The main aim of the present study was to examine the mediation effects of the cognitive emotional regulation strategies, emotional distancing, and resignation, on the association between mindfulness, emotional exhaustion and study satisfaction. Data were collected from a sample of student teachers from different universities in Germany (n = 236) and a sample of beginning teachers who were assessed during the German induction phase (the Referendariat, n = 112). Path analysis models were used to examine the associations between mindfulness, cognitive regulation strategies, emotional exhaustion, and study satisfaction. The findings of the current study showed that student teachers reported a higher level of mindfulness, emotional distancing, and study satisfaction than beginning teachers. Despite these differences between the both samples, the results demonstrated that the associations between mindfulness, cognitive regulation strategies, emotional exhaustion, and study satisfaction were similar for student teachers and beginning teachers. Emotional distancing, as adaptive strategy, partially mediated the relationship between mindfulness and emotional exhaustion, whereas resignation, as a maladaptive strategy, was not a significant mediator. Findings suggest that stress prevention programs that combine mindfulness exercises and cognitive restructuring techniques (e.g., adaptive strategies) may be promising intervention for student teachers’ as well as beginning teachers’ mental health and well-being.