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Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research 6/2011

01-12-2011 | Brief Report

Attention to Emotional Images in Previously Depressed Individuals: An Eye-Tracking Study

Auteurs: Christopher R. Sears, Kristin R. Newman, Jennifer D. Ference, Charmaine L. Thomas

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 6/2011

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Abstract

Depression and dysphoria are associated with attention and memory biases for emotional information (Williams et al. 1997; Yiend in Cogn Emot 24:3–47, 2010), which are postulated to reflect stable vulnerability factors for the development and recurrence of depression (Gotlib and Joormann in Annu Rev Clin Psychol 6:285–312, 2010). The present study looked for evidence of attention and memory biases in individuals with a self-reported history of depression, compared to individuals with dysphoria and individuals with no history of depression. Participants viewed sets of depression-related, anxiety-related, positive, and neutral images while their eye fixations were tracked and recorded. Incidental recognition of the images was assessed 7 days later. Consistent with previous studies (Kellough et al. in Behav Res Therapy 46:1238–1243, 2008; Sears et al. in Cogn Emot 24:1349–1368, 2010), dysphoric individuals spent significantly less time attending to positive images than never depressed individuals, and it was also found that previously depressed individuals exhibited the same attentional bias. Previously depressed individuals also attended to anxiety-related images more than never depressed individuals. A bias in the initial orienting of attention was observed, with previously depressed and dysphoric individuals orienting to depression-images more frequently than never depressed participants. The recognition memory data showed that previously depressed and dysphoric individuals had poorer memory than never depressed individuals, but there was no evidence of a memory bias for either group. Implications for cognitive models of depression and depression vulnerability are discussed.
Voetnoten
1
A complementary approach is to analyze the percentage of time participants spent viewing each image type (e.g., Kellough et al. 2008). This analysis produced equivalent results, with an interaction between Group and Image Type, F(6, 222) = 4.85, MSE = .021, P < .001, partial η 2 = .12, and significant between-group differences for positive images, F(2, 74) = 5.32, MSE = .005, P < .01, η 2 = .13, and anxiety-related images, F(2, 74) = 6.45, MSE = .004, P < .01, η 2 = .15. Never depressed participants spent a significantly greater percentage of time attending to positive images (30.9%) than previously depressed participants (24.9%) and dysphoric participants (25.7%). For anxiety-related images, previously depressed participants and dysphoric participants spent a significantly greater percentage of time attending to these images (35.4 and 32.7%, respectively) than never depressed participants (29.2%). There was also a significant group difference for depression-related images, F(2, 74) = 3.19, MSE = .002, P < .05, η 2 = .08, with dysphoric participants and previously depressed participants having higher viewing percentages for depression-related images than never depressed participants (27.9, 26.1, and 24.8%, respectively).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Attention to Emotional Images in Previously Depressed Individuals: An Eye-Tracking Study
Auteurs
Christopher R. Sears
Kristin R. Newman
Jennifer D. Ference
Charmaine L. Thomas
Publicatiedatum
01-12-2011
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 6/2011
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-011-9396-5