08112019  Original Paper  Uitgave 2/2020 Open Access
Understanding Number Line Estimation in Williams Syndrome and Down Syndrome
 Tijdschrift:
 Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders > Uitgave 2/2020
Publisher's Note
Number Line Estimation
Factors Related to Number Line Estimation Performance
Number Line Estimation in WS and DS
The Current Study
Method
Participants
Materials and Procedure
Number Line Estimation
Number Familiarity
Procedure
Preliminary Data Computation
Results
TD

WS

DS



N

M (SD)

N

M (SD)

N

M (SD)


Age

25

74.0 (18.8)

28

244.7 (160.9)

25

258.4 (128.6)

Nonverbal IQ

25

17.3 (5.8)

28

15.6 (4.5)

25

15.8 (6.4)

Mathematical achievement

25

11.0 (7.2)

28

8.6 (3.7)

25

8.2 (3.0)

Visuospatial skills

21

103.1 (26.2)

28

65.7 (31.0)

22

84.2 (22.5)

Number familiarity

25

76.2 (23.5)

28

86.1 (17.3)

25

67.6 (21.9)

PAE 0–10

25

13.8 (9.4)

28

16.3 (8.8)

25

18.7 (12.6)

PAE 0–100

24

22.8 (13.4)

26

22.1 (9.0)

23

25.6 (12.1)

\( {\text{R}}^{ 2}_{\text{Lin}} \) 0–10

25

.8 (.3)

28

.7 (.3)

25

.7 (.3)

\( {\text{R}}^{ 2}_{\text{Lin}} \) 0–100

24

.5 (.4)

26

.5 (.3)

23

.3 (.3)

Differences in Number Line Estimation
Relationship Between Number Line Estimation and Mathematical Achievement
TD

WS

DS



PAE 0–10

− .644**

− .404*

− .531**

PAE 0–100

− .772**

− .577**

− .658**

\( {\text{R}}^{ 2}_{\text{Lin}} \) 0–10

.497*

.492**

.488*

\( {\text{R}}^{ 2}_{\text{Lin}} \) 0–100

.785**

.548**

.423*

Relationship Between Visuospatial Skills and Number Familiarity with Number Line Estimation Performance
TD

WS

DS



r

r

r


PAE 0–10

− .560*

− .189

− .556*

PAE 0–100

− .708**

− .299

− .478*

TD

WS

DS



r

r

r


PAE 0–10

− .508*

− .593*

− .367

PAE 0–100

− .807**

− .509*

− .436*

Predictors for Number Line Estimation Performance in WS, DS and TD Group
TD

WS

DS



r

r

r


Adjusted R
^{2}

.379*

.299*

.237*

Predictors


Visuospatial skills

− .273

.006

− .534*

Number familiarity

− .461

− .594*

− .038

TD

WS

DS



r

r

r


Adjusted R
^{2}

.725**

.218*

.222*

Predictors


Visuospatial skills

− .302

− .144

− .366

Number familiarity

− .647*

− .461*

− .295
