Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 3/2016

16-11-2015 | Original Paper

Real-World Executive Functions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Profiles of Impairment and Associations with Adaptive Functioning and Co-morbid Anxiety and Depression

Auteurs: Gregory L. Wallace, Lauren Kenworthy, Cara E. Pugliese, Haroon S. Popal, Emily I. White, Emily Brodsky, Alex Martin

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 3/2016

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Although executive functioning (EF) difficulties are well documented among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about real-world measures of EF among adults with ASD. Therefore, this study examined parent-reported real-world EF problems among 35 adults with ASD without intellectual disability and their correlations with adaptive functioning and co-morbid anxiety and depression symptomatology. A variable EF profile was found with prominent deficits occurring in flexibility and metacognition. Flexibility problems were associated with anxiety-related symptoms while metacognition difficulties were associated with depression symptoms and impaired adaptive functioning (though the metacognition-adaptive functioning relationship was moderated by ADHD symptoms). These persistent EF problems are predictors of broader functioning and therefore remain an important treatment target among adults with ASD.
Literatuur
go back to reference Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2003). Manual for the ASEBA adult forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2003). Manual for the ASEBA adult forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.
go back to reference Ashwood, K. L., Tye, C., Azadi, B., Cartwright, S., Asherson, P., & Bolton, P. (2015). Brief report: Adaptive functioning in children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 2235–2242. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-014-2352-y. CrossRefPubMed Ashwood, K. L., Tye, C., Azadi, B., Cartwright, S., Asherson, P., & Bolton, P. (2015). Brief report: Adaptive functioning in children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 2235–2242. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-014-2352-y. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Blijd-Hoogewys, E. M., Bezemer, M. L., & van Geert, P. L. (2014). Executive functioning in children with ASD: An analysis of the BRIEF. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 3089–3100. CrossRefPubMed Blijd-Hoogewys, E. M., Bezemer, M. L., & van Geert, P. L. (2014). Executive functioning in children with ASD: An analysis of the BRIEF. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 3089–3100. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cannon, L., Kenworthy, L., Alexander, K. C., Werner, M. A., & Anthony, L. G. (2011). Unstuck and on target! An executive function curriculum to improve flexibility for children with autism spectrum disorders. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. Cannon, L., Kenworthy, L., Alexander, K. C., Werner, M. A., & Anthony, L. G. (2011). Unstuck and on target! An executive function curriculum to improve flexibility for children with autism spectrum disorders. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
go back to reference Damasio, A. R., & Maurer, R. G. (1978). A neurological model for childhood autism. Archives of Neurology, 35, 777–786. CrossRefPubMed Damasio, A. R., & Maurer, R. G. (1978). A neurological model for childhood autism. Archives of Neurology, 35, 777–786. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2010 Principal Investigators; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2014). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 63, 1–21. Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2010 Principal Investigators; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2014). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 63, 1–21.
go back to reference Gilotty, L., Kenworthy, L., Sirian, L., Black, D. O., & Wagner, A. E. (2002). Adaptive skills and executive function in autism spectrum disorders. Child Neuropsychology, 8, 241–248. CrossRefPubMed Gilotty, L., Kenworthy, L., Sirian, L., Black, D. O., & Wagner, A. E. (2002). Adaptive skills and executive function in autism spectrum disorders. Child Neuropsychology, 8, 241–248. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Goldstein, G., Minshew, N. J., Allen, D. N., & Seaton, B. E. (2002). High-functioning autism and schizophrenia a comparison of an early and late onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17, 461–475. CrossRefPubMed Goldstein, G., Minshew, N. J., Allen, D. N., & Seaton, B. E. (2002). High-functioning autism and schizophrenia a comparison of an early and late onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17, 461–475. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Granader, Y., Wallace, G. L., Hardy, K. K., Yerys, B. E., Lawson, R. A., Rosenthal, M., et al. (2014). Characterizing the factor structure of parent reported executive function in autism spectrum disorders: The role of cognitive inflexibility. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 3056–3062. CrossRefPubMed Granader, Y., Wallace, G. L., Hardy, K. K., Yerys, B. E., Lawson, R. A., Rosenthal, M., et al. (2014). Characterizing the factor structure of parent reported executive function in autism spectrum disorders: The role of cognitive inflexibility. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 3056–3062. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Harrison, P. L., & Oakland, T. (2003). Adaptive behavior assessment—Second edition manual (ABAS-II). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment. Harrison, P. L., & Oakland, T. (2003). Adaptive behavior assessment—Second edition manual (ABAS-II). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
go back to reference Hollocks, M. J., Jones, C. R., Pickles, A., Baird, G., Happé, F., Charman, T., & Simonoff, E. (2014). The association between social cognition and executive functioning and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Autism Research, 7, 216–228. CrossRefPubMed Hollocks, M. J., Jones, C. R., Pickles, A., Baird, G., Happé, F., Charman, T., & Simonoff, E. (2014). The association between social cognition and executive functioning and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Autism Research, 7, 216–228. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Howlin, P., & Moss, P. (2012). Adults with autism spectrum disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57, 275–283. PubMed Howlin, P., & Moss, P. (2012). Adults with autism spectrum disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57, 275–283. PubMed
go back to reference Johnston, K., Madden, A. K., Bramham, J., & Russell, A. J. (2011). Response inhibition in adults with autism spectrum disorder compared to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 903–912. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-010-1113-9. CrossRefPubMed Johnston, K., Madden, A. K., Bramham, J., & Russell, A. J. (2011). Response inhibition in adults with autism spectrum disorder compared to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 903–912. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-010-1113-9. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kenworthy, L., Anthony, L. G., Alexander, K. C., Werner, M. A., Cannon, L., & Greenman, L. (2014a). Solving executive functioning challenges: Simple ways to get kids with autism unstuck and on target. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Company. Kenworthy, L., Anthony, L. G., Alexander, K. C., Werner, M. A., Cannon, L., & Greenman, L. (2014a). Solving executive functioning challenges: Simple ways to get kids with autism unstuck and on target. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Company.
go back to reference Kenworthy, L., Anthony, L. G., Naiman, D. Q., Cannon, L., Wills, M. C., Werner, M. A., et al. (2014b). Randomized controlled effectiveness trial of executive function intervention for children on the autism spectrum. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 374–383. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Kenworthy, L., Anthony, L. G., Naiman, D. Q., Cannon, L., Wills, M. C., Werner, M. A., et al. (2014b). Randomized controlled effectiveness trial of executive function intervention for children on the autism spectrum. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 374–383. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kenworthy, L., Yerys, B. E., Anthony, L. G., & Wallace, G. L. (2008). Understanding executive control in autism spectrum disorders in the lab and in the real world. Neuropsychology Review, 18, 320–338. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Kenworthy, L., Yerys, B. E., Anthony, L. G., & Wallace, G. L. (2008). Understanding executive control in autism spectrum disorders in the lab and in the real world. Neuropsychology Review, 18, 320–338. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lai, M. C., Lombardo, M. V., Ruigrok, A. N., Chakrabarti, B., Wheelwright, S. J., Auyeung, B., et al. (2012). Cognition in males and females with autism: Similarities and differences. PLoS One, 7. doi: 10.​1371/​journal.​pone.​0047198. Lai, M. C., Lombardo, M. V., Ruigrok, A. N., Chakrabarti, B., Wheelwright, S. J., Auyeung, B., et al. (2012). Cognition in males and females with autism: Similarities and differences. PLoS One, 7. doi: 10.​1371/​journal.​pone.​0047198.
go back to reference Lainhart, J. E., Bigler, E. D., Bocian, M., Coon, H., Dinh, E., Dawson, G., et al. (2006). Head circumference and height in autism: A study by the Collaborative Program of Excellence in Autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 140, 2257–2274. doi: 10.​1002/​ajmg.​a.​31465. CrossRefPubMed Lainhart, J. E., Bigler, E. D., Bocian, M., Coon, H., Dinh, E., Dawson, G., et al. (2006). Head circumference and height in autism: A study by the Collaborative Program of Excellence in Autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 140, 2257–2274. doi: 10.​1002/​ajmg.​a.​31465. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lawson, R. A., Papadakis, A. A., Higginson, C. I., Barnett, J. E., Wills, M. C., Strang, J. F., et al. (2015). Specific executive function impairments predict comorbid psychopathology in autism spectrum and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Neuropsychology, 29, 445–453. CrossRefPubMed Lawson, R. A., Papadakis, A. A., Higginson, C. I., Barnett, J. E., Wills, M. C., Strang, J. F., et al. (2015). Specific executive function impairments predict comorbid psychopathology in autism spectrum and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Neuropsychology, 29, 445–453. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Le Couteur, A., Rutter, M., Lord, C., Rios, P., Robertson, S., Holdgrafer, M., & McLennan, J. (1989). Autism diagnostic interview: A standardized investigator-based instrument. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 363–387. CrossRefPubMed Le Couteur, A., Rutter, M., Lord, C., Rios, P., Robertson, S., Holdgrafer, M., & McLennan, J. (1989). Autism diagnostic interview: A standardized investigator-based instrument. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 363–387. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lopez, B., Lincoln, A., Ozonoff, S., & Lai, Z. (2005). Examining the relationship between executive functions and restricted, repetitive symptoms of autistic disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 445–460. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-005-5035-x. CrossRefPubMed Lopez, B., Lincoln, A., Ozonoff, S., & Lai, Z. (2005). Examining the relationship between executive functions and restricted, repetitive symptoms of autistic disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 445–460. doi: 10.​1007/​s10803-005-5035-x. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., Dilavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule—generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223. CrossRefPubMed Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., Dilavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule—generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685. CrossRefPubMed Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mazurek, M. O. (2014). Loneliness, friendship, and well-being in adults with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 18, 223–232. CrossRefPubMed Mazurek, M. O. (2014). Loneliness, friendship, and well-being in adults with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 18, 223–232. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Nakahachi, T., Iwase, M., Takahashi, H., Honaga, E., Sekiyama, R., Ukai, S., et al. (2006). Discrepancy of performance among working memory-related tasks in autism spectrum disorders was caused by task characteristics, apart from working memory, which could interfere with task execution. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 60, 312–318. doi: 10.​1111/​j.​1440-1819.​2006.​01507.​x. CrossRefPubMed Nakahachi, T., Iwase, M., Takahashi, H., Honaga, E., Sekiyama, R., Ukai, S., et al. (2006). Discrepancy of performance among working memory-related tasks in autism spectrum disorders was caused by task characteristics, apart from working memory, which could interfere with task execution. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 60, 312–318. doi: 10.​1111/​j.​1440-1819.​2006.​01507.​x. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Olesen, P. J., Westerberg, H., & Klingberg, T. (2004). Increased prefrontal and parietal activity after training of working memory. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 75–79. CrossRefPubMed Olesen, P. J., Westerberg, H., & Klingberg, T. (2004). Increased prefrontal and parietal activity after training of working memory. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 75–79. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Pugliese, C. E., Anthony, L., Strang, J. F., Dudley, K., Wallace, G. L., & Kenworthy, L. (2015). Increasing adaptive behavior skill deficits from childhood to adolescence in autism spectrum disorder: Role of executive function. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 1579–1587. CrossRefPubMed Pugliese, C. E., Anthony, L., Strang, J. F., Dudley, K., Wallace, G. L., & Kenworthy, L. (2015). Increasing adaptive behavior skill deficits from childhood to adolescence in autism spectrum disorder: Role of executive function. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 1579–1587. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rosenthal, M., Wallace, G. L., Lawson, R., Wills, M. C., Dixon, E., Yerys, B. E., & Kenworthy, L. (2013). Impairments in realworld executive function increase from childhood to adolescence in autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychology, 27, 13–18. doi: 10.​1037/​a0031299. CrossRefPubMed Rosenthal, M., Wallace, G. L., Lawson, R., Wills, M. C., Dixon, E., Yerys, B. E., & Kenworthy, L. (2013). Impairments in realworld executive function increase from childhood to adolescence in autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychology, 27, 13–18. doi: 10.​1037/​a0031299. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Roth, R. M., Isquith, P. K., & Gioia, G. A. (2005). Behavior rating inventory of executive function—adult version (BRIEF-A). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Roth, R. M., Isquith, P. K., & Gioia, G. A. (2005). Behavior rating inventory of executive function—adult version (BRIEF-A). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
go back to reference Roux, A. M., Shattuck, P. T., Cooper, B. P., Anderson, K. A., Wagner, M., & Narendorf, S. C. (2013). Postsecondary employment experiences among young adults with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 931–939. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Roux, A. M., Shattuck, P. T., Cooper, B. P., Anderson, K. A., Wagner, M., & Narendorf, S. C. (2013). Postsecondary employment experiences among young adults with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 931–939. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rumsey, J. M. (1985). Conceptual problem-solving in highly verbal, nonretarded autistic men. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 23–36. CrossRefPubMed Rumsey, J. M. (1985). Conceptual problem-solving in highly verbal, nonretarded autistic men. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 23–36. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rumsey, J. M., & Hamburger, S. D. (1990). Neuropsychological divergence of high-level autism and severe dyslexia. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 155–168. CrossRefPubMed Rumsey, J. M., & Hamburger, S. D. (1990). Neuropsychological divergence of high-level autism and severe dyslexia. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 155–168. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Sachse, M., Schlitt, S., Hainz, D., Ciaramidaro, A., Schirman, S., Walter, H., et al. (2013). Executive and visuo-motor function in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 1222–1235. CrossRefPubMed Sachse, M., Schlitt, S., Hainz, D., Ciaramidaro, A., Schirman, S., Walter, H., et al. (2013). Executive and visuo-motor function in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 1222–1235. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Sparrow, S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. (1984). Vineland adaptive behavior scales (expanded form). Circle Pine, MN: American Guidance Service. Sparrow, S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. (1984). Vineland adaptive behavior scales (expanded form). Circle Pine, MN: American Guidance Service.
go back to reference Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Balla, D. A. (2005). Vineland adaptive behavior scales—2nd edition manual. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson Inc. Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Balla, D. A. (2005). Vineland adaptive behavior scales—2nd edition manual. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson Inc.
go back to reference Taylor, J. L., & Seltzer, M. M. (2011). Employment and post-secondary educational activities for young adults with autism spectrum disorders during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1431–1446. CrossRef Taylor, J. L., & Seltzer, M. M. (2011). Employment and post-secondary educational activities for young adults with autism spectrum disorders during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1431–1446. CrossRef
go back to reference Vergara-Lopez, C., Lopez-Vergara, H. I., & Colder, C. R. (2013). Executive functioning moderates the relationship between motivation and adolescent depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 18–22. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Vergara-Lopez, C., Lopez-Vergara, H. I., & Colder, C. R. (2013). Executive functioning moderates the relationship between motivation and adolescent depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 18–22. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Yerys, B. E., Wallace, G. L., Sokoloff, J., Shook, D. A., James, J. D., & Kenworthy, L. (2009). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms moderate cognition and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism Research, 2, 322–333. doi: 10.​1002/​aur.​103. PubMedCentralPubMed Yerys, B. E., Wallace, G. L., Sokoloff, J., Shook, D. A., James, J. D., & Kenworthy, L. (2009). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms moderate cognition and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism Research, 2, 322–333. doi: 10.​1002/​aur.​103. PubMedCentralPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Real-World Executive Functions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Profiles of Impairment and Associations with Adaptive Functioning and Co-morbid Anxiety and Depression
Auteurs
Gregory L. Wallace
Lauren Kenworthy
Cara E. Pugliese
Haroon S. Popal
Emily I. White
Emily Brodsky
Alex Martin
Publicatiedatum
16-11-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 3/2016
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2655-7