Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-0988-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Matthias A. Burzler and Ulrich S. Tran contributed equally to this work.
Previous research among experienced meditators suggests that the associations of trait mindfulness with mental health are mediated by emotion regulation, body awareness, and a less static perspective of the self. The present study sought to elucidate whether this mediational model is also applicable to the general population and whether further potential mechanisms of action need to be included. Meditators and nonmeditators differ in overall mindfulness levels, but also in the structural properties of mindfulness facets. Meditation experience might bring about a change of variables that explain the associations of mindfulness with mental health. We examined the confirmatory fit of the mediational model in a large, German-speaking general population sample (N = 1133) with structural equation modeling, and investigated in an exploratory fashion whether further mediating variables needed to be included in the model. As a side goal, the structural properties of a short form of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) were re-examined. Results suggest that variables and mechanisms which mediate the associations between trait mindfulness and mental health are the same for meditators and the general population. Differences pertain to the strength and direction of some of these associations. The short-form FFMQ is recommended for further research. It was replicably shown to have a two-factor higher-order structure. Findings are discussed with regard to mindfulness training and intervention. Potential mechanisms of action may not be intervention-specific, but may also explain the links between trait mindfulness and mental health.
ESM 1 (PDF 138 kb)12671_2018_988_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Agee, J. D., Danoff-Burg, S., & Grant, C. A. (2009). Comparing brief stress management courses in a community sample: mindfulness skills and progressive muscle relaxation. Explore, 5, 104–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2008.12.004. CrossRefPubMed
A-Tjak, J. G. L., Davis, M. L., Morina, N., Powers, M. B., Smits, J. A. J., & Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (2015). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy for clinically relevant mental health and physical health problems. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 84, 30–36. CrossRefPubMed
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., Walsh, E., Duggan, D., & Williams, J. M. G. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15, 329–342. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191107313003. CrossRefPubMed
Behling, O., & Law, K. S. (2000). Translating questionnaires and other research instruments: problems and solutions. Thousand Oaks: Sage. CrossRef
Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., & Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230–241. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bph077.
Bohlmeijer, E., Prenger, R., Taal, E., & Cuijpers, P. (2010). The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy on mental health of adults with a chronic medical disease: a meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68, 539–544. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.10.005. CrossRefPubMed
Bohlmeijer, E., ten Klooster, P. M., Fledderus, M., Veehof, M., & Baer, R. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in depressed adults and development of a short form. Assessment, 18, 308–320. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191111408231.
Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1992. CrossRefPubMed
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Ehring, T., Fischer, S., Schnülle, J., Bösterling, A., & Tuschen-Caffier, B. (2008). Characteristics of emotion regulation in recovered depressed versus never depressed individuals. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1574–1584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.01.013. CrossRef
Evans, D. E., & Rothbart, M. K. (2007). Developing a model for adult temperament. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 868–888. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2006.11.002. CrossRef
Fresco, D. M., Moore, M. T., van Dulmen, M. H. M., Segal, Z. V., Ma, S. H., Teasdale, J. D., & Williams, G. (2007). Initial psychometric properties of the experiences questionnaire: validation of a self-report measure of decentering. Behavior Therapy, 38, 234–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2006.08.003. CrossRefPubMed
Gecht, J., Kessel, R., Mainz, V., Gauggel, S., Drueke, B., & Scherer, A. (2013). Measuring decentering in self-reports: psychometric properties of the Experiences Questionnaire in a German sample. Psychotherapy Research, 24, 67–79. https://doi.org/10.1080/10503307.2013.821635. CrossRefPubMed
Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: development, factor structure, and initial validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 41–54. CrossRef
Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: a meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57, 35–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00573-7. CrossRefPubMed
Gu, J., Strauss, C., Bond, R., & Cavanagh, K. (2015). How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of meditation studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.01.006. CrossRefPubMed
Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: an experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press.
Hölzel, B. K., Lazar, S. W., Gard, T., Schuman-Olivier, Z., Vago, D. R., & Ott, U. (2011). How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 537–559. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691611419671. CrossRefPubMed
Khoury, B., Lecomte, T., Fortin, G., Masse, M., Therien, P., Bouchard, V., et al. (2013). Mindfulness-based therapy: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 763–771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.05.005. CrossRefPubMed
Kraemer, H. C., Kazdin, A. E., Offord, D. R., Kessler, R. C., Jensen, P. S., & Kupfer, D. J. (1997). Coming to terms with the terms of risk. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 337–343. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830160065009.
Kraemer, H. C., Wilson, G. T., Fairburn, C. G., & Agras, W. S. (2002). Mediators and moderators of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 877–883. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.59.10.877.
Langer, Á. I., Ulloa, V. G., Cangas, A. J., Rojas, G., & Krause, M. (2015). Mindfulness-based interventions in secondary education: a qualitative systematic review. Estudios de Psicología, 36, 533–570. https://doi.org/10.1080/02109395.2015.1078553.
Lutz, A., Slagter, H. A., Dunne, J. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2008). Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 163–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2008.01.005. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Medvedev, O. N., Krägeloh, C. U., Narayanan, A., & Siegert, R. J. (2017). Measuring mindfulness: applying generalizability theory to distinguish between state and trait. Mindfulness, 8, 1036–1046. CrossRef
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2008). Mplus user’s guide. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.
Petrocchi, N., & Ottaviani, C. (2016). Mindfulness facets distinctively predict depressive symptoms after two years: the mediating role of rumination. Personality and Individual Differences, 93, 92–96. CrossRef
Ravalier, J. M.,Wegrzynek, P., & Lawton, S. (2016). Systematic review: Complementary therapies and employee well-being. Occupational Medicine, 66, 428-436. https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqw047.
Roemer, L., Williston, S. K., & Rollins, L. G. (2015). Mindfulness and emotion regulation. Current Opinion in Psychology, 3, 52–57. CrossRef
Royuela-Colomer, E., & Calvete, E. (2016). Mindfulness facets and depression in adolescents: rumination as a mediator. Mindfulness, 7, 1092–1102. CrossRef
Sahdra, B. K., Ciarrochi, J., Parker, P. D., Basarkod, G., Bradshaw, E. L., & Baer, R. (2017). Are people mindful in different ways? Disentangling the quantity and quality of mindfulness in latent profiles, and their links to mental health and life effectiveness. European Journal of Personality, 31, 347–365. CrossRef
Spitzer, C., Hammer, S., Löwe, B., Grabe, H. J., Barnow, S., Rose, M., … Franke, G. H. (2011). The short version of the brief symptom inventory (BSI-18): preliminary psychometric properties of the German translation. Fortschritte der Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 79, 517–523. doi https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1281602.
Szekeres, R. A., & Wertheim, E. H. (2015). Evaluation of Vipassana meditation course effects on subjective stress, well-being, self-kindness and mindfulness in a community sample: post-course and 6-month outcomes. Stress and Health, 31, 373–381. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2562. CrossRefPubMed
Taylor, N. Z., & Millear, P. M. R. (2016). Validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in an Australian, meditating, demographically diverse sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 73–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.10.041. CrossRef
Teasdale, J. D., Moore, R. G., Hayhurst, H., Pope, M., Williams, S., & Segal, Z. V. (2002). Metacognitive awareness and prevention of relapse in depression: empirical evidence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 275–287. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.70.2.275. CrossRefPubMed
Tihanyi, B. T., Boor, P., Emanuelsen, L., & Koteles, F. (2016). Mediators between yoga practice and psychological well-being: mindfulness, body awareness and satisfaction with body image. European Journal of Mental Health, 11, 112–127. CrossRef
Tran, U. S., Glück, T. M., & Nader, I. W. (2013). Investigating the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ): construction of a short form and evidence of a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69, 951–965. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21996. CrossRefPubMed
Tran, U. S., Cebolla, A., Glück, T. M., Soler, J., Garcia-Campayo, J., & von Moy, T. (2014). The serenity of the meditating mind: a cross-cultural psychometric study on a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness, its effects, and mechanisms related to mental health among experienced meditators. PLoS One, 9, e110192. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110192. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Vago, D. R., & Silbersweig, D. A. (2012). Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): a framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 296. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00296. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Wiltink, J., Vogelsang, U., & Beutel, M.E. (2006). Temperament and personality: the German version of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ). GMS Psycho-Social-Medicine, 3, Doc10 . Retrieved from http://www.egms.de/de/journals/psm/2006-3/psm000030.shtml.