Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness 3/2019

04-07-2018 | REVIEW

Hacking Stigma by Loving Yourself: a Mediated-Moderation Model of Self-Compassion and Stigma

Auteurs: Celia Ching Yee Wong, C. Raymond Knee, Clayton Neighbors, Michael J. Zvolensky

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 3/2019

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Stigma is an important topic in public health and has significant impact on psychological and physical well-being of stigmatized individuals. Emerging evidence has suggested that self-compassion, a self-caring and compassionate attitude in the face of hardship, may buffer the negative effects of stigma. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the underlying mechanisms through which self-compassion may buffer the effects of public stigma on self-stigma and the associated negative outcomes. The goal of this paper is to present a theoretical framework that integrates the existing body of literature in self-compassion and stigma. This framework postulates that (1) self-compassion may be related to adaptive cognitive, emotional, and social processes, and (2) these processes may, in turn, prevent individuals with stigmatized identity from developing self-stigma and other health outcomes. Theoretical and empirical support for this mediated-moderation model is reviewed. Future directions to empirically evaluate this model, as well the potential applications of this model for stigma reduction interventions are presented.
Literatuur
go back to reference Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96(2), 358–372. CrossRef Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96(2), 358–372. CrossRef
go back to reference Akin, A. (2008). The scales of psychological well-being: A study of validity and reliability. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 8(3), 741–750. Akin, A. (2008). The scales of psychological well-being: A study of validity and reliability. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 8(3), 741–750.
go back to reference Akin, A. (2010). Self-compassion and loneliness. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2(3), 702–718. Akin, A. (2010). Self-compassion and loneliness. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2(3), 702–718.
go back to reference Arch, J. J., Brown, K. W., Dean, D. J., Landy, L. N., Brown, K. D., & Laudenslager, M. L. (2014). Self-compassion training modulates alpha-amylase, heart rate variability, and subjective responses to social evaluative threat in women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 42, 49–58. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Arch, J. J., Brown, K. W., Dean, D. J., Landy, L. N., Brown, K. D., & Laudenslager, M. L. (2014). Self-compassion training modulates alpha-amylase, heart rate variability, and subjective responses to social evaluative threat in women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 42, 49–58. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Arndt, J., Schimel, J., Greenberg, J., & Pyszczynski, T. (2002). The intrinsic self and defensiveness: Evidence that activating the intrinsic self reduces self-handicapping and conformity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(5), 671–683. CrossRef Arndt, J., Schimel, J., Greenberg, J., & Pyszczynski, T. (2002). The intrinsic self and defensiveness: Evidence that activating the intrinsic self reduces self-handicapping and conformity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(5), 671–683. CrossRef
go back to reference Baldofski, S., Rudolph, A., Tigges, W., Herbig, B., Jurowich, C., Kaiser, S., . . . Hilbert, A. (2016). Weight bias internalization, emotion dysregulation, and non-normative eating behaviors in prebariatric patients. International Journal of Eating Disorders , 49(2), 180–185. PubMedCrossRef Baldofski, S., Rudolph, A., Tigges, W., Herbig, B., Jurowich, C., Kaiser, S., . . . Hilbert, A. (2016). Weight bias internalization, emotion dysregulation, and non-normative eating behaviors in prebariatric patients. International Journal of Eating Disorders , 49(2), 180–185. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Berecz, J. M. (2001). All that glitters is not gold: Bad forgiveness is counseling and preaching. Pastoral Psychology, 49(4), 253–275. CrossRef Berecz, J. M. (2001). All that glitters is not gold: Bad forgiveness is counseling and preaching. Pastoral Psychology, 49(4), 253–275. CrossRef
go back to reference Berry, J. W., Worthington Jr., E. L., Parrott III, L., O’Connor, L., & Wade, N. G. (2001). Dispositional forgivingness: Development and construct validity of the Transgression Narrative Test of Forgivingness (TNTF). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(10), 1277–1290. CrossRef Berry, J. W., Worthington Jr., E. L., Parrott III, L., O’Connor, L., & Wade, N. G. (2001). Dispositional forgivingness: Development and construct validity of the Transgression Narrative Test of Forgivingness (TNTF). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(10), 1277–1290. CrossRef
go back to reference Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., . . . Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice , 11(3), 230–241. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., . . . Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice , 11(3), 230–241.
go back to reference Boyd, J. E., Adler, E. P., Otilingam, P. G., & Peters, T. (2014). Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: A multinational review. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(1), 221–231. PubMedCrossRef Boyd, J. E., Adler, E. P., Otilingam, P. G., & Peters, T. (2014). Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: A multinational review. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(1), 221–231. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brenner, R. E., Heath, P. J., Vogel, D. L., & Credé, M. (2017). Two is more valid than one: Examining the factor structure of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64(6), 696–707. PubMedCrossRef Brenner, R. E., Heath, P. J., Vogel, D. L., & Credé, M. (2017). Two is more valid than one: Examining the factor structure of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64(6), 696–707. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brodar, K. E., Crosskey, B. L., & Thompson Jr., R. J. (2015). The relationship of self-compassion with perfectionistic self-presentation, perceived forgiveness, and perceived social support in an undergraduate Christian community. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 43(4), 232–242. CrossRef Brodar, K. E., Crosskey, B. L., & Thompson Jr., R. J. (2015). The relationship of self-compassion with perfectionistic self-presentation, perceived forgiveness, and perceived social support in an undergraduate Christian community. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 43(4), 232–242. CrossRef
go back to reference Burrow, A. L., & Hill, P. L. (2012). Flying the unfriendly skies?: The role of forgiveness and race in the experience of racial microaggressions. Journal of Social Psychology, 152(5), 639–653. PubMedCrossRef Burrow, A. L., & Hill, P. L. (2012). Flying the unfriendly skies?: The role of forgiveness and race in the experience of racial microaggressions. Journal of Social Psychology, 152(5), 639–653. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cadell, S., Hemsworth, D., Smit Quosai, T., Steele, R., Davies, E., Liben, S., . . . Siden, H. (2014). Posttraumatic growth in parents caring for a child with a life-limiting illness: A structural equation model. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry , 84(2), 123–133. PubMedCrossRef Cadell, S., Hemsworth, D., Smit Quosai, T., Steele, R., Davies, E., Liben, S., . . . Siden, H. (2014). Posttraumatic growth in parents caring for a child with a life-limiting illness: A structural equation model. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry , 84(2), 123–133. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Carrasco, L. F., Martin, N., & Molero, F. (2013). Stigma consciousness and quality of life in persons with physical and sensory disability. Revista de Psicologia Social, 28(3), 259–271. CrossRef Carrasco, L. F., Martin, N., & Molero, F. (2013). Stigma consciousness and quality of life in persons with physical and sensory disability. Revista de Psicologia Social, 28(3), 259–271. CrossRef
go back to reference Chung, M. S. (2016). Relation between lack of forgiveness and depression: The moderating effect of self-compassion. Psychological Reports, 119(3), 573–585. PubMedCrossRef Chung, M. S. (2016). Relation between lack of forgiveness and depression: The moderating effect of self-compassion. Psychological Reports, 119(3), 573–585. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Costa, J., Marôco, J., Pinto‐Gouveia, J., Ferreira, C., & Castilho, P. (2016). Validation of the psychometric properties of the Self‐Compassion Scale. Testing the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the measure among borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorder, eating disorder and general populations. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 23(5), 460–468. CrossRef Costa, J., Marôco, J., Pinto‐Gouveia, J., Ferreira, C., & Castilho, P. (2016). Validation of the psychometric properties of the Self‐Compassion Scale. Testing the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the measure among borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorder, eating disorder and general populations. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 23(5), 460–468. CrossRef
go back to reference Creswell, J. D., Welch, W. T., Taylor, S. E., Sherman, D. K., Gruenewald, T. L., & Mann, T. (2005). Affirmation of personal values buffers neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses. Psychological Science, 16(11), 846–851. PubMedCrossRef Creswell, J. D., Welch, W. T., Taylor, S. E., Sherman, D. K., Gruenewald, T. L., & Mann, T. (2005). Affirmation of personal values buffers neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses. Psychological Science, 16(11), 846–851. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Crocker, J., Major, B., & Steele, C. (1998). Social stigma. In S. Fiske, D. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (4th ed., pp. 504–553). Boston: McGraw-Hill. Crocker, J., Major, B., & Steele, C. (1998). Social stigma. In S. Fiske, D. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (4th ed., pp. 504–553). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
go back to reference Deci, E., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Pleum Press. CrossRef Deci, E., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Pleum Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Doyle, D. M., & Molix, L. (2015). Social stigma and sexual minorities’ romantic relationship functioning: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(10), 1363–1381. PubMedCrossRef Doyle, D. M., & Molix, L. (2015). Social stigma and sexual minorities’ romantic relationship functioning: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(10), 1363–1381. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Earnshaw, V. A., Lang, S. M., Lippitt, M., Jin, H., & Chaudoir, S. R. (2015). HIV stigma and physical health symptoms: Do social support, adaptive coping, and/or identity centrality act as resilience resources? AIDS and Behavior, 19(1), 41–49. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Earnshaw, V. A., Lang, S. M., Lippitt, M., Jin, H., & Chaudoir, S. R. (2015). HIV stigma and physical health symptoms: Do social support, adaptive coping, and/or identity centrality act as resilience resources? AIDS and Behavior, 19(1), 41–49. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Erguner-Tekinalp, B. (2009). Daily experiences of racism and forgiving historical offenses: An African American experience. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(9), 1784–1792. Erguner-Tekinalp, B. (2009). Daily experiences of racism and forgiving historical offenses: An African American experience. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(9), 1784–1792.
go back to reference Falconer, C. J., King, J. A., & Brewin, C. R. (2015). Demonstrating mood repair with a situation‐based measure of self‐compassion and self‐criticism. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 88(4), 351–365. CrossRef Falconer, C. J., King, J. A., & Brewin, C. R. (2015). Demonstrating mood repair with a situation‐based measure of self‐compassion and self‐criticism. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 88(4), 351–365. CrossRef
go back to reference Fehr, R., Gelfand, M. J., & Nag, M. (2010). The road to forgiveness: A meta-analytic synthesis of its situational and dispositional correlates. Psychological Bulletin, 136(5), 894–914. PubMedCrossRef Fehr, R., Gelfand, M. J., & Nag, M. (2010). The road to forgiveness: A meta-analytic synthesis of its situational and dispositional correlates. Psychological Bulletin, 136(5), 894–914. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Feinstein, B. A., Goldfried, M. R., & Davila, J. (2012). The relationship between experiences of discrimination and mental health among lesbians and gay men: An examination of internalized homonegativity and rejection sensitivity as potential mechanisms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(5), 917–927. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​a0029425. PubMedCrossRef Feinstein, B. A., Goldfried, M. R., & Davila, J. (2012). The relationship between experiences of discrimination and mental health among lesbians and gay men: An examination of internalized homonegativity and rejection sensitivity as potential mechanisms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(5), 917–927. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​a0029425. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fung, K. M., Tsang, H. W., & Cheung, W. M. (2011). Randomized controlled trial of the self-stigma reduction program among individuals with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 189(2), 208–214. PubMedCrossRef Fung, K. M., Tsang, H. W., & Cheung, W. M. (2011). Randomized controlled trial of the self-stigma reduction program among individuals with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 189(2), 208–214. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Galvan, F. H., Davis, E. M., Banks, D., & Bing, E. G. (2008). HIV stigma and social support among African Americans. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 22(5), 423–436. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Galvan, F. H., Davis, E. M., Banks, D., & Bing, E. G. (2008). HIV stigma and social support among African Americans. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 22(5), 423–436. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Gardner, W. L., Pickett, C. L., & Brewer, M. B. (2000). Social exclusion and selective memory: How the need to belong affects memory for social information. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(4), 486–496. CrossRef Gardner, W. L., Pickett, C. L., & Brewer, M. B. (2000). Social exclusion and selective memory: How the need to belong affects memory for social information. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(4), 486–496. CrossRef
go back to reference Gilbert, P. (2009). The Compassionate Mind: A new Approach to the Challenge of Life. London: Constable & Robinson. Gilbert, P. (2009). The Compassionate Mind: A new Approach to the Challenge of Life. London: Constable & Robinson.
go back to reference Gilbert, P., & Irons, C. (2005). Therapies for shame and self-attacking, using cognitive, behavioural, emotional imagery and compassionate mind training. In Compassion: conceptualisations, research and use in psychotherapy. London: Routledge. Gilbert, P., & Irons, C. (2005). Therapies for shame and self-attacking, using cognitive, behavioural, emotional imagery and compassionate mind training. In Compassion: conceptualisations, research and use in psychotherapy. London: Routledge.
go back to reference Gilbert, P., McEwan, K., Matos, M., & Rivis, A. (2011). Fears of compassion: Development of three self‐report measures. Psychology and psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 84(3), 239–255. CrossRef Gilbert, P., McEwan, K., Matos, M., & Rivis, A. (2011). Fears of compassion: Development of three self‐report measures. Psychology and psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 84(3), 239–255. CrossRef
go back to reference Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York: Prentice Hall. Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York: Prentice Hall.
go back to reference Greco, L. A., Lambert, W., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Psychological inflexibility in childhood and adolescence: Development and evaluation of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth. Psychological Assessment, 20(2), 93–102. PubMedCrossRef Greco, L. A., Lambert, W., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Psychological inflexibility in childhood and adolescence: Development and evaluation of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth. Psychological Assessment, 20(2), 93–102. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gross, J. J. (2001). Emotion regulation in adulthood: Timing is everything. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(6), 214–219. CrossRef Gross, J. J. (2001). Emotion regulation in adulthood: Timing is everything. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(6), 214–219. CrossRef
go back to reference Hayes, S. C., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Roche, B. (2001). Relational frame theory: A past-Skinnerian account of human language and cognition. New York: Kluwer Academic/ Plenum. Hayes, S. C., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Roche, B. (2001). Relational frame theory: A past-Skinnerian account of human language and cognition. New York: Kluwer Academic/ Plenum.
go back to reference Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, processes and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(1), 1–25. PubMedCrossRef Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, processes and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(1), 1–25. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hayes, S. C., & Smith, S. (2005). Get out of your mind and into your life: The new acceptance and commitment therapy. Oaklands: New Harbinger Publications. Hayes, S. C., & Smith, S. (2005). Get out of your mind and into your life: The new acceptance and commitment therapy. Oaklands: New Harbinger Publications.
go back to reference Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (2011). Acceptance and commitment therapy: The process and practice of mindful change. New York: Guilford Press. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (2011). Acceptance and commitment therapy: The process and practice of mindful change. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Heath, P. J., Brenner, R. E., Vogel, D. L., Lannin, D. G., & Strass, H. A. (2017). Masculinity and barriers to seeking counseling: The buffering role of self-compassion. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64(1), 94–103. PubMedCrossRef Heath, P. J., Brenner, R. E., Vogel, D. L., Lannin, D. G., & Strass, H. A. (2017). Masculinity and barriers to seeking counseling: The buffering role of self-compassion. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64(1), 94–103. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Helgeson, V. S., Reynolds, K. A., & Tomich, P. L. (2006). A meta-analytic review of benefit finding and growth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 797–816. PubMedCrossRef Helgeson, V. S., Reynolds, K. A., & Tomich, P. L. (2006). A meta-analytic review of benefit finding and growth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 797–816. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Higgins, E. T., King, G. A., & Mavin, G. M. (1982). Individual construct accessibility and subjective impressions and recall. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(1), 35–47. CrossRef Higgins, E. T., King, G. A., & Mavin, G. M. (1982). Individual construct accessibility and subjective impressions and recall. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(1), 35–47. CrossRef
go back to reference Hodgson, L. K., & Wertheim, E. H. (2007). Does good emotion management aid forgiving? Multiple dimensions of empathy, emotion management, and forgiveness of self and others. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 24(6), 931–949. CrossRef Hodgson, L. K., & Wertheim, E. H. (2007). Does good emotion management aid forgiving? Multiple dimensions of empathy, emotion management, and forgiveness of self and others. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 24(6), 931–949. CrossRef
go back to reference Huang, S. T. T., & Enright, R. D. (2000). Forgiveness and anger-related emotions in Taiwan: Implications for therapy. Psychotherapy, 37(1), 71–79. CrossRef Huang, S. T. T., & Enright, R. D. (2000). Forgiveness and anger-related emotions in Taiwan: Implications for therapy. Psychotherapy, 37(1), 71–79. CrossRef
go back to reference Huebner, D. M., Nemeroff, C. J., & Davis, M. C. (2005). Do hostility and neuroticism confound associations between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(5), 723–740. CrossRef Huebner, D. M., Nemeroff, C. J., & Davis, M. C. (2005). Do hostility and neuroticism confound associations between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(5), 723–740. CrossRef
go back to reference Hulbert-Williams, N. J., Storey, L., & Wilson, K. G. (2015). Psychological interventions for patients with cancer: Psychological flexibility and the potential utility of acceptance and commitment therapy. European Journal of Cancer Care, 24(1), 15–27. PubMedCrossRef Hulbert-Williams, N. J., Storey, L., & Wilson, K. G. (2015). Psychological interventions for patients with cancer: Psychological flexibility and the potential utility of acceptance and commitment therapy. European Journal of Cancer Care, 24(1), 15–27. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jones, E. E. (1984). Social stigma: The psychology of marked relationships. New York: WH Freeman. Jones, E. E. (1984). Social stigma: The psychology of marked relationships. New York: WH Freeman.
go back to reference Kachadourian, L. K., Fincham, F., & Davila, J. (2005). Attitudinal ambivalence, rumination, and forgiveness of partner transgressions in marriage. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(3), 334–342. PubMedCrossRef Kachadourian, L. K., Fincham, F., & Davila, J. (2005). Attitudinal ambivalence, rumination, and forgiveness of partner transgressions in marriage. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(3), 334–342. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kelly, A. C., & Tasca, G. A. (2016). Within-persons predictors of change during eating disorders treatment: An examination of self-compassion, self-criticism, shame, and eating disorder symptoms. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 49(7), 716–722. PubMedCrossRef Kelly, A. C., & Tasca, G. A. (2016). Within-persons predictors of change during eating disorders treatment: An examination of self-compassion, self-criticism, shame, and eating disorder symptoms. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 49(7), 716–722. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kross, E., & Ayduk, O. (2008). Facilitating adaptive emotional analysis: Distinguishing distanced-analysis of depressive experiences from immersed-analysis and distraction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(7), 924–938. PubMedCrossRef Kross, E., & Ayduk, O. (2008). Facilitating adaptive emotional analysis: Distinguishing distanced-analysis of depressive experiences from immersed-analysis and distraction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(7), 924–938. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kross, E., & Ayduk, O. (2011). Making meaning out of negative experiences by self-distancing. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(3), 187–191. CrossRef Kross, E., & Ayduk, O. (2011). Making meaning out of negative experiences by self-distancing. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(3), 187–191. CrossRef
go back to reference Kross, E., Ayduk, O., & Mischel, W. (2005). When asking “why” does not hurt: Distinguishing rumination from reflective processing of negative emotions. Psychological Science, 16(9), 709–715. PubMedCrossRef Kross, E., Ayduk, O., & Mischel, W. (2005). When asking “why” does not hurt: Distinguishing rumination from reflective processing of negative emotions. Psychological Science, 16(9), 709–715. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lannin, D. G., Guyll, M., Vogel, D. L., & Madon, S. (2013). Reducing the stigma associated with seeking psychotherapy through self-affirmation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(4), 508–519. PubMedCrossRef Lannin, D. G., Guyll, M., Vogel, D. L., & Madon, S. (2013). Reducing the stigma associated with seeking psychotherapy through self-affirmation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(4), 508–519. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Larner, B., & Blow, A. (2011). A model of meaning-making coping and growth in combat veterns. Review of General Psychology, 15(3), 187–197. CrossRef Larner, B., & Blow, A. (2011). A model of meaning-making coping and growth in combat veterns. Review of General Psychology, 15(3), 187–197. CrossRef
go back to reference Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
go back to reference Lepore, S. J. (2001). A social-cognitive processing model of emotional adjustment to cancer. In A. Baum & B. L. Andersen (Eds.), Psychosocial interventions for cancer (pp. 99–116). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef Lepore, S. J. (2001). A social-cognitive processing model of emotional adjustment to cancer. In A. Baum & B. L. Andersen (Eds.), Psychosocial interventions for cancer (pp. 99–116). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
go back to reference Liao, K. Y. H., Kashubeck-West, S., Weng, C. Y., & Deitz, C. (2015). Testing a mediation framework for the link between perceived discrimination and psychological distress among sexual minority individuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62(2), 226–241. PubMedCrossRef Liao, K. Y. H., Kashubeck-West, S., Weng, C. Y., & Deitz, C. (2015). Testing a mediation framework for the link between perceived discrimination and psychological distress among sexual minority individuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62(2), 226–241. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lillis, J., Hayes, S. C., Bunting, K., & Masuda, A. (2009). Teaching acceptance and mindfulness to improve the lives of the obese: A preliminary test of a theoretical model. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37(1), 58–69. PubMedCrossRef Lillis, J., Hayes, S. C., Bunting, K., & Masuda, A. (2009). Teaching acceptance and mindfulness to improve the lives of the obese: A preliminary test of a theoretical model. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37(1), 58–69. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lindsay, E. K., & Creswell, J. D. (2014). Helping the self help others: Self-affirmation increases self-compassion and pro-social behaviors. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 421. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Lindsay, E. K., & Creswell, J. D. (2014). Helping the self help others: Self-affirmation increases self-compassion and pro-social behaviors. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 421. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Longe, O., Maratos, F. A., Gilbert, P., Evans, G., Volker, F., Rockliff, H., & Rippon, G. (2010). Having a word with yourself: Neural correlates of self-criticism and self-reassurance. NeuroImage, 49(2), 1849–1856. PubMedCrossRef Longe, O., Maratos, F. A., Gilbert, P., Evans, G., Volker, F., Rockliff, H., & Rippon, G. (2010). Having a word with yourself: Neural correlates of self-criticism and self-reassurance. NeuroImage, 49(2), 1849–1856. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Luszczynska, A., Sarkar, Y., & Knoll, N. (2007). Received social support, self-efficacy, and finding benefits in disease as predictors of physical functioning and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Patient Education and Counseling, 66(1), 37–42. PubMedCrossRef Luszczynska, A., Sarkar, Y., & Knoll, N. (2007). Received social support, self-efficacy, and finding benefits in disease as predictors of physical functioning and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Patient Education and Counseling, 66(1), 37–42. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lyubomirsky, S., Tucker, K. L., Caldwell, N. D., & Berg, K. (1999). Why ruminators are poor problem solvers: Clues from the phenomenology of dysphoric rumination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1041–1060. PubMedCrossRef Lyubomirsky, S., Tucker, K. L., Caldwell, N. D., & Berg, K. (1999). Why ruminators are poor problem solvers: Clues from the phenomenology of dysphoric rumination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1041–1060. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Major, B., Kaiser, C. R., & McCoy, S. K. (2003b). It's not my fault: When and why attributions to prejudice protect self-esteem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(6), 772–781. PubMedCrossRef Major, B., Kaiser, C. R., & McCoy, S. K. (2003b). It's not my fault: When and why attributions to prejudice protect self-esteem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(6), 772–781. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mays, V. M., Cochran, S. D., & Barnes, N. W. (2007). Race, race-based discrimination, and health outcomes among African Americans. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 201–225. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Mays, V. M., Cochran, S. D., & Barnes, N. W. (2007). Race, race-based discrimination, and health outcomes among African Americans. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 201–225. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference McCay, E. A., & Seeman, M. V. (1998). A scale to measure the impact of a schizophrenic illness on an individual's self-concept. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 12(1), 41–49. PubMedCrossRef McCay, E. A., & Seeman, M. V. (1998). A scale to measure the impact of a schizophrenic illness on an individual's self-concept. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 12(1), 41–49. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference McCullough, M. E., Worthington Jr., E. L., & Rachal, K. C. (1997). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(2), 321–336. PubMedCrossRef McCullough, M. E., Worthington Jr., E. L., & Rachal, K. C. (1997). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(2), 321–336. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 674–697. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 674–697. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Muris, P., & Petrocchi, N. (2017). Protection or vulnerability? A meta‐analysis of the relations between the positive and negative components of self‐compassion and psychopathology. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 24(2), 373–383. CrossRef Muris, P., & Petrocchi, N. (2017). Protection or vulnerability? A meta‐analysis of the relations between the positive and negative components of self‐compassion and psychopathology. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 24(2), 373–383. CrossRef
go back to reference Neff, K. D., & Pommier, E. (2013). The relationship between self-compassion and other-focused concern among college undergraduates, community adults, and practicing meditators. Self and Identity, 12(2), 160–176. CrossRef Neff, K. D., & Pommier, E. (2013). The relationship between self-compassion and other-focused concern among college undergraduates, community adults, and practicing meditators. Self and Identity, 12(2), 160–176. CrossRef
go back to reference Neff, K. D., Rude, S. S., & Kirkpatrick, K. L. (2007). An examination of self-compassion in relation to positive psychological functioning and personality traits. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(4), 908–916. CrossRef Neff, K. D., Rude, S. S., & Kirkpatrick, K. L. (2007). An examination of self-compassion in relation to positive psychological functioning and personality traits. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(4), 908–916. CrossRef
go back to reference Neff, K., & Tirch, D. (2013). Self-compassion and ACT. In T. B. Kashdan & J. Ciarrochi (Eds.), Mindfulness, acceptance, and positive psychology: The seven foundations of well-being (pp. 78–106). Neff, K., & Tirch, D. (2013). Self-compassion and ACT. In T. B. Kashdan & J. Ciarrochi (Eds.), Mindfulness, acceptance, and positive psychology: The seven foundations of well-being (pp. 78–106).
go back to reference Newcomb, M. E., & Mustanski, B. (2010). Internalized homophobia and internalizing mental health problems: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(8), 1019–1029. PubMedCrossRef Newcomb, M. E., & Mustanski, B. (2010). Internalized homophobia and internalizing mental health problems: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(8), 1019–1029. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 569–582. PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 569–582. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(5), 400–424. PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(5), 400–424. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pachankis, J. E., Goldfried, M. R., & Ramrattan, M. E. (2008). Extension of the rejection sensitivity construct to the interpersonal functioning of gay men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(2), 306–317. PubMedCrossRef Pachankis, J. E., Goldfried, M. R., & Ramrattan, M. E. (2008). Extension of the rejection sensitivity construct to the interpersonal functioning of gay men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(2), 306–317. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pachankis, J. E., Rendina, H. J., Restar, A., Ventuneac, A., Grov, C., & Parsons, J. T. (2015). A minority stress—Emotion regulation model of sexual compulsivity among highly sexually active gay and bisexual men. Health Psychology, 34(8), 829–840. PubMedCrossRef Pachankis, J. E., Rendina, H. J., Restar, A., Ventuneac, A., Grov, C., & Parsons, J. T. (2015). A minority stress—Emotion regulation model of sexual compulsivity among highly sexually active gay and bisexual men. Health Psychology, 34(8), 829–840. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Papadopoulos, S., & Brennan, L. (2015). Correlates of weight stigma in adults with overweight and obesity: A systematic literature review. Obesity, 23(9), 1743–1760. PubMedCrossRef Papadopoulos, S., & Brennan, L. (2015). Correlates of weight stigma in adults with overweight and obesity: A systematic literature review. Obesity, 23(9), 1743–1760. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Park, C. L. (1998). Implications of posttraumatic growth for individuals. In R. G. Tedeschi, C. L. Park, & L. G. Calhoun (Eds.), Posttraumatic growth: Positive change in the aftermath of crisis (pp. 153–177). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.. Park, C. L. (1998). Implications of posttraumatic growth for individuals. In R. G. Tedeschi, C. L. Park, & L. G. Calhoun (Eds.), Posttraumatic growth: Positive change in the aftermath of crisis (pp. 153–177). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc..
go back to reference Park, C. L. (2010). Making sense of the meaning literature: An integrative review of meaning making and its effects on adjustment to stressful life events. Psychological Bulletin, 136(2), 257–301. PubMedCrossRef Park, C. L. (2010). Making sense of the meaning literature: An integrative review of meaning making and its effects on adjustment to stressful life events. Psychological Bulletin, 136(2), 257–301. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pasupathi, M. (2001). The social construction of the personal past and its implications for adult development. Psychological Bulletin, 127(5), 651–672. PubMedCrossRef Pasupathi, M. (2001). The social construction of the personal past and its implications for adult development. Psychological Bulletin, 127(5), 651–672. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Petrocchi, N., Ottaviani, C., & Couyoumdjian, A. (2014). Dimensionality of self-compassion: Translation and construct validation of the self-compassion scale in an Italian sample. Journal of Mental Health, 23(2), 72–77. PubMedCrossRef Petrocchi, N., Ottaviani, C., & Couyoumdjian, A. (2014). Dimensionality of self-compassion: Translation and construct validation of the self-compassion scale in an Italian sample. Journal of Mental Health, 23(2), 72–77. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Phelan, S. M., Burgess, D. J., Puhl, R., Dyrbye, L. N., Dovidio, J. F., Yeazel, M., et al. (2015). The adverse effect of weight stigma on the well-being of medical students with overweight or obesity: Findings from a national survey. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 30(9), 1251–1258. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Phelan, S. M., Burgess, D. J., Puhl, R., Dyrbye, L. N., Dovidio, J. F., Yeazel, M., et al. (2015). The adverse effect of weight stigma on the well-being of medical students with overweight or obesity: Findings from a national survey. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 30(9), 1251–1258. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Phillips, W. J., & Ferguson, S. J. (2012). Self-compassion: A resource for positive aging. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 68(4), 529–539. CrossRef Phillips, W. J., & Ferguson, S. J. (2012). Self-compassion: A resource for positive aging. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 68(4), 529–539. CrossRef
go back to reference Quinn, D. M., & Chaudoir, S. R. (2009). Living with a concealable stigmatized identity: The impact of anticipated stigma, centrality, salience, and cultural stigma on psychological distress and health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(4), 634–651. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Quinn, D. M., & Chaudoir, S. R. (2009). Living with a concealable stigmatized identity: The impact of anticipated stigma, centrality, salience, and cultural stigma on psychological distress and health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(4), 634–651. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Quinn, D. M., & Crocker, J. (1999). When ideology hurts: Effects of belief in the protestant ethic and feeling overweight on the psychological well-being of women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(2), 402–414. PubMedCrossRef Quinn, D. M., & Crocker, J. (1999). When ideology hurts: Effects of belief in the protestant ethic and feeling overweight on the psychological well-being of women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(2), 402–414. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Quinn, D. M., Williams, M. K., & Weisz, B. M. (2015). From discrimination to internalized mental illness stigma: The mediating roles of anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 38(2), 103–108. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Quinn, D. M., Williams, M. K., & Weisz, B. M. (2015). From discrimination to internalized mental illness stigma: The mediating roles of anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 38(2), 103–108. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Reilly, E. D., Rochlen, A. B., & Awad, G. H. (2013). Men’s self-compassion and self-esteem: The moderating roles of shame and masculine norm adherence. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 15(1), 22–28. CrossRef Reilly, E. D., Rochlen, A. B., & Awad, G. H. (2013). Men’s self-compassion and self-esteem: The moderating roles of shame and masculine norm adherence. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 15(1), 22–28. CrossRef
go back to reference Riek, B. M., & Mania, E. W. (2012). The antecedents and consequences of interpersonal forgiveness: A meta-analytic review. Personal Relationships, 19(2), 304–325. CrossRef Riek, B. M., & Mania, E. W. (2012). The antecedents and consequences of interpersonal forgiveness: A meta-analytic review. Personal Relationships, 19(2), 304–325. CrossRef
go back to reference Ritsher, J. B., & Phelan, J. C. (2004). Internalized stigma predicts erosion of morale among psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatry Research, 129(3), 257–265. PubMedCrossRef Ritsher, J. B., & Phelan, J. C. (2004). Internalized stigma predicts erosion of morale among psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatry Research, 129(3), 257–265. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Roe, D., Hasson-Ohayon, I., Derhi, O., Yanos, P. T., & Lysaker, P. H. (2010). Talking about life and finding solutions to different hardships: A qualitative study on the impact of narrative enhancement and cognitive therapy on persons with serious mental illness. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198(11), 807–812. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Roe, D., Hasson-Ohayon, I., Derhi, O., Yanos, P. T., & Lysaker, P. H. (2010). Talking about life and finding solutions to different hardships: A qualitative study on the impact of narrative enhancement and cognitive therapy on persons with serious mental illness. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198(11), 807–812. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Rüsch, N., Corrigan, P. W., Heekeren, K., Theodoridou, A., Dvorsky, D., Metzler, S., & Rössler, W. (2014a). Well-being among persons at risk of psychosis: The role of self-labeling, shame, and stigma stress. Psychiatric Services, 65(4), 483–489. PubMedCrossRef Rüsch, N., Corrigan, P. W., Heekeren, K., Theodoridou, A., Dvorsky, D., Metzler, S., & Rössler, W. (2014a). Well-being among persons at risk of psychosis: The role of self-labeling, shame, and stigma stress. Psychiatric Services, 65(4), 483–489. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rüsch, N., Corrigan, P. W., Powell, K., Rajah, A., Olschewski, M., Wilkniss, S., & Batia, K. (2009b). A stress-coping model of mental illness stigma: II. Emotional stress responses, coping behavior and outcome. Schizophrenia Research, 110(1), 65–71. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Rüsch, N., Corrigan, P. W., Powell, K., Rajah, A., Olschewski, M., Wilkniss, S., & Batia, K. (2009b). A stress-coping model of mental illness stigma: II. Emotional stress responses, coping behavior and outcome. Schizophrenia Research, 110(1), 65–71. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Rüsch, N., Corrigan, P. W., Wassel, A., Michaels, P., Olschewski, M., Wilkniss, S., & Batia, K. (2009a). A stress-coping model of mental illness stigma: I. Predictors of cognitive stress appraisal. Schizophrenia Research, 110(1), 59–64. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Rüsch, N., Corrigan, P. W., Wassel, A., Michaels, P., Olschewski, M., Wilkniss, S., & Batia, K. (2009a). A stress-coping model of mental illness stigma: I. Predictors of cognitive stress appraisal. Schizophrenia Research, 110(1), 59–64. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Rüsch, N., Müller, M., Lay, B., Corrigan, P. W., Zahn, R., Schönenberger, T., . . . Rössler, W. (2014b). Emotional reactions to involuntary psychiatric hospitalization and stigma-related stress among people with mental illness. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience , 264(1), 35–43. PubMedCrossRef Rüsch, N., Müller, M., Lay, B., Corrigan, P. W., Zahn, R., Schönenberger, T., . . . Rössler, W. (2014b). Emotional reactions to involuntary psychiatric hospitalization and stigma-related stress among people with mental illness. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience , 264(1), 35–43. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Russinova, Z., Rogers, E. S., Gagne, C., Bloch, P., Drake, K. M., & Mueser, K. T. (2014). A randomized controlled trial of a peer-run antistigma photovoice intervention. Psychiatric Services, 65(2), 242–246. PubMedCrossRef Russinova, Z., Rogers, E. S., Gagne, C., Bloch, P., Drake, K. M., & Mueser, K. T. (2014). A randomized controlled trial of a peer-run antistigma photovoice intervention. Psychiatric Services, 65(2), 242–246. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2008). From ego depletion to vitality: Theory and findings concerning the facilitation of energy available to the self. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(2), 702–717. CrossRef Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2008). From ego depletion to vitality: Theory and findings concerning the facilitation of energy available to the self. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(2), 702–717. CrossRef
go back to reference Saeinia, M., Barjoee, L. K., & Bozorgi, Z. D. (2016). The effect of self-compassion training on the emotion regulation of married women who referred to counseling center. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS) ISSN 2356–5926, 2(1), 726–735. Saeinia, M., Barjoee, L. K., & Bozorgi, Z. D. (2016). The effect of self-compassion training on the emotion regulation of married women who referred to counseling center. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS) ISSN 2356–5926, 2(1), 726–735.
go back to reference Schimel, J., Arndt, J., Pyszczynski, T., & Greenberg, J. (2001). Being accepted for who we are: evidence that social validation of the intrinsic self reduces general defensiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(1), 35–52. PubMedCrossRef Schimel, J., Arndt, J., Pyszczynski, T., & Greenberg, J. (2001). Being accepted for who we are: evidence that social validation of the intrinsic self reduces general defensiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(1), 35–52. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Schimel, J., Arndt, J., Banko, K. M., & Cook, A. (2004). Not all self-affirmations were created equal: The cognitive and social benefits of affirming the intrinsic (vs. extrinsic) self. Social Cognition, 22(1), 75–99. CrossRef Schimel, J., Arndt, J., Banko, K. M., & Cook, A. (2004). Not all self-affirmations were created equal: The cognitive and social benefits of affirming the intrinsic (vs. extrinsic) self. Social Cognition, 22(1), 75–99. CrossRef
go back to reference Schmader, T., Croft, A., Whitehead, J., & Stone, J. (2013). A peek inside the targets' toolbox: How stigmatized targets deflect discrimination by invoking a common identity. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 35(1), 141–149. CrossRef Schmader, T., Croft, A., Whitehead, J., & Stone, J. (2013). A peek inside the targets' toolbox: How stigmatized targets deflect discrimination by invoking a common identity. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 35(1), 141–149. CrossRef
go back to reference Schmidt, S. D., Blank, T. O., Bellizzi, K. M., & Park, C. L. (2012). The relationship of coping strategies, social support, and attachment style with posttraumatic growth in cancer survivors. Journal of Health Psychology, 17(7), 1033–1040. PubMedCrossRef Schmidt, S. D., Blank, T. O., Bellizzi, K. M., & Park, C. L. (2012). The relationship of coping strategies, social support, and attachment style with posttraumatic growth in cancer survivors. Journal of Health Psychology, 17(7), 1033–1040. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Schoendorff, B., Webster, M., & Polk, K. (2014). Under the hood: Basic processes underlying the matrix. In K. Polk, B. Schoendorff, & K. G. Wilson (Eds.), The ACT matrix: A new approach to building psychological flexibility across settings and populations (pp. 15–40). Oakland: New Harbinger. Schoendorff, B., Webster, M., & Polk, K. (2014). Under the hood: Basic processes underlying the matrix. In K. Polk, B. Schoendorff, & K. G. Wilson (Eds.), The ACT matrix: A new approach to building psychological flexibility across settings and populations (pp. 15–40). Oakland: New Harbinger.
go back to reference Sharp, M. L., Fear, N. T., Rona, R. J., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., Jones, N., & Goodwin, L. (2015). Stigma as a barrier to seeking health care among military personnel with mental health problems. Epidemiologic Reviews, 37(1), 144–162. PubMedCrossRef Sharp, M. L., Fear, N. T., Rona, R. J., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., Jones, N., & Goodwin, L. (2015). Stigma as a barrier to seeking health care among military personnel with mental health problems. Epidemiologic Reviews, 37(1), 144–162. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sherbourne, C. D., & Stewart, A. L. (1991). The MOS social support survey. Social Science & Medicine, 32(6), 705–714. CrossRef Sherbourne, C. D., & Stewart, A. L. (1991). The MOS social support survey. Social Science & Medicine, 32(6), 705–714. CrossRef
go back to reference Sherman, D. K., & Cohen, G. L. (2006). The psychology of self-defense: Self-affirmation theory. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 183–242. Sherman, D. K., & Cohen, G. L. (2006). The psychology of self-defense: Self-affirmation theory. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 183–242.
go back to reference Showers, C. J., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2003). Organization of self-knowledge: Features, functions, and flexibility. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 47–67). New York, NY: US: Guilford Press. Showers, C. J., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2003). Organization of self-knowledge: Features, functions, and flexibility. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 47–67). New York, NY: US: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Skinta, M. D., Brandrett, B. D., Schenk, W. C., Wells, G., & Dilley, J. W. (2014). Shame, self-acceptance and disclosure in the lives of gay men living with HIV: An interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. Psychology & Health, 29(5), 583–597. CrossRef Skinta, M. D., Brandrett, B. D., Schenk, W. C., Wells, G., & Dilley, J. W. (2014). Shame, self-acceptance and disclosure in the lives of gay men living with HIV: An interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. Psychology & Health, 29(5), 583–597. CrossRef
go back to reference Skinta, M. D., Lezama, M., Wells, G., & Dilley, J. W. (2015). Acceptance and compassion-based group therapy to reduce HIV stigma. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 22(4), 481–490. CrossRef Skinta, M. D., Lezama, M., Wells, G., & Dilley, J. W. (2015). Acceptance and compassion-based group therapy to reduce HIV stigma. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 22(4), 481–490. CrossRef
go back to reference Smart, L., & Wegner, D. M. (1999). Covering up what can't be seen: Concealable stigma and mental control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(3), 474–486. PubMedCrossRef Smart, L., & Wegner, D. M. (1999). Covering up what can't be seen: Concealable stigma and mental control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(3), 474–486. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Smeets, E., Neff, K., Alberts, H., & Peters, M. (2014). Meeting suffering with kindness: Effects of a brief self-compassion intervention for female college students. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(9), 794–807. PubMedCrossRef Smeets, E., Neff, K., Alberts, H., & Peters, M. (2014). Meeting suffering with kindness: Effects of a brief self-compassion intervention for female college students. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(9), 794–807. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Steele, C. M. (1988). The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 261–302. Steele, C. M. (1988). The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 261–302.
go back to reference Strelan, P., & Zdaniuk, A. (2015). Threatened state self-esteem reduces forgiveness. Self and Identity, 14(1), 16–32. CrossRef Strelan, P., & Zdaniuk, A. (2015). Threatened state self-esteem reduces forgiveness. Self and Identity, 14(1), 16–32. CrossRef
go back to reference Strosahl, K. D., & Robinson, P. J. (2009). Teaching ACT: To whom, why and how. In J. T. Blackledge, J. Ciarrochi, & F. P. Deane (Eds.), Acceptance and commitment therapy: Contemporary theory, research and practice (pp. 59–85). Bowen Hills, Qld: Australian Academic Press. Strosahl, K. D., & Robinson, P. J. (2009). Teaching ACT: To whom, why and how. In J. T. Blackledge, J. Ciarrochi, & F. P. Deane (Eds.), Acceptance and commitment therapy: Contemporary theory, research and practice (pp. 59–85). Bowen Hills, Qld: Australian Academic Press.
go back to reference Takada, S., Weiser, S. D., Kumbakumba, E., Muzoora, C., Martin, J. N., Hunt, P. W., More Authors, & Tsai, A. C. (2014). The dynamic relationship between social support and HIV-related stigma in rural Uganda. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 48(1), 26–37. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Takada, S., Weiser, S. D., Kumbakumba, E., Muzoora, C., Martin, J. N., Hunt, P. W., More Authors, & Tsai, A. C. (2014). The dynamic relationship between social support and HIV-related stigma in rural Uganda. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 48(1), 26–37. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Tang, D., & Schmeichel, B. J. (2015). Self-affirmation facilitates cardiovascular recovery following interpersonal evaluation. Biological Psychology, 104, 108–115. PubMedCrossRef Tang, D., & Schmeichel, B. J. (2015). Self-affirmation facilitates cardiovascular recovery following interpersonal evaluation. Biological Psychology, 104, 108–115. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The posttraumatic growth inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(3), 455–471. PubMedCrossRef Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The posttraumatic growth inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(3), 455–471. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 1–18. CrossRef Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 1–18. CrossRef
go back to reference Terry, M. L., & Leary, M. R. (2011). Self-compassion, self-regulation, and health. Self and Identity, 10(3), 352–362. CrossRef Terry, M. L., & Leary, M. R. (2011). Self-compassion, self-regulation, and health. Self and Identity, 10(3), 352–362. CrossRef
go back to reference Tirch, D., Schoendorff, B., & Silberstein, L. R. (2014). The ACT practitioner’s guide to the science of compassion: Tools for fostering psychological flexibility. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications. Tirch, D., Schoendorff, B., & Silberstein, L. R. (2014). The ACT practitioner’s guide to the science of compassion: Tools for fostering psychological flexibility. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications.
go back to reference Vartanian, L. R., & Porter, A. M. (2016). Weight stigma and eating behavior: A review of the literature. Appetite, 102, 3–14. PubMedCrossRef Vartanian, L. R., & Porter, A. M. (2016). Weight stigma and eating behavior: A review of the literature. Appetite, 102, 3–14. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Vowles, K. E., Witkiewitz, K., Sowden, G., & Ashworth, J. (2014). Acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain: Evidence of mediation and clinically significant change following an abbreviated interdisciplinary program of rehabilitation. The Journal of Pain, 15(1), 101–113. PubMedCrossRef Vowles, K. E., Witkiewitz, K., Sowden, G., & Ashworth, J. (2014). Acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain: Evidence of mediation and clinically significant change following an abbreviated interdisciplinary program of rehabilitation. The Journal of Pain, 15(1), 101–113. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Waugh, O. C., Byrne, D. G., & Nicholas, M. K. (2014). Internalized stigma in people living with chronic pain. The Journal of Pain, 15(5), 550–e551. PubMedCrossRef Waugh, O. C., Byrne, D. G., & Nicholas, M. K. (2014). Internalized stigma in people living with chronic pain. The Journal of Pain, 15(5), 550–e551. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Williams, K. D., Cheung, C. K. T., & Choi, W. (2000). Cyberostracism: Effects of being ignored over the Internet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(5), 748–762. PubMedCrossRef Williams, K. D., Cheung, C. K. T., & Choi, W. (2000). Cyberostracism: Effects of being ignored over the Internet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(5), 748–762. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Williams, M. J., Dalgleish, T., Karl, A., & Kuyken, W. (2014). Examining the factor structures of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire and the self-compassion scale. Psychological Assessment, 26(2), 407–418. PubMedCrossRef Williams, M. J., Dalgleish, T., Karl, A., & Kuyken, W. (2014). Examining the factor structures of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire and the self-compassion scale. Psychological Assessment, 26(2), 407–418. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Witvliet, C. V. O., Ludwig, T. E., & Vander Laan, K. L. (2001). Granting forgiveness or harboring grudges: Implications for emotion, physiology, and health. Psychological Science, 12(2), 117–123. CrossRef Witvliet, C. V. O., Ludwig, T. E., & Vander Laan, K. L. (2001). Granting forgiveness or harboring grudges: Implications for emotion, physiology, and health. Psychological Science, 12(2), 117–123. CrossRef
go back to reference Wohl, M. J., & Branscombe, N. R. (2005). Forgiveness and collective guilt assignment to historical perpetrator groups depend on level of social category inclusiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(2), 288–303. PubMedCrossRef Wohl, M. J., & Branscombe, N. R. (2005). Forgiveness and collective guilt assignment to historical perpetrator groups depend on level of social category inclusiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(2), 288–303. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wong, C. C. Y., & Mak, W. W. S. (2013). Differentiating the role of three self-compassion components in buffering cognitive-personality vulnerability to depression among Chinese in Hong Kong. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(1), 162–169. PubMedCrossRef Wong, C. C. Y., & Mak, W. W. S. (2013). Differentiating the role of three self-compassion components in buffering cognitive-personality vulnerability to depression among Chinese in Hong Kong. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(1), 162–169. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wong, C. C. Y., Mak, W. W. S., & Liao, K. Y. H. (2016). Self-compassion: A potential buffer against affiliate stigma experienced by parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Mindfulness, 7(6), 1385–1395. CrossRef Wong, C. C. Y., Mak, W. W. S., & Liao, K. Y. H. (2016). Self-compassion: A potential buffer against affiliate stigma experienced by parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Mindfulness, 7(6), 1385–1395. CrossRef
go back to reference Wong, C. C. Y., Petit, W., Zhang, R. R., & Mak, W. W. S. (in preparation). Self-love to conquer stigma: A mediation model to understand the relationship between self-compassion and help-seeking intention. Wong, C. C. Y., Petit, W., Zhang, R. R., & Mak, W. W. S. (in preparation). Self-love to conquer stigma: A mediation model to understand the relationship between self-compassion and help-seeking intention.
go back to reference Worthington, E. L., & Scherer, M. (2004). Forgiveness is an emotion-focused coping strategy that can reduce health risks and promote health resilience: Theory, review, and hypotheses. Psychology & Health, 19(3), 385–405. CrossRef Worthington, E. L., & Scherer, M. (2004). Forgiveness is an emotion-focused coping strategy that can reduce health risks and promote health resilience: Theory, review, and hypotheses. Psychology & Health, 19(3), 385–405. CrossRef
go back to reference Yadavaia, J. E., & Hayes, S. C. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy for self-stigma around sexual orientation: A multiple baseline evaluation. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 19(4), 545–559. CrossRef Yadavaia, J. E., & Hayes, S. C. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy for self-stigma around sexual orientation: A multiple baseline evaluation. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 19(4), 545–559. CrossRef
go back to reference Yanos, P. T., Lucksted, A., Drapalski, A. L., Roe, D., & Lysaker, P. (2015). Interventions targeting mental health self-stigma: A review and comparison. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 38(2), 171–178. PubMedCrossRef Yanos, P. T., Lucksted, A., Drapalski, A. L., Roe, D., & Lysaker, P. (2015). Interventions targeting mental health self-stigma: A review and comparison. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 38(2), 171–178. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yanos, P. T., Roe, D., Markus, K., & Lysaker, P. H. (2008). Pathways between internalized stigma and outcomes related to recovery in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Psychiatric Services, 59(12), 1437–1442. PubMedCrossRef Yanos, P. T., Roe, D., Markus, K., & Lysaker, P. H. (2008). Pathways between internalized stigma and outcomes related to recovery in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Psychiatric Services, 59(12), 1437–1442. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yarnell, L. M., & Neff, K. D. (2013). Self-compassion, interpersonal conflict resolutions, and well-being. Self and Identity, 12(2), 146–159. CrossRef Yarnell, L. M., & Neff, K. D. (2013). Self-compassion, interpersonal conflict resolutions, and well-being. Self and Identity, 12(2), 146–159. CrossRef
go back to reference Ying, Y. W. (2009). Contribution of self-compassion to competence and mental health in social work students. Journal of Social Work Education, 45(2), 309–323. CrossRef Ying, Y. W. (2009). Contribution of self-compassion to competence and mental health in social work students. Journal of Social Work Education, 45(2), 309–323. CrossRef
go back to reference Ysseldyk, R., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2007). Rumination: Bridging a gap between forgivingness, vengefulness, and psychological health. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(8), 1573–1584. CrossRef Ysseldyk, R., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2007). Rumination: Bridging a gap between forgivingness, vengefulness, and psychological health. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(8), 1573–1584. CrossRef
go back to reference Zessin, U., Dickhäuser, O., & Garbade, S. (2015). The relationship between self-compassion and well-being: A meta-analysis. Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being, 7(3), 340–364. PubMedCrossRef Zessin, U., Dickhäuser, O., & Garbade, S. (2015). The relationship between self-compassion and well-being: A meta-analysis. Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being, 7(3), 340–364. PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Hacking Stigma by Loving Yourself: a Mediated-Moderation Model of Self-Compassion and Stigma
Auteurs
Celia Ching Yee Wong
C. Raymond Knee
Clayton Neighbors
Michael J. Zvolensky
Publicatiedatum
04-07-2018
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 3/2019
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-0984-2