctioning autism. Autism,. doi: 10.​1177/​1362361311409258​. PubMed Schilbach, L., Eickhoff, S. B., Cieslik, E. C., Kuzmanovic, B., & Vogeley, K. (2011). Shall we do this together? Social gaze influences action control in a comparison group, but not in individuals with highfunctioning autism. Autism,. doi: 10.​1177/​1362361311409258​. PubMed
go back to reference Schilbach, L., Eickhoff, S. B., Cieslik, E., Shah, N. J., Fink, G. R., & Vogeley, K. (2010a). Eyes on me: An fMRI study of the effects of social gaze on action control. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6(4), 393–403. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Schilbach, L., Eickhoff, S. B., Cieslik, E., Shah, N. J., Fink, G. R., & Vogeley, K. (2010a). Eyes on me: An fMRI study of the effects of social gaze on action control. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6(4), 393–403. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Schilbach, L., Timmermans, B., Reddy, V., Costall, A., Bente, G., Schlicht, T., & Vogeley, K. (2013). Towards a second-person neuroscience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36(4), 393–414. Schilbach, L., Timmermans, B., Reddy, V., Costall, A., Bente, G., Schlicht, T., & Vogeley, K. (2013). Towards a second-person neuroscience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36(4), 393–414.
go back to reference Schilbach, L., Wilms, M., Eickhoff, S. B., Romanzetti, S., Tepest, R., Bente, G., et al. (2010b). Minds made for sharing: Initiating joint attention recruits reward-related neurocircuitry. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(12), 2702–2715. PubMedCrossRef Schilbach, L., Wilms, M., Eickhoff, S. B., Romanzetti, S., Tepest, R., Bente, G., et al. (2010b). Minds made for sharing: Initiating joint attention recruits reward-related neurocircuitry. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(12), 2702–2715. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sebanz, N., Bekkering, H., & Knoblich, G. (2006). Joint action: Bodies and minds moving together. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 70–76. PubMedCrossRef Sebanz, N., Bekkering, H., & Knoblich, G. (2006). Joint action: Bodies and minds moving together. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 70–76. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sebanz, N., Knoblich, G., Stumpf, L., & Prinz, W. (2005). Far from action blind: Representation of others’ actions in individuals with autism. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22, 433–454. PubMedCrossRef Sebanz, N., Knoblich, G., Stumpf, L., & Prinz, W. (2005). Far from action blind: Representation of others’ actions in individuals with autism. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22, 433–454. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Senju, A., & Csibra, G. (2008). Gaze following in human infants depends on communicative signals. Current Biology, 18, 668–671. PubMedCrossRef Senju, A., & Csibra, G. (2008). Gaze following in human infants depends on communicative signals. Current Biology, 18, 668–671. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sigman, M., & Ruskin, E. (1999). Continuity and change in the social competence of children with autism, Down syndrome, and developmental delays. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 64, 1–113. PubMedCrossRef Sigman, M., & Ruskin, E. (1999). Continuity and change in the social competence of children with autism, Down syndrome, and developmental delays. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 64, 1–113. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Speer, L. L., Cook, A. E., McMahon, W. M., & Clark, E. (2007). Face processing in children with autism: Effects of stimulus contents and type. Autism, 11, 265–277. PubMedCrossRef Speer, L. L., Cook, A. E., McMahon, W. M., & Clark, E. (2007). Face processing in children with autism: Effects of stimulus contents and type. Autism, 11, 265–277. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Stewart, M. E., Barnard, L., Pearson, J., Hasan, R., & O’Brien, G. (2006). Presentation of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome: A review. Autism, 10, 103–116. PubMedCrossRef Stewart, M. E., Barnard, L., Pearson, J., Hasan, R., & O’Brien, G. (2006). Presentation of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome: A review. Autism, 10, 103–116. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Striano, T., Reid, V. M., & Hoehl, S. (2006). Neural mechanisms of joint attention in infancy. European Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 2819–2823. PubMedCrossRef Striano, T., Reid, V. M., & Hoehl, S. (2006). Neural mechanisms of joint attention in infancy. European Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 2819–2823. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Timmermans, B., Schilbach, L., Pasquali, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Higher-order thoughts in action: Consciousness as an unconscious re-description process. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 367, 1412–1423. CrossRef Timmermans, B., Schilbach, L., Pasquali, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Higher-order thoughts in action: Consciousness as an unconscious re-description process. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 367, 1412–1423. CrossRef
go back to reference Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2007). Shared intentionality. Developmental Science, 10, 121–125. PubMedCrossRef Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2007). Shared intentionality. Developmental Science, 10, 121–125. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T., & Moll, H. (2005). Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 675–691. PubMed Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T., & Moll, H. (2005). Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 675–691. PubMed
go back to reference Wheelwright, S., Baron-Cohen, S., Goldenfeld, N., Delaney, J., Fine, D., Smith, R., et al. (2006). Predicting autism spectrum quotient (AQ) from the systemizing quotient-revised (SQ-R) and empathy quotient (EQ). Brain Research, 1079, 47–56. PubMedCrossRef Wheelwright, S., Baron-Cohen, S., Goldenfeld, N., Delaney, J., Fine, D., Smith, R., et al. (2006). Predicting autism spectrum quotient (AQ) from the systemizing quotient-revised (SQ-R) and empathy quotient (EQ). Brain Research, 1079, 47–56. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yoon, J. M. D., Johnson, M. H., & Csibra, G. (2008). Communication-induced memory biases in preverbal infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 13690–13695. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Yoon, J. M. D., Johnson, M. H., & Csibra, G. (2008). Communication-induced memory biases in preverbal infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 13690–13695. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zwickel, J., White, S. J., Coniston, D., Senju, A., & Frith, U. (2010). Exploring the building blocks of social cognition: Spontaneous agency perception and visual perspective taking in autism. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 564–571. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Zwickel, J., White, S. J., Coniston, D., Senju, A., & Frith, U. (2010). Exploring the building blocks of social cognition: Spontaneous agency perception and visual perspective taking in autism. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 564–571. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Effects of Observing Eye Contact on Gaze Following in High-Functioning Autism
Auteurs
Anne Böckler
Bert Timmermans
Natalie Sebanz
Kai Vogeley
Leonhard Schilbach
Publicatiedatum
01-07-2014
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 7/2014
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2038-5