Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Attentional biases to threat are thought to play a central role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Various measures have been developed to index these biases; unfortunately, the psychometric properties of response time measures of attentional bias have not been thoroughly evaluated, and the reliability of those that have been evaluated is poor. The current study assessed the reliability and convergent validity of dot probe and emotional cueing bias scores in high-anxious and low-anxious participants in the context of a state anxiety manipulation to increase the likelihood of producing large, potentially reliable attentional biases. One hundred sixty participants completed an anxious or calm mood induction followed by dot probe and emotional cueing tasks. Reliability estimates for bias scores in the full sample were low, ranging from 0 to .44; convergent validity estimates were also poor. The anxiety induction did not substantially improve the reliability or validity of the measures. These results underscore the importance of developing new, more reliable attentional bias measures for future research.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Antony, M. M., Beiling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10, 176–181. CrossRef
Borgmann, K. W., Risko, E. F., Stolz, J. A., & Besner, D. (2007). Simon says: Reliability and the role of working memory and attentional control in the Simon task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(2), 313–319. CrossRef
Bradley, B. P., Mogg, K., & Millar, N. H. (2000). Covert and overt orienting of attention to emotional faces in anxiety. Cognition and Emotion, 14(6), 789–808. CrossRef
Bradley, B. P., Mogg, K., Millar, N., Bonham-Carter, C., Fergusson, E., Jenkins, J., & Parr, M. (1997). Attentional biases for emotional faces. Cognition and Emotion, 11(1), 25–42. CrossRef
Brosschot, J., Deruiter, C., & Kindt, M. (1999). Processing bias in anxious subjects and repressors, measured by emotional Stroop interference and attentional allocation. Personality and Individual Differences, 26(5), 777–793. CrossRef
Brown, H. M., Eley, T. C., Broeren, S., MacLeod, C., Rinck, M., Hadwin, J. A., & Lester, K. J. (2014). Psychometric properties of reaction time based experimental paradigms measuring anxiety-related information-processing biases in children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28(1), 97–107. PubMedCrossRef
Cooper, R. M., Bailey, J. E., Diaper, A., Stirland, R., Renton, L. E., Benton, C. P., et al. (2011). Effects of 7.5% CO2 inhalation on allocation of spatial attention to facial cues of emotional expression. Cognition & Emotion, 25(4), 626–638. CrossRef
Cooper, R. M., Rowe, A. C., Penton-Voak, I. S., & Ludwig, C. (2009). No reliable effects of emotional facial expression, adult attachment orientation, or anxiety on the allocation of visual attention in the spatial cueing paradigm. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(4), 643–652. CrossRef
Dalgleish, T., Taghavi, R., Neshat-Doost, H., Moradi, A., Canterbury, R., & Yule, W. (2003). Patterns of processing bias for emotional information across clinical disorders: A comparison of attention, memory, and prospective cognition in children and adolescents with depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 10–21. PubMedCrossRef
Egloff, B., & Hock, M. (2003). Assessing attention allocation toward threat-related stimuli: A comparison of the emotional Stroop task and the attentional probe task. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(2), 475–483. CrossRef
Enock, P. M., Hofmann, S. G., & McNally, R. J. (2014). Attention bias modification training via smartphone to reduce social anxiety: A randomized, controlled multi-session experiment. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38(2), 200–216. CrossRef
Fischer, D. G., & Fick, C. (1993). Measuring social desirability: Short forms of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 417–424. CrossRef
Fox, E. (1993). Allocation of visual attention and anxiety. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 207–215. CrossRef
Fox, L. S., & Knight, B. G. (2005). The effects of anxiety on attentional processes in older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 9(6), 585–593. CrossRef
Fox, E., Russo, R., Bowles, R., & Dutton, K. (2001). Do threatening stimuli draw or hold visual attention in subclinical anxiety? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130(4), 681–700. CrossRef
Fox, E., Russo, R., & Dutton, K. (2002). Attentional bias for threat: Evidence for delayed disengagement from emotional faces. Cognition and Emotion, 16(3), 1–22.
Grös, D. F., Antony, M. M., Simms, L. J., & McCabe, R. E. (2007). Psychometric properties of the State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (STICSA): Comparison to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychological assessment, 19(4), 369–381.
Kappenman, E. S., Farrens, J. L., Luck, S. J., & Proudfit, G. H. (2014). Behavioral and ERP measures of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task: Poor reliability and lack of correlation with anxiety. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1368. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01368.
Kopriva, R. J., & Shaw, D. G. (1991). Power estimates: The effect of dependent variable reliability on the power of one-factor ANOVAs. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51, 585–595. CrossRef
Koster, E. H. W., Leyman, L., De Raedt, R., & Crombez, G. (2006b). Cueing of visual attention by emotional facial expressions: The influence of individual differences in anxiety and depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 41(2), 329–339. CrossRef
Legerstee, J. S., Tulen, J. H. M., Kallen, V. L., Dieleman, G. C., Treffers, P. D. A., Verhulst, F. C., & Utens, E. M. W. J. (2009). Threat-related selective attention predicts treatment success in childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(2), 196–205. PubMedCrossRef
MacLeod, J. W., Lawrence, M. A., McConnell, M. M., Eskes, G. A., Klein, R. M., & Shore, D. I. (2010). Appraising the ANT: Psychometric and theoretical considerations of the Attention Network Test. Neuropsychology, 24, 637–651.
MacLeod, C., & Mathews, A. (1988). Anxiety and the allocation of attention to threat. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A, 40(4), 653–670. CrossRef
Mathews, A., & MacLeod, C. (2002). Induced processing biases have causal effects on anxiety. Cognition and Emotion, 16, 331–354. CrossRef
Miller, J. (1991). Reaction time analysis with outlier exclusion: Bias varies with sample size. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43(4), 907–912.
Miller, J., & Ulrich, R. (2013). Mental chronometry and individual differences: Modeling reliabilities and correlations of reaction time means and effect sizes. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(5), 819–858. CrossRef
Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., Dixon, C., Fisher, S., Twelftree, H., & McWilliams, A. (2000). Trait anxiety, defensiveness and selective processing of threat: an investigation using two measures of attentional bias. Personality and Individual Differences, 28(6), 1063–1077. CrossRef
Mogoaşe, C., David, D., & Koster, E. H. (2014). Clinical efficacy of attentional bias modification procedures: An updated meta‐analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(12), 1133–1157.
Murphy, K., & Davidshofer, C. (2005). Psychological testing: Principles and applications (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Ree, M. J., French, D., MacLeod, C., & Locke, V. (2008). Distinguishing cognitive and somatic dimensions of state and trait anxiety: Development and validation of the State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (STICSA). Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36(03), 313–332. CrossRef
Russell, J. A., Weiss, A., & Mendelsohn, G. A. (1989). Affect Grid: A single-item scale of pleasure and arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(3), 493–502. CrossRef
Sattler, J. M. (2008). The assessment of children: Cognitive foundations (5th ed.). San Diego: Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher Inc.
Schmukle, S. C. (2005). Unreliability of the dot probe task. European Journal of Personality, 19(7), 595–605. CrossRef
Staugaard, S. (2009). Reliability of two versions of the dot probe task using photographic faces. Psychology Science Quarterly, 51(3), 339–350.
Stolz, J. A., Besner, D., & Carr, T. H. (2005). Implications of measures of reliability for theories of priming: Activity in semantic memory is inherently noisy and uncoordinated. Visual Cognition, 12, 284–336.
Strahan, R., & Gerbasi, K. C. (1972). Short, homogeneous versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28, 191–193. CrossRef
R Core Development Team (2005). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Van Bockstaele, B., Verschuere, B., Koster, E. H., Tibboel, H., De Houwer, J., & Crombez, G. (2011). Differential predictive power of self-report and implicit measures on behavioural and physiological fear responses to spiders. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 79(2), 166–174. PubMedCrossRef
Van Selst, M., & Jolicoeur, P. (1994). A solution to the effect of sample size on outlier elimination. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47(3), 631–650. CrossRef
Waechter, S., Nelson, A. L., Wright, C., Hyatt, A., & Oakman, J. (2014). Attentional bias to threat in social anxiety: Psychometric properties of dot probe and eye-tracking measures. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38, 313–333. CrossRef
Waters, A. M., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., & Pine, D. S. (2012). Attention bias for angry faces in children with social phobia. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 2, 475–489. CrossRef
Weierich, M. R., Treat, T. A., & Hollingworth, A. (2008). Theories and measurement of visual attentional processing in anxiety. Cognition and Emotion, 22(6), 985–1018. CrossRef
Yiend, J. (2010). The effects of emotion on attention: A review of attentional processing of emotional information. Cognition and Emotion, 24(1), 3–47. CrossRef
Yiend, J., & Mathews, A. (2001). Anxiety and attention to threatening pictures. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A, 54(3), 665–681.
Zvielli, A., Bernstein, A., & Koster, E. H. (in press). Temporal dynamics of attentional bias. Clinical Psychological Science.
- Trait Anxiety, State Anxiety, and Attentional Bias to Threat: Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Response Time Measures
Jennifer A. Stolz
- Springer US