Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Both residential mobility and community disadvantage have been shown to be associated with negative outcomes for adolescents generally and juvenile offenders specifically. The current study examines the effects of moving among a large sample (n = 13,096) of previously adjudicated youth (31.6 % female, 41.2 % Black, 16.5 % Hispanic). Additionally, we examine whether moving upward to a more affluent neighborhood, moving downward to an area of greater disadvantage, or moving laterally to a similar neighborhood tempers the effects of residential mobility. We use a combination of analytical techniques, including propensity score matching to untangle the effects of mobility sans pre-existing conditions between movers and non-movers. Results show relocation increases recidivism, irrespective of the direction of the move with regard to socioeconomic context. Moving upward has the most detrimental impact for adjudicated male adolescents, while downward relocations evidenced the largest effect for female youth. Implications for policy and future research needs are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Abrams, L. S., & Snyder, S. M. (2010). Youth offender reentry: Models for intervention and directions for future inquiry. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 1787–1795. CrossRef
Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30, 47–87. CrossRef
Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38, 319–361. CrossRef
Ainsworth, J. W. (2002). Why does it take a village? The mediation of neighborhood effects on educational achievement. Social Forces, 81, 117–152. CrossRef
Apel, R. J., & Sweeten, G. (2010). Propensity score matching in criminology and criminal justice. In A. R. Piquero & D. Weisburd (Eds.), The handbook of quantitative criminology (pp. 543–562). New York, NY: Springer. CrossRef
Baglivio, M. T. (2009). The assessment of risk to recidivate among a juvenile offending population. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37, 596–607. CrossRef
Baglivio, M. T., & Jackowski, K. (2013). Examining the validity of a juvenile offending risk assessment instrument across gender and race/ethnicity. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 11, 26–43. CrossRef
Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Epps, N., & Nelson, R. (2015a). Predicting adverse childhood experiences: The importance of neighborhood context in youth trauma among delinquent youth. Crime & Delinquency. doi: 10.1177/0011128715570628.
Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Jackowski, K., & Greenwald, M. A. (2015b). A multilevel examination of risk/need change scores, community context, and successful reentry of committed juvenile offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. doi: 10.1177/1541204015596052.
Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Piquero, A. R., & Epps, N. (2015c). The relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and juvenile offending trajectories in a juvenile offender sample. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43, 229–241. CrossRef
Baumer, E. P., Messner, S. F., & Felson, R. (1998). Influence of crack cocaine on robbery, burglary, and homicide rates: A cross-city, longitudinal analysis. Journal of Crime and Delinquency, 33, 316–340. CrossRef
Brett, J., & Werbel, J. (1980). The effect of job transfers on employees and their families. Washington, DC: Employee Relocation Council.
Briggs, X. D. S., Popkin, S. J., & Goering, J. (2010). Moving to opportunity: The story of an American experiment to fight ghetto poverty. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Klebenov, P. K., & Sealand, N. S. (1993). Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent development? American Journal of Sociology, 99, 353–395. CrossRef
Brown, A. C., & Orthner, D. K. (1990). Relocation and personal well-being among early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 10, 366–381. CrossRef
Bursik, R. J. (1988). Social disorganization and theories of crime and delinquency: Problems and prospects. Criminology, 26, 519–551. CrossRef
Clampet-Lundquist, S., Edin, K., Kling, J. R., & Duncan, G. J. (2011). Moving teenagers out of high-risk neighborhoods: How girls fare better than boys. American Journal of Sociology, 116, 1154–1189. CrossRef
Cohen, P., Brook, J. S., Cohen, J., Velez, N., & Garcia, M. (1990). Common and uncommon pathways to adolescent psychopathology and problem behavior. In L. N. Robins & M. Rutter (Eds.), Straight and devious pathways from childhood to adulthood (pp. 242–258). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Cohen, P., Johnson, J., Struening, E. L., & Brook, J. S. (1989). Family mobility as a risk factor for childhood psychopathology. In B. Cooper & T. Helgason (Eds.), Epidemiology and the prevention of mental disorders (pp. 145–156). New York, NY: Routledge.
Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital and the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, S95–S120. CrossRef
Crowder, K., & South, S. J. (2003). Neighborhood distress and school dropout: The variable significance of community context. Social Science Research, 32, 659–698. CrossRef
Crutchfield, R. D., Gerrken, M. R., & Gove, W. R. (1982). Crime rate and social integration: The impact of metropolitan mobility. Criminology, 20, 467–478. CrossRef
Elliott, D. S., Wilson, W. J., Huizinga, D., Sampson, R. J., Elliott, A., & Rankin, B. (1996). The effects of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent development. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 33, 389–426. CrossRef
Farrington, D. P. (1986). Age and crime. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 7, pp. 189–250). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Farrington, D. P. (1997). Early prediction of violent and non-violent youthful offending. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 5, 51–66. CrossRef
Farrington, D. P., Piquero, A. R., & Jennings, W. G. (2013). Offending from childhood to late middle age: Recent results from the Cambridge study in delinquent development. New York, NY: Springer. CrossRef
Farrington, D. P., Ttofi, M. M., & Piquero, A. R. (2016). Risk, promotive, and protective factors in youth offending: Results from the Cambridge study of delinquent development. Journal of Criminal Justice. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2016.02.014.
Fauth, R. C., Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2005). Early impacts of moving from poor to middle-class neighborhoods on low-income youth. Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 415–439. CrossRef
Fischer, C. S. (2002). Ever-more rooted Americans. City and Community, 1, 175–193. CrossRef
Gasper, J., DeLuca, S., & Estacion, A. (2010). Coming and going: Explaining the effects of residential and school mobility on adolescent delinquency. Social Science Research, 39, 459–476. CrossRef
Giordano, P. C., & Cernkovich, S. A. (1997). Gender and antisocial behavior. In David M. Stoff, James Breiling, & Jack D. Maser (Eds.), The handbook of antisocial behavior (pp. 496–510). New York: Wiley.
Goering, J., & Feins, J. D. (Eds.). (2003). Choosing a better life? Evaluating the Moving to Opportunities social experiment. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
Gorman-Smith, D. (2008). Urban neighborhoods, families, and juvenile delinquency. The Prevention Researcher, 15, 17–20.
Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Graif, C. (2015). Delinquency and gender moderation in the Moving to Opportunity intervention: The role of extended neighborhoods. Criminology, 53, 366–398. CrossRef
Guo, S., & Fraser, M. W. (2010). Propensity score analysis: Statistical methods and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hagan, J., MacMillan, R., & Wheaton, B. (1996). New kid in town: Social capital and the life course effects of family migration on children. American Sociological Review, 61, 368–385. CrossRef
Haynie, D. L., & South, S. J. (2005). Residential mobility and adolescent violence. Social Forces, 84, 363–376.
Haynie, D. L., South, S. J., & Bose, S. (2006a). The company you keep: Adolescent mobility and peer behavior. Sociological Inquiry, 76, 397–426. CrossRef
Haynie, D. L., South, S. J., & Bose, S. (2006b). Residential mobility and attempted suicide among adolescents: An individual-level analysis. The Sociological Quarterly, 47, 693–721. CrossRef
Heimer, K., & De Coster, S. (1999). The gendering of violent delinquency. Criminology, 37, 277–312. CrossRef
Hendershott, A. B. (1989). Residential mobility, social support and adolescent self-concept. Adolescence, 24, 217–232. PubMed
Ingersoll, G. M., Camman, J. P., & Eckerling, W. D. (1989). Geographic mobility and student achievement in an urban setting. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11, 143–149. CrossRef
Jencks, C., & Mayer, S. E. (1990). The social consequences of growing up in a poor neighborhood. In L. E. Lynn Jr & M. G. H. McGeary (Eds.), Inner-city poverty in the United States (pp. 111–186). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Katz, L. F., Kling, J. R., & Liebman, J. B. (2001). Moving to Opportunity in Boston: Early results of a randomized mobility experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116, 607–654. CrossRef
Kling, J. R., Liebman, J. B., & Katz, L. F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75, 83–119. CrossRef
Kling, J. R., Ludwig, J., & Katz, L. F. (2005). Neighborhood effects on crime for female and male youth: Evidence from a randomized housing voucher experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120, 87–130.
Kubrin, C. E., & Stewart, E. A. (2006). Predicting who reoffends: The neglected role of neighborhood context in recidivism studies. Criminology, 44, 165–197. CrossRef
Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2005). Neighborhood and gender effects on family processes: Results from the Moving to Opportunity program. Family Relations, 54, 633–643. CrossRef
Ludwig, J., Duncan, G. J., & Hirschfield, P. (2001). Urban poverty and juvenile crime: Evidence from a randomized housing-mobility experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116, 665–679. CrossRef
Mears, D. P., Ploeger, M., & Warr, M. (1998). Explaining the gender gap in delinquency: Peer influence and moral evaluations of behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35, 251–266. CrossRef
Morenoff, J. D., Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. (2001). Neighborhood inequality, collective efficacy, and spatial dynamics of urban violence. Criminology, 39, 517–558. CrossRef
Orthner, D. K., Brody, G., & Covi, R. (1985). The teenager’s survival guide to moving. New York, NY: Macmillan.
Orthner, D. K., Giddings, M., & Quinn, W. (1987). Youth in transition: A study of Air Force youth. Washington, DC: U.S. Air Force.
Pitney Bowes. (2015). MapMarker 24.1 release notes. Retrieved from http://www.pbinsight.com/support/product-documentation/details/mapmarker-mapmarker-plus-us.
Pittman, J. F., & Bowen, G. L. (1994). Adolescents on the move. Youth and Society, 26, 69–91. CrossRef
Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1983). The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika, 70, 41–55. CrossRef
Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1984). Reducing bias in observational studies using subclassification on the propensity score. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 79, 516–524. CrossRef
Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1985). Constructing a control group using multivariate matched sampling methods that incorporate the propensity score. American Statistician, 3, 33–38.
Rubinowitz, L. S., & Rosenbaum, J. E. (2000). Crossing the class and color lines: From public housing to white suburbia. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Sampson, R. J. (2012). Great American city: Chicago and the enduring neighborhood effect. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef
Sampson, R. J., & Groves, W. B. (1989). Neighborhood structure and crime: Testing social disorganization theory. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 774–802. CrossRef
Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D., & Gannon-Rowley, T. (2002). Assessing neighborhood effects: Social processes and new directions in research. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 443–478. CrossRef
Sciandra, M., Sanbonmatsu, L., Duncan, G. J., Gennetian, L. A., Katz, L. F., Kessler, R. C., et al. (2013). Long-term effects of the Moving to Opportunity residential mobility experiment on crime and delinquency. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 9, 451–489. CrossRef
Shaw, J. (1982). Geographic mobility and the military child. Military Medicine, 140, 416–440.
Shaw, C., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Simpson, G., & Fowler, M. G. (1994). Geographic mobility and children’s emotional/behavioral adjustment and school functioning. Pediatrics, 93, 303–309. PubMed
South, S. J., & Baumer, E. P. (2000). Deciphering community and race effects on adolescent premarital childbearing. Social Forces, 78, 1379–1407. CrossRef
South, S. J., & Crowder, K. (1997). Escaping distressed neighborhoods: Individual, community, and metropolitan influences. American Journal of Sociology, 102, 1040–1084. CrossRef
South, S. J., Crowder, K., & Pais, J. (2008). Inter-neighborhood migration and spatial assimilation in a multi-ethnic world: Comparing Latinos, Blacks, and Anglos. Social Forces, 81, 415–443. CrossRef
South, S. J., Haynie, D. L., & Bose, S. (2007). Student mobility and school dropout. Social Science Research, 36, 68–94. CrossRef
South, S. J., Lutz, A., & Baumer, E. P. (2005). Adolescent residential mobility and premature life-course transitions: The role of peer networks. Sociological Studies of Children and Youth, 11, 23–52. CrossRef
Stark, R. (1987). Deviant places: A theory of the ecology of crime. Criminology, 25, 893–910. CrossRef
Sutherland, E. H. (1947). Criminology (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.
Tittle, C. R., & Paternoster, R. (1988). Geographic mobility and criminal behavior. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 25, 301–343. CrossRef
Tucker, C. J., Marx, J., & Long, L. (1998). ‘Moving On’: Residential mobility and children’s school lives. Sociology of Education, 71, 111–129. CrossRef
U.S. Census Bureau. (2014a). Reason for moving: 2012 to 2013. Current population reports, P20-574 (pp. 1–15). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2014b). ACS summary file technical documentation: 2009– 2013 ACS 5- year data release. Retrieved from http://www2.census.gov/acs2013_1yr/summaryfile/ACS_2013_SF_Tech_Doc.pdf.
Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., Intravia, J., & Piquero, A. R. (2015a). The protective effect of immigrant concentration on juvenile recidivism: A statewide analysis of youth offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.05.004.
Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., & Piquero, A. R. (2015b). The relationship between adverse childhood experiences and recidivism in a sample of juvenile offenders in community-based treatment. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. doi: 10.1177/0306624X15613992. PubMed
Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., Piquero, A. R., Vaughn, M. G., & DeLisi, M. (2015c). The triple crown of antisocial behavior: Effortful control, negative emotionality, and community disadvantage. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. doi: 10.1177/1541204015599042.
Wright, K. A., & Rodriguez, N. (2014). A closer look at the paradox: Examining immigration and youth reoffending in Arizona. Justice Quarterly, 31, 882–904. CrossRef
- The Mobility of Youth in the Justice System: Implications for Recidivism
Kevin T. Wolff
Michael T. Baglivio
Mark A. Greenwald
- Springer US