Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
We examined the concurrent and prospective relations between response styles to positive affect and depression in a community sample. Participants (n = 345) completed self-report measures of current and past depressive episodes, depressive symptoms, anhedonia, and responses to positive affect (including dampening and positive rumination) at two time points, with a 5-month interval. Higher levels of dampening responses to positive affect were related to higher concurrent levels of depressive symptoms. The tendency to positively ruminate on positive affect was negatively related to concurrent anhedonic symptoms. When controlling for current depressive symptomatology, formerly depressed individuals had a higher tendency to dampen positive affect than never-depressed controls, and did not differ from a currently depressed group. Dampening responses did not predict depressive symptoms prospectively, but lower levels of (self-focused) positive rumination did predict higher levels of future anhedonic symptoms. Results indicate that not only currently but also formerly depressed individuals engage in dysfunctional (dampening) strategies in response to positive affect. It is possible that currently as well as formerly depressed individuals might benefit from interventions that are directed at the remediation of disturbed regulation of positive affect. However, our prospective results make clear that more research is needed to examine the precise conditions under which dampening would be a detrimental (and positive rumination a beneficial) response style in the course of depression.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
de Beurs, E., van Dyck, R., Marquenie, L. A., Lange, A., & Blonk, R. (2001). De DASS: Een vragenlijst voor het meten van depressie, angst en stress [The DASS: A questionnaire for the measurement of depression, anxiety and stress]. Gedragstherapie, 34, 35–53.
Edge, M. D., Miller, C. J., Muhtadie, L., Johnson, S. L., Carver, C. S., Marquinez, N., & Gotlib, I. H. (2013). People with bipolar I disorder report avoiding rewarding activities and dampening positive emotion. Journal of Affective Disorders, 146, 407–413. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.07.027 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1996). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Hechtman, L. A., Raila, H., Chiao, J., & Gruber, J. (2013). Positive emotion regulation and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic cultural neuroscience approach. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 4, 1–27. doi: 10.5127/jep.030412
Holmes, E. A., Lang, T. J., & Shah, D. M. (2009). Developing interpretation bias modification as a “cognitive vaccine” for depressed mood: Imagining positive events makes you feel better than thinking about them verbally. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 76–88. doi: 10.1037/a0012590 PubMedCrossRef
Karsten, J., Hartman, C. A., Smit, J. H., Zitman, F. G., Beekman, A. T. F., Cuijpers, P., et al. (2011). Psychiatric history and subthreshold symptoms as predictors of the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder within 2 years. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 198, 206–212. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.110.080572 PubMedCrossRef
Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation.
Nieuwenhuijsen, K., de Boer, A. G. E. M., Verbeek, J. H. A. M., Blonk, R. W. B., & van Dijk, F. J. H. (2003). The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): Detecting anxiety disorder and depression in employees absent from work because of mental health problems. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60, 77–82. doi: 10.1136/oem.60.suppl_1.i77 CrossRef
Van der Does, A. J. W., Barnhofer, T., & Williams, J. M. G. (2003). The Major Depression Questionnaire (MDQ). Retrieved from http://www.dousa.nl/publications.htm
Wardenaar, K. J., Veen, T. V., Giltay, E. J., Beurs, E. D., Penninx, B. W. J. H., & Zitman, F. G. (2010). Development and validation of a 30-item short adaptation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ). Psychiatry Research, 179, 101–106. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2009.03.005 PubMedCrossRef
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995a). Testing a tripartite model: II. Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult, and patient samples. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 15–25. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.104.1.15 PubMedCrossRef
Watson, D., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Clark, L. A., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995b). Testing a tripartite model: I. Evaluating the convergent and discriminant validity of anxiety and depression symptom scales. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 3–14. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.104.1.3 PubMedCrossRef
Wichers, M., Peeters, F., Geschwind, N., Jacobs, N., Simons, C. J. P., Derom, C., et al. (2010). Unveiling patterns of affective responses in daily life may improve outcome prediction in depression: A momentary assessment study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 124, 191–195. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.11.010 PubMedCrossRef
Williams, J. M. G., Van der Does, A. J. W., Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., & Segal, Z. S. (2008). Cognitive reactivity, suicidal ideation and future fluency: Preliminary investigation of a differential activation theory of hopelessness/suicidality. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 83–104. doi: 10.1007/s10608-006-9105-y CrossRef
- Response Styles to Positive Affect and Depression: Concurrent and Prospective Associations in a Community Sample
Emily A. Holmes
- Springer US