Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Please note that the opinion and assertions contained herein are the private opinions of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as representing the views of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Mental Health, or the National Institutes of Health.
Detecting early signs of autism is essential for timely diagnosis and initiation of effective interventions. Several research groups have initiated prospective studies of high-risk populations including infant siblings, to systematically collect data on early signs within a longitudinal design. Despite the potential advantages of prospective studies of young children at high-risk for autism, there are also significant methodological, ethical and practical challenges. This paper outlines several of these challenges, including those related to sampling (e.g., defining appropriate comparison groups), measurement and clinical implications (e.g., addressing the needs of infants suspected of having early signs). We suggest possible design and implementation strategies to address these various challenges, based on current research efforts in the field and previous studies involving high-risk populations.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Allen, M. C. (1993). The high-risk infant. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 40, 479–490. PubMed
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Baron-Cohen, S., Allen, J., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Can autism be detected at 18 months? The needle, the haystack, and the CHAT. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 839–843. PubMed
Bryson S, Zwaigenbaum L, & Roberts W. (2004). The early detection of autism in clinical practice. Pediatrics and Child Health, 4, 219–221.
Charman , T., Taylor, E., Drew, A., Cockeril, H, Brown , J., & Baird G. (2005). Outcome at 7 years of children diagnosed with autism at age 2: Predictive validity of assessments conducted at 2 and 3 years of age and pattern of symptom change over time. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 500–513.
Chen, D. T., Miller, F. G., & Rosenstein, D. L. (2003). Ethical aspects of research into the etiology of autism. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 9, 48–53. CrossRef
Coonrod, E. E., & Stone, W. L. (2004). Early concerns of parents of children with autistic and nonautistic disorders. Infants & Young Children, 17, 258–268. CrossRef
Crais, E., Douglas, D. D., & Campbell, C. C. (2004). The intersection of the development of gestures and intentionality. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 47, 678–694. CrossRef
Cuccaro, M. L., Shao, Y., Bass, M. P., Abramson, R. K., Ravan, S. A., Wright, H. H., Wolpert, C. M., Donnelly, S. L., & Pericak-Vance, M. A. (2003). Behavioral comparisons in autistic individuals from multiplex and singleton families. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 87–91. PubMedCrossRef
De Giacomo, A., Fombonne, E. (1998). Parental recognition of developmental abnormalities in autism. European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 7, 131–136. CrossRef
Dawson, G., & Osterling, J. (1997). Early intervention in autism. In M. J. Guralnick (Ed.), The effectiveness of early intervention. Baltimore: Brooks.
Dawson, G., Webb, S., Schellenberg, G. D., Dager, S., Friedman, S., Aylward, E., & Richards, T. (2002). Defining the broader phenotype of autism: Genetic, brain, and behavioral perspectives. Developmental Psychopathology, 14(3), 581–611. CrossRef
Dawson, G., & Zanolli, K. (2003). Early intervention and brain plasticity in autism. Novartis Foundation Symposium, 251, 266–274. PubMed
de Bildt, A., Sytema, S., Ketelaars, C., Kraijer, D., Mulder, E., Volkmar, F., & Minderaa, R. (2004). Interrelationship between Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic(ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 129–137. PubMedCrossRef
Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., Mennin, D., Gershon, J., Tsuang, M. T. (1996). A prospective four-year follow-up study of children at risk for ADHD: Psychiatric, neuropsychological, and psychosocial outcome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1449–1459. PubMedCrossRef
Filipek, P. A., Accardo, P. J., Baranek, G. T., Cook, E. H. Jr., Dawson, G., Gordon, B., Gravel, J. S., Johnson, C. P., Kallen, R. J., Levy, S. E., Minshew, N. J., Ozonoff, S., Prizant, B. M., Rapin, I., Rogers, S. J., Stone, W. L., Teplin, S., Tuchman, R. F., & Volkmar, F. R. (1999). The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 439–484. PubMedCrossRef
Heinssen, R. K., Perkins, D. O., Appelbaum, P. S., & Fenton, W. S. (2001). Informed consent in early psychosis research: National Institute of Mental Health Workshop, November 15, 2000. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27, 571–584. PubMed
Hoshino, Y., Kumashiro, H., Yashima, Y., Tachibana, R., Watanabe, M., & Furukawa, H. (1982). Early symptoms of autistic children and its diagnostic significance. Folia Psychiatrica Neurologica Japan, 36, 367–374.
Howlin, P., & Moore, A. (1997). Diagnosis of autism: A survey of over 1200 patients in the UK. Autism, 1, 135–162.
Klin, A., Chawarska, K., Rubin, E., & Volkmar, F. R. (2004). Clinical assessment of toddlers at risk of autism. In R. DelCarmen-Wiggins, & A. Carter (Eds.), Handbook of infant and toddler mental health assessment (pp. 311–336). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Landa, R., Folstein, S., & Isaacs, C (1991). Spontaneous narrative discourse performance of parents of autistic individuals. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 1339–1345. PubMed
Landa, R. (2003). Early identification of autism spectrum disorders. Exceptional Parent, 33, 60–63.
Lord, C., & McGee, J. P. (2001). Educating children with autism. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Lord, C., & Risi, S. (2000). Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in young children. In A. M. Wetherby, & B. M. Prizant (Eds.), Autism spectrum disorder: A transactional developmental perspective. (pp. 11–30). Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.
MacLean, J. E., Szatmari, P., Jones, M. B., Bryson, S. E., Mahoney, W. J., Bartolucci, G., Tuff, L. (1999). Familial factors influence level of functioning in pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 382, 746–753. CrossRef
Moore, V., & Goodson, S. (2003). How well does early diagnosis of autism stand the test of time? Autism, 7, 47–63. PubMed
Moore, C., & Corkum, V. (1998). Infant gaze following based on eye direction. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 16, 495–503.
Piven, J., Palmer, P., Jacobi, D., Childress, D., & Arndt, S. (1997). Broader autism phenotype: Evidence from a family history study of multiple-incidence families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 185–190. PubMed
Ritvo, E. R., Jorde, L. B., Mason-Brothers, A., Freeman, B. J., Pingree, C., Jones, M. B., McMahon, W. M., Pterson, P. B., Jenson, W., & Mo, A. (1989). The UCLA-University of Utah epidemiologic survey of autism: Recurrence risk estimates and genetic counseling. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1032–1036. PubMed
Robins, D. L., Fein, D., Barton, M. L., & Green, J. A. (2001). The Modified-Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: An initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 131–144. PubMedCrossRef
Rogers, S. J. (1999). An examination of the imitation deficit in autism. In J. Nadel, & G. Butterworth (Eds.), Imitation in infancy. Cambridge studies in cognitive perceptual development. (pp. 254–283). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press.
Rogers, S. J., Wehner, D. E., & Hagerman, R. (2001). The behavioral phenotype in fragile X: Symptoms of autism in very young children with fragile X syndrome, idiopathic autism, and other developmental disorders. Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, 22, 409–417.
Siegel, B., Pliner, C., Eschler, J., & Elliott, G. R. (1988). How children with autism are diagnosed: Difficulties in identification of children with multiple developmental delays. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 9, 199–204. PubMed
Smalley, S. L., McCracken, J., & Tanguay, P. (1995) Autism, affective disorders, and social phobia. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 60, 19–26.
Stone, W. L., Hoffman, E. L., Lewis, S. E., & Ousley, O. Y. (1994). Early recognition of autism: Parental reports vs. clinical observation. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 148, 174–179. PubMed
Swettenham, J., Baron-Cohen, S., Charman, T., Cox, A., Baird, G., Drew, A., Rees, L., & Wheelwright, S. (1998). The frequency and distribution of spontaneous attention shifts between social and nonsocial stimuli in autistic, typically developing, and nonautistic developmentally delayed infants. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 747–753. PubMedCrossRef
Szatmari, P., Jones, M. B., Zwaigenbaum, L., & MacLean, J. E. (1998). Genetics of autism: Overview and new directions. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 28, 351–368. CrossRef
Szatmari, P., Maclean, J. E., Jones, M. B., Bryson, S. E., Zwaigenbaum, L., Bartolucci, G., Majoney, W. J., & Tuff, L. (2000). The familial aggregation of the lesser variant in biological and nonbiological relatives of PDD probands: A family history study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 579–586. PubMedCrossRef
Thelen, E. (1981a). Kicking, rocking, and waving: Contextual analysis of stereotyped behaviour in normal infants. Animal Behaviour, 29, 3–11. CrossRef
Thelen, E. (1981b). Rhythmical behavior in infancy: An ethological perspective. Developmental Psychology, 17, 237–257. CrossRef
Volkmar, F. R., Klin, A., Siegel, B., Szatmari, P., Lord, C., Campbell, M., Freeman, B. J., Cicchetti, D. V., Rutter, M., Kline W, et al. (1994). Field trial for autistic disorder in DSM-IV. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1361–1367. PubMed
Wetherby, A., & Prizant, B. (2002). Communication and symbolic behavior scales developmental profile-first normed edition. Baltimore, MD: Paul H.Brookes.
Xu, J., Zwaigenbaum. L., Szatmari, P., & Scherer S. (2004). Molecular cytogenetics of autism: Current status and future directions. Current Genomics, 5, 347–364. CrossRef
Zwaigenbaum L, Bryson S, Rogers, T., Roberts W, Brian J, & Szatmari P. (2005). Behavioral markers of autism in the first year of life. International Journal of Developmental Neurosciences, 23, 143–152. CrossRef
- Studying the Emergence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in High-risk Infants: Methodological and Practical Issues
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers