Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

02-04-2022

Consistently Inconsistent Working Memory Performance Among Children with ADHD: Evidence of Response Accuracy Variability (RAV)

Auteurs: Lauren M. Friedman, Mark D. Rapport, Gabrielle Fabrikant-Abzug

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 3/2022

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Heterogeneity in cognitive performance, once regarded as noise, is now considered a causal mechanism or core deficit of ADHD and its related symptoms in most etiological models of the disorder. Previous research on cognitive performance variability has documented increased heterogeneity in response latencies using reaction time data. In contrast, variability in response accuracy remains understudied. The present study is the first to examine Response Accuracy Variability (RAV) among children with ADHD. Children with ADHD (N = 54) and typically developing children (N = 50) completed phonological working memory tasks with four set size conditions. RAV was calculated for each set size using the adjusted coefficient of variation (ζ). Results from a mixed model ANOVA indicated that children with ADHD evinced significantly greater variation in working memory performance relative to typically developing children when engaged in tasks within their cognitive capacity (i.e., set sizes 3 and 4), whereas all children exhibit similar, high levels of variability on tasks that exceeded their cognitive capacity (i.e., set sizes 5 and 6). Findings are aligned with the extant literature in documenting consistently inconsistent cognitive performance among children ADHD.
Voetnoten
1
RT data are restricted on the lower end to be greater than zero but could vary within an infinitely large set of possible values on the upper end. Accuracy data exist on a finite continuum bounded on the lower end by 0 and on the upper end by the number of stimuli presented (e.g., 5 out of 5 stimuli correct).
 
2
Scores for one TD child exceeded 1.5 SDs on one of the two parents’ but not teachers’ rating scales. Parent interview revealed no significant ADHD symptoms or symptoms associated with other clinical disorders for the child. Six children with ADHD had subthreshold scores on teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity. Follow-up clinical interviews, however, indicated the subthreshold symptoms were attributable to substantial psychostimulant effects while they were rated, and that all children demonstrated a history of significant, persistent levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity both at home and at school.
 
3
KTEA version was examined as a potential covariate in relevant models but was nonsignificant.
 
4
While ζ overcomes many of the limitations inherent to traditional variability metrics when applied to accuracy data (e.g., shares no linear relation to mean performance), a limitation associated with the statistic is that values may become unreliable when task difficulty is too high or low (see Golay et al., 2013). This phenomenon occurred under the two largest set size conditions (5 and 6), characterized by either a precipitous decline (ADHD) or no increase in cognitive performance (TD children) as the number of stimuli to be recalled exceeded four. Consequently, a mean composite score of RAV at set sizes 3 and 4 was used to best evaluate the outcomes.
 
5
WISC and KTEA version was examined as a potential covariate but failed to reach significance; therefore, a simple model without covariates is presented.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont.
go back to reference Alderson, R. M., Patros, C. H. G., Tarle, S. J., Hudec, K. L., Kasper, L. J., & Lea, S. E. (2017). Working memory and behavioral inhibition in boys with ADHD: An experimental examination of competing models. Child Neuropsychology, 23(3), 255–272.PubMedCrossRef Alderson, R. M., Patros, C. H. G., Tarle, S. J., Hudec, K. L., Kasper, L. J., & Lea, S. E. (2017). Working memory and behavioral inhibition in boys with ADHD: An experimental examination of competing models. Child Neuropsychology, 23(3), 255–272.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Alderson, R. M., Rapport, M. D., & Kofler, M. J. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavioral inhibition: A meta-analytic review of the stop-signal paradigm. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(5), 745–758.PubMedCrossRef Alderson, R. M., Rapport, M. D., & Kofler, M. J. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavioral inhibition: A meta-analytic review of the stop-signal paradigm. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(5), 745–758.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bálint, S., Czobor, P., Komlósi, S., Meszaros, A., Simon, V., & Bitter, I. (2009). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Gender-and age-related differences in neurocognition. Psychological Medicine, 39(8), 1337–1345.PubMedCrossRef Bálint, S., Czobor, P., Komlósi, S., Meszaros, A., Simon, V., & Bitter, I. (2009). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Gender-and age-related differences in neurocognition. Psychological Medicine, 39(8), 1337–1345.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121(1), 65–94.PubMedCrossRef Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121(1), 65–94.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Barkley, R. A. (2015). No Title. In R. A. Barkley (Ed.), Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Fourth Edition: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 356–390). Guilford Press. Barkley, R. A. (2015). No Title. In R. A. Barkley (Ed.), Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Fourth Edition: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 356–390). Guilford Press.
go back to reference Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B (Methodological), 57(1), 289–300. Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B (Methodological), 57(1), 289–300.
go back to reference Bledsoe, J. C., Semrud-Clikeman, M., & Pliszka, S. R. (2013). Anterior cingulate cortex and symptom severity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122(2), 558.PubMedCrossRef Bledsoe, J. C., Semrud-Clikeman, M., & Pliszka, S. R. (2013). Anterior cingulate cortex and symptom severity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122(2), 558.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brocki, K. C., Eninger, L., Thorell, L. B., & Bohlin, G. (2010). Interrelations between executive function and symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention in preschoolers: A two year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(2), 163–171.PubMedCrossRef Brocki, K. C., Eninger, L., Thorell, L. B., & Bohlin, G. (2010). Interrelations between executive function and symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention in preschoolers: A two year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(2), 163–171.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Buzy, W. M., Medoff, D. R., & Schweitzer, J. B. (2009). Intra-individual variability among children with ADHD on a working memory task: An ex-Gaussian approach. Child Neuropsychology, 15(5), 441–459.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Buzy, W. M., Medoff, D. R., & Schweitzer, J. B. (2009). Intra-individual variability among children with ADHD on a working memory task: An ex-Gaussian approach. Child Neuropsychology, 15(5), 441–459.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Calub, C. A., Rapport, M. D., Friedman, L. M., & Eckrich, S. J. (2019). IQ and academic achievement in children with ADHD: The differential effects of specific cognitive functions. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 41, 639–651.CrossRef Calub, C. A., Rapport, M. D., Friedman, L. M., & Eckrich, S. J. (2019). IQ and academic achievement in children with ADHD: The differential effects of specific cognitive functions. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 41, 639–651.CrossRef
go back to reference Campez, M., Raiker, J. S., Sarver, D. E., Friedman, L. M., Orban, S. A., & Rapport, M. D. (2020). Working Memory Capacity and ADHD Symptoms in Boys: Examining the Heterogeneity of Working Memory Functioning Using Latent Profile Analysis. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 42, 450–463.PubMedCrossRef Campez, M., Raiker, J. S., Sarver, D. E., Friedman, L. M., Orban, S. A., & Rapport, M. D. (2020). Working Memory Capacity and ADHD Symptoms in Boys: Examining the Heterogeneity of Working Memory Functioning Using Latent Profile Analysis. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 42, 450–463.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Castellanos, F. X., Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Milham, M. P., & Tannock, R. (2006). Characterizing cognition in ADHD: Beyond executive dysfunction. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(3), 117–123.PubMedCrossRef Castellanos, F. X., Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Milham, M. P., & Tannock, R. (2006). Characterizing cognition in ADHD: Beyond executive dysfunction. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(3), 117–123.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Castellanos, F. X., Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Scheres, A., Di Martino, A., Hyde, C., & Walters, J. R. (2005). Varieties of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related intra-individual variability. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1416–1423.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Castellanos, F. X., Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Scheres, A., Di Martino, A., Hyde, C., & Walters, J. R. (2005). Varieties of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related intra-individual variability. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1416–1423.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Castellanos, F. X., & Tannock, R. (2002). Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The search for endophenotypes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3(8), 617–628.PubMedCrossRef Castellanos, F. X., & Tannock, R. (2002). Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The search for endophenotypes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3(8), 617–628.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Conway, A. R., Cowan, N., Bunting, M. F., Therriault, D. J., & Minkoff, S. R. (2002). A latent variable analysis of working memory capacity, short-term memory capacity, processing speed, and general fluid intelligence. Intelligence, 30(2), 163–183.CrossRef Conway, A. R., Cowan, N., Bunting, M. F., Therriault, D. J., & Minkoff, S. R. (2002). A latent variable analysis of working memory capacity, short-term memory capacity, processing speed, and general fluid intelligence. Intelligence, 30(2), 163–183.CrossRef
go back to reference Conway, A. R. A., Kane, M. J., Bunting, M. F., Hambrick, D. Z., Wilhelm, O., & Engle, R. W. (2005). Working memory span tasks: A methodological review and user’s guide. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12(5), 769–786.CrossRef Conway, A. R. A., Kane, M. J., Bunting, M. F., Hambrick, D. Z., Wilhelm, O., & Engle, R. W. (2005). Working memory span tasks: A methodological review and user’s guide. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12(5), 769–786.CrossRef
go back to reference Dennis, M., Francis, D. J., Cirino, P. T., Schachar, R., Barnes, M. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (2009). Why IQ is not a covariate in cognitive studies of neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(3), 331–343.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Dennis, M., Francis, D. J., Cirino, P. T., Schachar, R., Barnes, M. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (2009). Why IQ is not a covariate in cognitive studies of neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(3), 331–343.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference DeRonda, A., Zhao, Y., Seymour, K. E., Mostofsky, S. H., & Rosch, K. S. (2021). Distinct Patterns of Impaired Cognitive Control Among Boys and Girls with ADHD Across Development. Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 49(7), 835–848.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef DeRonda, A., Zhao, Y., Seymour, K. E., Mostofsky, S. H., & Rosch, K. S. (2021). Distinct Patterns of Impaired Cognitive Control Among Boys and Girls with ADHD Across Development. Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 49(7), 835–848.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Dirlikov, B., Rosch, K. S., Crocetti, D., Denckla, M. B., Mahone, E. M., & Mostofsky, S. H. (2015). Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD. Neuroimage: Clinical, 7, 222–229. Dirlikov, B., Rosch, K. S., Crocetti, D., Denckla, M. B., Mahone, E. M., & Mostofsky, S. H. (2015). Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD. Neuroimage: Clinical, 7, 222–229.
go back to reference DuPaul, G. J., Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M. M., & Maczuga, S. (2016). Academic and social functioning associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Latent class analyses of trajectories from kindergarten to fifth grade. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(7), 1425–1438.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef DuPaul, G. J., Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M. M., & Maczuga, S. (2016). Academic and social functioning associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Latent class analyses of trajectories from kindergarten to fifth grade. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(7), 1425–1438.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Eckrich, S. J., Rapport, M. D., Calub, C. A., & Friedman, L. M. (2019). Written expression in boys with ADHD: The mediating roles of working memory and oral expression. Child Neuropsychology, 25(6), 772–794.PubMedCrossRef Eckrich, S. J., Rapport, M. D., Calub, C. A., & Friedman, L. M. (2019). Written expression in boys with ADHD: The mediating roles of working memory and oral expression. Child Neuropsychology, 25(6), 772–794.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Emch, M., von Bastian, C. C., & Koch, K. (2019). Neural correlates of verbal working memory: An fMRI meta-analysis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, 180.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Emch, M., von Bastian, C. C., & Koch, K. (2019). Neural correlates of verbal working memory: An fMRI meta-analysis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, 180.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Engle, R. W., Tuholski, S. W., Laughlin, J. E., & Conway, A. R. A. (1999). Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: A latent-variable approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128(3), 309.CrossRef Engle, R. W., Tuholski, S. W., Laughlin, J. E., & Conway, A. R. A. (1999). Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: A latent-variable approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128(3), 309.CrossRef
go back to reference Epstein, J. N., Langberg, J. M., Rosen, P. J., Graham, A., Narad, M. E., Antonini, T. N., Brinkman, W. B., Froehlich, T., Simon, J. O., & Altaye, M. (2011). Evidence for higher reaction time variability for children with ADHD on a range of cognitive tasks including reward and event rate manipulations. Neuropsychology, 25(4), 427.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Epstein, J. N., Langberg, J. M., Rosen, P. J., Graham, A., Narad, M. E., Antonini, T. N., Brinkman, W. B., Froehlich, T., Simon, J. O., & Altaye, M. (2011). Evidence for higher reaction time variability for children with ADHD on a range of cognitive tasks including reward and event rate manipulations. Neuropsychology, 25(4), 427.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Fan, J., McCandliss, B. D., Fossella, J., Flombaum, J. I., & Posner, M. I. (2005). The activation of attentional networks. NeuroImage, 26(2), 471–479.PubMedCrossRef Fan, J., McCandliss, B. D., Fossella, J., Flombaum, J. I., & Posner, M. I. (2005). The activation of attentional networks. NeuroImage, 26(2), 471–479.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fassbender, C., Zhang, H., Buzy, W. M., Cortes, C. R., Mizuiri, D., Beckett, L., & Schweitzer, J. B. (2009). A lack of default network suppression is linked to increased distractibility in ADHD. Brain Research, 1273, 114–128.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Fassbender, C., Zhang, H., Buzy, W. M., Cortes, C. R., Mizuiri, D., Beckett, L., & Schweitzer, J. B. (2009). A lack of default network suppression is linked to increased distractibility in ADHD. Brain Research, 1273, 114–128.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Feige, B., Biscaldi, M., Saville, C. W. N., Kluckert, C., Bender, S., Ebner-Priemer, U., Hennighausen, K., Rauh, R., Fleischhaker, C., & Klein, C. (2013). On the temporal characteristics of performance variability in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PloS One, 8(10), e69674. Feige, B., Biscaldi, M., Saville, C. W. N., Kluckert, C., Bender, S., Ebner-Priemer, U., Hennighausen, K., Rauh, R., Fleischhaker, C., & Klein, C. (2013). On the temporal characteristics of performance variability in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PloS One, 8(10), e69674.
go back to reference Friedman, L. M., Rapport, M. D., Calub, C. A., & Eckrich, S. J. (2018a). ADHD and Core Foundational Learning: Working Memory’s Contribution to Reading Comprehension and Applied Math Problem-Solving Abilities. The ADHD Report, 26(7), 1–7.CrossRef Friedman, L. M., Rapport, M. D., Calub, C. A., & Eckrich, S. J. (2018a). ADHD and Core Foundational Learning: Working Memory’s Contribution to Reading Comprehension and Applied Math Problem-Solving Abilities. The ADHD Report, 26(7), 1–7.CrossRef
go back to reference Friedman, L. M., Rapport, M. D., Raiker, J. S., Orban, S. A., & Eckrich, S. J. (2017). Reading comprehension in boys with ADHD: The mediating roles of working memory and orthographic conversion. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45(2), 273–287.PubMedCrossRef Friedman, L. M., Rapport, M. D., Raiker, J. S., Orban, S. A., & Eckrich, S. J. (2017). Reading comprehension in boys with ADHD: The mediating roles of working memory and orthographic conversion. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45(2), 273–287.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Friedman, L. M., Rapport, M. D., Orban, S. A., Eckrich, S. J., & Calub, C. A. (2018b). Applied problem solving in children with ADHD: The mediating roles of working memory and mathematical calculation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(3), 491–504.PubMedCrossRef Friedman, L. M., Rapport, M. D., Orban, S. A., Eckrich, S. J., & Calub, C. A. (2018b). Applied problem solving in children with ADHD: The mediating roles of working memory and mathematical calculation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(3), 491–504.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gadow, K. D., & Sprafkin, J. N. (2002). Child symptom inventory 4: Screening and norms manual. Checkmate Plus. Gadow, K. D., & Sprafkin, J. N. (2002). Child symptom inventory 4: Screening and norms manual. Checkmate Plus.
go back to reference Gallo, E. F., & Posner, J. (2016). Moving towards causality in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Overview of neural and genetic mechanisms. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(6), 555–567.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Gallo, E. F., & Posner, J. (2016). Moving towards causality in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Overview of neural and genetic mechanisms. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(6), 555–567.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Galloway-Long, H., & Huang-Pollock, C. (2018). Using inspection time and ex-Gaussian parameters of reaction time to predict executive functions in children with ADHD. Intelligence, 69, 186–194.CrossRef Galloway-Long, H., & Huang-Pollock, C. (2018). Using inspection time and ex-Gaussian parameters of reaction time to predict executive functions in children with ADHD. Intelligence, 69, 186–194.CrossRef
go back to reference Gaub, M., & Carlson, C. L. (1997). Gender differences in ADHD: A meta-analysis and critical review. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(8), 1036–1045.CrossRef Gaub, M., & Carlson, C. L. (1997). Gender differences in ADHD: A meta-analysis and critical review. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(8), 1036–1045.CrossRef
go back to reference Golay, P., Fagot, D., & Lecerf, T. (2013). Against coefficient of variation for estimation of intraindividual variability with accuracy measures. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9(1), 6–14.CrossRef Golay, P., Fagot, D., & Lecerf, T. (2013). Against coefficient of variation for estimation of intraindividual variability with accuracy measures. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9(1), 6–14.CrossRef
go back to reference Goos, L. M., Crosbie, J., Payne, S., & Schachar, R. (2009). Validation and extension of the endophenotype model in ADHD patterns of inheritance in a family study of inhibitory control. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(6), 711–717.PubMedCrossRef Goos, L. M., Crosbie, J., Payne, S., & Schachar, R. (2009). Validation and extension of the endophenotype model in ADHD patterns of inheritance in a family study of inhibitory control. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(6), 711–717.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Halperin, J. M., & Schulz, K. P. (2006). Revisiting the role of the prefrontal cortex in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 132(4), 560.PubMedCrossRef Halperin, J. M., & Schulz, K. P. (2006). Revisiting the role of the prefrontal cortex in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 132(4), 560.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Helps, S. K., Broyd, S. J., Bitsakou, P., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2011). Identifying a distinctive familial frequency band in reaction time fluctuations in ADHD. Neuropsychology, 25(6), 711.PubMedCrossRef Helps, S. K., Broyd, S. J., Bitsakou, P., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2011). Identifying a distinctive familial frequency band in reaction time fluctuations in ADHD. Neuropsychology, 25(6), 711.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. Yale University. Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. Yale University.
go back to reference Hornstra, R., Van der Oord, S., Staff, A. I., Hoekstra, P. J., Oosterlaan, J., Van der Veen-Mulders, L., Luman, M., & van den Hoofdakker, B. J. (2021). Which Techniques Work in Behavioral Parent Training for Children with ADHD? A Randomized Controlled Microtrial. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 1–16. Hornstra, R., Van der Oord, S., Staff, A. I., Hoekstra, P. J., Oosterlaan, J., Van der Veen-Mulders, L., Luman, M., & van den Hoofdakker, B. J. (2021). Which Techniques Work in Behavioral Parent Training for Children with ADHD? A Randomized Controlled Microtrial. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 1–16.
go back to reference IBM Corp. (2019). IBM SPSS Statistics for Mac, Version 26.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. IBM Corp. (2019). IBM SPSS Statistics for Mac, Version 26.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
go back to reference Irwin, L. N., Soto, E. F., Chan, E. S. M., Miller, C. E., Carrington-Forde, S., Groves, N. B., & Kofler, M. J. (2021). Activities of daily living and working memory in pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Child Neuropsychology, 27(4), 468–490.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Irwin, L. N., Soto, E. F., Chan, E. S. M., Miller, C. E., Carrington-Forde, S., Groves, N. B., & Kofler, M. J. (2021). Activities of daily living and working memory in pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Child Neuropsychology, 27(4), 468–490.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Kaminski, J. W., Valle, L. A., Filene, J. H., & Boyle, C. L. (2008). A meta-analytic review of components associated with parent training program effectiveness. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(4), 567–589.PubMedCrossRef Kaminski, J. W., Valle, L. A., Filene, J. H., & Boyle, C. L. (2008). A meta-analytic review of components associated with parent training program effectiveness. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(4), 567–589.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Karalunas, S. L. (2010). Consistently inconsistent: understanding intra-individual variability in ADHD. State College: Penn State University (Doctoral Dissertation). Karalunas, S. L. (2010). Consistently inconsistent: understanding intra-individual variability in ADHD. State College: Penn State University (Doctoral Dissertation).
go back to reference Karatekin, C. (2004). A test of the integrity of the components of Baddeley’s model of working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(5), 912–926.PubMedCrossRef Karatekin, C. (2004). A test of the integrity of the components of Baddeley’s model of working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(5), 912–926.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kasper, L. J., Alderson, R. M., & Hudec, K. L. (2012). Moderators of working memory deficits in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(7), 605–617.PubMedCrossRef Kasper, L. J., Alderson, R. M., & Hudec, K. L. (2012). Moderators of working memory deficits in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(7), 605–617.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kaufman, A. S. (1997). Comprehensive form manual for the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Normative Update. American Guidance Service. Kaufman, A. S. (1997). Comprehensive form manual for the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Normative Update. American Guidance Service.
go back to reference Kaufman, A. S. (2004). Kaufman test of educational achievement, (KTEA-II). American Guidance Service. Kaufman, A. S. (2004). Kaufman test of educational achievement, (KTEA-II). American Guidance Service.
go back to reference Kaufman, A. S. (2014). Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Bloomington, MN: Pearson. Kaufman, A. S. (2014). Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Bloomington, MN: Pearson.
go back to reference Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., & Ryan, N. (1996). Kiddie-Sads-present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine. Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., & Ryan, N. (1996). Kiddie-Sads-present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine.
go back to reference Klein, C., Wendling, K., Huettner, P., Ruder, H., & Peper, M. (2006). Intra-subject variability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 60(10), 1088–1097.PubMedCrossRef Klein, C., Wendling, K., Huettner, P., Ruder, H., & Peper, M. (2006). Intra-subject variability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 60(10), 1088–1097.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kofler, M. J., Irwin, L. N., Soto, E. F., Groves, N. B., Harmon, S. L., & Sarver, D. E. (2019). Executive functioning heterogeneity in pediatric ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 47(2), 273–286.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Kofler, M. J., Irwin, L. N., Soto, E. F., Groves, N. B., Harmon, S. L., & Sarver, D. E. (2019). Executive functioning heterogeneity in pediatric ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 47(2), 273–286.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Kofler, M. J., Raiker, J. S., Sarver, D. E., Wells, E. L., & Soto, E. F. (2016). Is hyperactivity ubiquitous in ADHD or dependent on environmental demands? Evidence from meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 46, 12–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Kofler, M. J., Raiker, J. S., Sarver, D. E., Wells, E. L., & Soto, E. F. (2016). Is hyperactivity ubiquitous in ADHD or dependent on environmental demands? Evidence from meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 46, 12–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Kofler, M. J., Rapport, M. D., & Alderson, R. M. (2008). Quantifying ADHD classroom inattentiveness, its moderators, and variability: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(1), 59–69.PubMedCrossRef Kofler, M. J., Rapport, M. D., & Alderson, R. M. (2008). Quantifying ADHD classroom inattentiveness, its moderators, and variability: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(1), 59–69.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kofler, M. J., Rapport, M. D., Bolden, J., Sarver, D. E., & Raiker, J. S. (2010). ADHD and working memory: The impact of central executive deficits and exceeding storage/rehearsal capacity on observed inattentive behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(2), 149–161.PubMedCrossRef Kofler, M. J., Rapport, M. D., Bolden, J., Sarver, D. E., & Raiker, J. S. (2010). ADHD and working memory: The impact of central executive deficits and exceeding storage/rehearsal capacity on observed inattentive behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(2), 149–161.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kofler, M. J., Rapport, M. D., Bolden, J., Sarver, D. E., Raiker, J. S., & Alderson, R. M. (2011). Working memory deficits and social problems in children with ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(6), 805–817.PubMedCrossRef Kofler, M. J., Rapport, M. D., Bolden, J., Sarver, D. E., Raiker, J. S., & Alderson, R. M. (2011). Working memory deficits and social problems in children with ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(6), 805–817.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kofler, M. J., Rapport, M. D., Sarver, D. E., Raiker, J. S., Orban, S. A., Friedman, L. M., & Kolomeyer, E. G. (2013). Reaction time variability in ADHD: A meta-analytic review of 319 studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(6), 795–811.PubMedCrossRef Kofler, M. J., Rapport, M. D., Sarver, D. E., Raiker, J. S., Orban, S. A., Friedman, L. M., & Kolomeyer, E. G. (2013). Reaction time variability in ADHD: A meta-analytic review of 319 studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(6), 795–811.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kofler, M. J., Sarver, D. E., Spiegel, J. A., Day, T. N., Harmon, S. L., & Wells, E. L. (2017). Heterogeneity in ADHD: Neurocognitive predictors of peer, family, and academic functioning. Child Neuropsychology, 23(6), 733–759.PubMedCrossRef Kofler, M. J., Sarver, D. E., Spiegel, J. A., Day, T. N., Harmon, S. L., & Wells, E. L. (2017). Heterogeneity in ADHD: Neurocognitive predictors of peer, family, and academic functioning. Child Neuropsychology, 23(6), 733–759.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kuntsi, J., Oosterlaan, J., & Stevenson, J. (2001). Psychological mechanisms in hyperactivity: I response inhibition deficit, working memory impairment, delay aversion, or something else? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(2), 199–210.PubMedCrossRef Kuntsi, J., Oosterlaan, J., & Stevenson, J. (2001). Psychological mechanisms in hyperactivity: I response inhibition deficit, working memory impairment, delay aversion, or something else? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(2), 199–210.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lange, K. W., Reichl, S., Lange, K. M., Tucha, L., & Tucha, O. (2010). The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 2(4), 241–255.PubMedCrossRef Lange, K. W., Reichl, S., Lange, K. M., Tucha, L., & Tucha, O. (2010). The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 2(4), 241–255.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Leth-Steensen, C., Elbaz, Z. K., & Douglas, V. I. (2000). Mean response times, variability, and skew in the responding of ADHD children: A response time distributional approach. Acta Psychologica, 104, 167–190. Leth-Steensen, C., Elbaz, Z. K., & Douglas, V. I. (2000). Mean response times, variability, and skew in the responding of ADHD children: A response time distributional approach. Acta Psychologica, 104, 167–190.
go back to reference Lijffijt, M., Kenemans, J. L., Verbaten, M. N., & van Engeland, H. (2005). A meta-analytic review of stopping performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Deficient inhibitory motor control? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(2), 216.PubMedCrossRef Lijffijt, M., Kenemans, J. L., Verbaten, M. N., & van Engeland, H. (2005). A meta-analytic review of stopping performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Deficient inhibitory motor control? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(2), 216.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Martin, J. D., Tsukahara, J. S., Draheim, C., Shipstead, Z., Mashburn, C. A., Vogel, E. K., & Engle, R. W. (2021). The visual arrays task: Visual storage capacity or attention control? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 150(12), 2525–2551. Martin, J. D., Tsukahara, J. S., Draheim, C., Shipstead, Z., Mashburn, C. A., Vogel, E. K., & Engle, R. W. (2021). The visual arrays task: Visual storage capacity or attention control? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 150(12), 2525–2551.
go back to reference Mestdagh, M., Pe, M., Pestman, W., Verdonck, S., Kuppens, P., & Tuerlinckx, F. (2018). Sidelining the mean: The relative variability index as a generic mean-corrected variability measure for bounded variables. Psychological Methods, 23(4), 690.PubMedCrossRef Mestdagh, M., Pe, M., Pestman, W., Verdonck, S., Kuppens, P., & Tuerlinckx, F. (2018). Sidelining the mean: The relative variability index as a generic mean-corrected variability measure for bounded variables. Psychological Methods, 23(4), 690.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Miller, G. A., & Chapman, J. P. (2001). Misunderstanding analysis of covariance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(1), 40–48.PubMedCrossRef Miller, G. A., & Chapman, J. P. (2001). Misunderstanding analysis of covariance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(1), 40–48.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mostert, J. C., Hoogman, M., Onnink, A. M. H., van Rooij, D., von Rhein, D., van Hulzen, K. J., ... & Franke, B. (2018). Similar subgroups based on cognitive performance parse heterogeneity in adults with ADHD and healthy controls. Journal of Attention Disorders, 22(3), 281–292. Mostert, J. C., Hoogman, M., Onnink, A. M. H., van Rooij, D., von Rhein, D., van Hulzen, K. J., ... & Franke, B. (2018). Similar subgroups based on cognitive performance parse heterogeneity in adults with ADHD and healthy controls. Journal of Attention Disorders, 22(3), 281–292.
go back to reference Nigg, J. T. (1999). The ADHD response-inhibition deficit as measured by the stop task: Replication with DSM–IV combined type, extension, and qualification. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27(5), 393–402.PubMedCrossRef Nigg, J. T. (1999). The ADHD response-inhibition deficit as measured by the stop task: Replication with DSM–IV combined type, extension, and qualification. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27(5), 393–402.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Orban, S. A., Rapport, M. D., Friedman, L. M., Eckrich, S. J., & Kofler, M. J. (2018). Inattentive behavior in boys with ADHD during classroom instruction: The mediating role of working memory processes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(4), 713–727.PubMedCrossRef Orban, S. A., Rapport, M. D., Friedman, L. M., Eckrich, S. J., & Kofler, M. J. (2018). Inattentive behavior in boys with ADHD during classroom instruction: The mediating role of working memory processes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(4), 713–727.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Porrino, L. J., Rapoport, J. L., Behar, D., Sceery, W., Ismond, D. R., & Bunney, W. E. (1983). A naturalistic assessment of the motor activity of hyperactive boys: I. Comparison with normal controls. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40(6), 681–687. Porrino, L. J., Rapoport, J. L., Behar, D., Sceery, W., Ismond, D. R., & Bunney, W. E. (1983). A naturalistic assessment of the motor activity of hyperactive boys: I. Comparison with normal controls. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40(6), 681–687.
go back to reference Raiker, J. S., Friedman, L. M., Orban, S. A., Kofler, M. J., Sarver, D. E., & Rapport, M. D. (2019). Phonological Working Memory Deficits in ADHD Revisited: The Role of Lower Level Information-Processing Deficits in Impaired Working Memory Performance. Journal of Attention Disorders, 23(6), 570–583.PubMedCrossRef Raiker, J. S., Friedman, L. M., Orban, S. A., Kofler, M. J., Sarver, D. E., & Rapport, M. D. (2019). Phonological Working Memory Deficits in ADHD Revisited: The Role of Lower Level Information-Processing Deficits in Impaired Working Memory Performance. Journal of Attention Disorders, 23(6), 570–583.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Raiker, J. S., Rapport, M. D., Kofler, M. J., & Sarver, D. E. (2012). Objectively-measured impulsivity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Testing competing predictions from the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(5), 699–713.PubMedCrossRef Raiker, J. S., Rapport, M. D., Kofler, M. J., & Sarver, D. E. (2012). Objectively-measured impulsivity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Testing competing predictions from the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(5), 699–713.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rapport, M. D. (1994). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In M. Hersen & V. B. Van Hasselt (Eds.), Advanced Abnormal Psychology (pp. 189–206). Plenum Press.CrossRef Rapport, M. D. (1994). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In M. Hersen & V. B. Van Hasselt (Eds.), Advanced Abnormal Psychology (pp. 189–206). Plenum Press.CrossRef
go back to reference Rapport, M. D., Alderson, R. M., Kofler, M. J., Sarver, D. E., Bolden, J., & Sims, V. (2008). Working memory deficits in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The contribution of central executive and subsystem processes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(6), 825–837.PubMedCrossRef Rapport, M. D., Alderson, R. M., Kofler, M. J., Sarver, D. E., Bolden, J., & Sims, V. (2008). Working memory deficits in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The contribution of central executive and subsystem processes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(6), 825–837.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rapport, M. D., Bolden, J., Kofler, M. J., Sarver, D. E., Raiker, J. S., & Alderson, R. M. (2009). Hyperactivity in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A ubiquitous core symptom or manifestation of working memory deficits? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(4), 521–534.PubMedCrossRef Rapport, M. D., Bolden, J., Kofler, M. J., Sarver, D. E., Raiker, J. S., & Alderson, R. M. (2009). Hyperactivity in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A ubiquitous core symptom or manifestation of working memory deficits? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(4), 521–534.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rapport, M. D., Murphy, A., & Bailey, J. S. (1980). The effects of a response cost treatment tactic on hyperactive children. Journal of School Psychology, 18(2), 98–111.CrossRef Rapport, M. D., Murphy, A., & Bailey, J. S. (1980). The effects of a response cost treatment tactic on hyperactive children. Journal of School Psychology, 18(2), 98–111.CrossRef
go back to reference Rapport, M. D., Orban, S. A., Kofler, M. J., & Friedman, L. M. (2013). Do programs designed to train working memory, other executive functions, and attention benefit children with ADHD? A meta-analytic review of cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(8), 1237–1252.PubMedCrossRef Rapport, M. D., Orban, S. A., Kofler, M. J., & Friedman, L. M. (2013). Do programs designed to train working memory, other executive functions, and attention benefit children with ADHD? A meta-analytic review of cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(8), 1237–1252.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rescorla, L. A., & Achenbach, T. M. (2004). The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) for Ages 18 to 90 Years. Rescorla, L. A., & Achenbach, T. M. (2004). The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) for Ages 18 to 90 Years.
go back to reference Roberts, W., Milich, R., & Barkley, R. A. (2015). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (4th ed.). The Guilford Press. Roberts, W., Milich, R., & Barkley, R. A. (2015). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (4th ed.). The Guilford Press.
go back to reference Russell, V. A., Oades, R. D., Tannock, R., Killeen, P. R., Auerbach, J. G., Johansen, E. B., & Sagvolden, T. (2006). Response variability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A neuronal and glial energetics hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 2(1), 1–25.CrossRef Russell, V. A., Oades, R. D., Tannock, R., Killeen, P. R., Auerbach, J. G., Johansen, E. B., & Sagvolden, T. (2006). Response variability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A neuronal and glial energetics hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 2(1), 1–25.CrossRef
go back to reference Sarver, D. E., Rapport, M. D., Kofler, M. J., Raiker, J. S., & Friedman, L. M. (2015). Hyperactivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Impairing deficit or compensatory behavior? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(7), 1219–1232.PubMedCrossRef Sarver, D. E., Rapport, M. D., Kofler, M. J., Raiker, J. S., & Friedman, L. M. (2015). Hyperactivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Impairing deficit or compensatory behavior? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(7), 1219–1232.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Shaw, P., Eckstrand, K., Sharp, W., Blumenthal, J., Lerch, J. P., Greenstein, D., Clasen, L., Evans, A., Giedd, J., & Rapoport, J. L. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(49), 19649–19654.CrossRef Shaw, P., Eckstrand, K., Sharp, W., Blumenthal, J., Lerch, J. P., Greenstein, D., Clasen, L., Evans, A., Giedd, J., & Rapoport, J. L. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(49), 19649–19654.CrossRef
go back to reference Solanto, M. V., Abikoff, H., Sonuga-Barke, E., Schachar, R., Logan, G. D., Wigal, T., Hechtman, L., Hinshaw, S., & Turkel, E. (2001). The ecological validity of delay aversion and response inhibition as measures of impulsivity in AD/HD: A supplement to the NIMH multimodal treatment study of AD/HD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(3), 215–228.PubMedCrossRef Solanto, M. V., Abikoff, H., Sonuga-Barke, E., Schachar, R., Logan, G. D., Wigal, T., Hechtman, L., Hinshaw, S., & Turkel, E. (2001). The ecological validity of delay aversion and response inhibition as measures of impulsivity in AD/HD: A supplement to the NIMH multimodal treatment study of AD/HD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(3), 215–228.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sonuga-Barke, E., Bitsakou, P., & Thompson, M. (2010). Beyond the dual pathway model: Evidence for the dissociation of timing, inhibitory, and delay-related impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(4), 345–355. Sonuga-Barke, E., Bitsakou, P., & Thompson, M. (2010). Beyond the dual pathway model: Evidence for the dissociation of timing, inhibitory, and delay-related impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(4), 345–355.
go back to reference Sonuga-Barke, E. J., & Castellanos, F. X. (2007). Spontaneous attentional fluctuations in impaired states and pathological conditions: A neurobiological hypothesis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 31(7), 977–986.PubMedCrossRef Sonuga-Barke, E. J., & Castellanos, F. X. (2007). Spontaneous attentional fluctuations in impaired states and pathological conditions: A neurobiological hypothesis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 31(7), 977–986.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Swanson, J. M., Kraemer, H. C., Hinshaw, S. P., Arnold, L. E., Conners, C. K., Abikoff, H. B., Clevenger, W., Davies, M., Elliott, G. R., & Greenhill, L. L. (2001). Clinical relevance of the primary findings of the MTA: Success rates based on severity of ADHD and ODD symptoms at the end of treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(2), 168–179.CrossRef Swanson, J. M., Kraemer, H. C., Hinshaw, S. P., Arnold, L. E., Conners, C. K., Abikoff, H. B., Clevenger, W., Davies, M., Elliott, G. R., & Greenhill, L. L. (2001). Clinical relevance of the primary findings of the MTA: Success rates based on severity of ADHD and ODD symptoms at the end of treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(2), 168–179.CrossRef
go back to reference Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.
go back to reference Tamm, L., Narad, M. E., Antonini, T. N., O’Brien, K. M., Hawk, L. W., & Epstein, J. N. (2012). Reaction time variability in ADHD: A review. Neurotherapeutics, 9(3), 500–508.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Tamm, L., Narad, M. E., Antonini, T. N., O’Brien, K. M., Hawk, L. W., & Epstein, J. N. (2012). Reaction time variability in ADHD: A review. Neurotherapeutics, 9(3), 500–508.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Thomas, R., Sanders, S., Doust, J., Beller, E., & Glasziou, P. (2015). Prevalence of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 135(4), e994–e1001.PubMedCrossRef Thomas, R., Sanders, S., Doust, J., Beller, E., & Glasziou, P. (2015). Prevalence of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 135(4), e994–e1001.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wager, T. D., & Smith, E. E. (2003). Neuroimaging studies of working memory. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 3(4), 255–274.CrossRef Wager, T. D., & Smith, E. E. (2003). Neuroimaging studies of working memory. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 3(4), 255–274.CrossRef
go back to reference Wåhlstedt, C., Thorell, L. B., & Bohlin, G. (2009). Heterogeneity in ADHD: Neuropsychological pathways, comorbidity and symptom domains. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(4), 551–564.PubMedCrossRef Wåhlstedt, C., Thorell, L. B., & Bohlin, G. (2009). Heterogeneity in ADHD: Neuropsychological pathways, comorbidity and symptom domains. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(4), 551–564.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (2014). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (5th ed.). Pearson. Wechsler, D. (2014). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (5th ed.). Pearson.
go back to reference Wells, E. L., Kofler, M. J., Soto, E. F., Schaefer, H. S., & Sarver, D. E. (2018). Assessing working memory in children with ADHD: Minor administration and scoring changes may improve digit span backward’s construct validity. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 72, 166–178.PubMedCrossRef Wells, E. L., Kofler, M. J., Soto, E. F., Schaefer, H. S., & Sarver, D. E. (2018). Assessing working memory in children with ADHD: Minor administration and scoring changes may improve digit span backward’s construct validity. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 72, 166–178.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wolraich, M. L., Hagan, J. F., Allan, C., Chan, E., Davison, D., Earls, M., Evans, S. W., Flinn, S. K., Froehlich, T., & Frost, J. (2019). Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 144(4), e20192528. Wolraich, M. L., Hagan, J. F., Allan, C., Chan, E., Davison, D., Earls, M., Evans, S. W., Flinn, S. K., Froehlich, T., & Frost, J. (2019). Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 144(4), e20192528.
Metagegevens
Titel
Consistently Inconsistent Working Memory Performance Among Children with ADHD: Evidence of Response Accuracy Variability (RAV)
Auteurs
Lauren M. Friedman
Mark D. Rapport
Gabrielle Fabrikant-Abzug
Publicatiedatum
02-04-2022
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 3/2022
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-022-09967-7

Andere artikelen Uitgave 3/2022

Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 3/2022 Naar de uitgave