Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 7/2017

23-05-2016 | Empirical Research

The Mobility of Youth in the Justice System: Implications for Recidivism

Auteurs: Kevin T. Wolff, Michael T. Baglivio, Jonathan Intravia, Mark A. Greenwald, Nathan Epps

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 7/2017

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Both residential mobility and community disadvantage have been shown to be associated with negative outcomes for adolescents generally and juvenile offenders specifically. The current study examines the effects of moving among a large sample (n = 13,096) of previously adjudicated youth (31.6 % female, 41.2 % Black, 16.5 % Hispanic). Additionally, we examine whether moving upward to a more affluent neighborhood, moving downward to an area of greater disadvantage, or moving laterally to a similar neighborhood tempers the effects of residential mobility. We use a combination of analytical techniques, including propensity score matching to untangle the effects of mobility sans pre-existing conditions between movers and non-movers. Results show relocation increases recidivism, irrespective of the direction of the move with regard to socioeconomic context. Moving upward has the most detrimental impact for adjudicated male adolescents, while downward relocations evidenced the largest effect for female youth. Implications for policy and future research needs are discussed.
Voetnoten
1
While each are quasi-experimental, selection effects still exist, as families who chose to participate in both the Moving to Opportunities and the Yonkers Project identified safety (such as escaping gangs and drugs) as the primary reason for wanted to relocate from their high-poverty neighborhoods (Fauth et al. 2005). The Moving to Opportunities and Yonker’s Project studies differ in the following way: the Yonkers Project is stated to have received greater public attention, and (mostly white) residents in the new neighborhoods were aware of their new neighbors, and the townhomes erected for the desegregation purpose; whereas Moving to Opportunities participants were provided vouchers to move to lower-poverty areas of their choice (Fauth et al. 2005).
 
2
See Keels et al. (2005) for description of the Gautreaux program. Notable implications for adults involved persistent improvements in neighborhood quality for up to 15 years after families were placed in the program. Furthermore, placement anywhere but the most minority-segregated neighborhoods was found to be associated with a drop in current-neighborhood violent crime rates.
 
3
Kling et al. (2005) conclude the increased property offending of male experimental group youth was a result of their taking advantage of a comparative advantage in property offending in their new, more affluent neighborhoods, and not due to gender differences in mobility patterns out of disadvantaged urban areas, or gender differences in discrimination. Succinctly, there was simply more nice stuff to steal in then new neighborhoods, and males were more likely to take advantage of that fact. Kling et al. (2005) also hypothesized the newness wears off in time, which is why differences in property offending between experimental and control group males attenuated over time.
 
4
Prior Moving to Opportunities evaluations have controlled for pre-program arrests of participants (e.g., Ludwig et al. 2001). However, prior studies have not examined previously adjudicated youth as a distinct sub-sample. To our knowledge the current study is the first to examine residential mobility in an exclusively adjudicated delinquent population.
 
5
Excluding youth without a risk/need assessment reduced the sample by approximately 6000 youth. However, risk/need assessment information is critical to ensuring control of pre-existing differences between movers and non-movers. Importantly, youth not assessed are those individuals who were never formally processed at a juvenile assessment center. These youth were given a notice to appear in court and the judge and/or prosecuting attorney decided against formal processing. As our focus is juveniles involved in the juvenile justice system, we believe that including these youth would distort the pattern of relationships we address. We believe that the results presented here accurately represent the impact of residential relocation on juvenile recidivism for a sample of juvenile justice system involved youth.
 
6
In the event a juvenile relocates after community-based services are completed, a new address will be entered in the event the juvenile is re-arrested; meaning the current study includes every address for each arrest of all youth, but may not contain an address if a youth completed community-based services, moved, and was not arrested again within the 2-year period.
 
7
To assess the effect of this decision on sample composition and the results of our analysis we compared youth who moved once to those youth who moved two-or-more times using a series of Chi square and difference-in-means tests. Results of these analyses indicate that youth who moved more than once face a number of challenges above those of youth who moved only one time. Specifically multiple movers were more likely to have experienced parental drug or employment problems, be using drugs themselves, have antisocial friends, and have experienced physical or sexual abuse. Youth who moved multiple times were also disproportionately Black and male. In ancillary analyses (not presented) we ran an additional regression model which included an ordinal measure representing the number of times a youth moved (0-8) during the follow up period. Results of this analysis indicate that the number of times a youth moved was positively and significantly related to reoffending among the full sample, indicating that frequent relocation may have additional implications for juvenile delinquency.
 
8
Initial efforts were made to use two standard deviations for indications of upward or downward mobility. However, this resulted in almost all youth being lateral movers. Therefore, the decision was made to use a one standard deviation change in disadvantage to introduce variability into changes in neighborhood conditions (and also illustrates the general absence of changes in socioeconomic conditions among a statewide sample of juvenile offenders with respect to residential census tracts).
 
9
Mental health problems include formal diagnoses of schizophrenia, bi-polar, mood, thought, personality or adjustment disorders. Conduct disorder and oppositional defiant are not included (based on the risk/needs instrument from which the data were gleaned), which is addressed in the limitations section of the current study. Additionally, substance abuse diagnoses were not included (based on the risk/needs tool), though we have included separate measures of current alcohol and drug use.
 
10
Given the large number of covariates included in the models presented, we first assessed the degree of collinearity present. Results of these analyses (not presented) indicate that collinearity is not an issue, as no correlations between the measures used were above .500.
 
11
The use of sex-specific subsamples to evaluate differential effects is commonplace within the social sciences. Based on previous research that suggests differing effects between males and females for many of the covariates included, we adopt this approach in the current research. An alternative method used to assess sex-specific effects is to include an interaction term in the full model. In ancillary analyses not presented here, we assess the robustness of our results using the interaction method. Consistent with the results presented in tabular form, results suggest that moving downward was significantly more detrimental for females. However, the results indicated that while moving upward was associated with a higher probability of recidivism among males, the interaction term was not significant at p < .05.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Abrams, L. S., & Snyder, S. M. (2010). Youth offender reentry: Models for intervention and directions for future inquiry. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 1787–1795. CrossRef Abrams, L. S., & Snyder, S. M. (2010). Youth offender reentry: Models for intervention and directions for future inquiry. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 1787–1795. CrossRef
go back to reference Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30, 47–87. CrossRef Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30, 47–87. CrossRef
go back to reference Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38, 319–361. CrossRef Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38, 319–361. CrossRef
go back to reference Ainsworth, J. W. (2002). Why does it take a village? The mediation of neighborhood effects on educational achievement. Social Forces, 81, 117–152. CrossRef Ainsworth, J. W. (2002). Why does it take a village? The mediation of neighborhood effects on educational achievement. Social Forces, 81, 117–152. CrossRef
go back to reference Apel, R. J., & Sweeten, G. (2010). Propensity score matching in criminology and criminal justice. In A. R. Piquero & D. Weisburd (Eds.), The handbook of quantitative criminology (pp. 543–562). New York, NY: Springer. CrossRef Apel, R. J., & Sweeten, G. (2010). Propensity score matching in criminology and criminal justice. In A. R. Piquero & D. Weisburd (Eds.), The handbook of quantitative criminology (pp. 543–562). New York, NY: Springer. CrossRef
go back to reference Astone, N. M., & McLanahan, S. S. (1994). Family structure, residential mobility, and school dropout: A research note. Demography, 31, 575–584. CrossRefPubMed Astone, N. M., & McLanahan, S. S. (1994). Family structure, residential mobility, and school dropout: A research note. Demography, 31, 575–584. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baglivio, M. T. (2009). The assessment of risk to recidivate among a juvenile offending population. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37, 596–607. CrossRef Baglivio, M. T. (2009). The assessment of risk to recidivate among a juvenile offending population. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37, 596–607. CrossRef
go back to reference Baglivio, M. T., & Jackowski, K. (2013). Examining the validity of a juvenile offending risk assessment instrument across gender and race/ethnicity. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 11, 26–43. CrossRef Baglivio, M. T., & Jackowski, K. (2013). Examining the validity of a juvenile offending risk assessment instrument across gender and race/ethnicity. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 11, 26–43. CrossRef
go back to reference Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Epps, N., & Nelson, R. (2015a). Predicting adverse childhood experiences: The importance of neighborhood context in youth trauma among delinquent youth. Crime & Delinquency. doi: 10.​1177/​0011128715570628​. Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Epps, N., & Nelson, R. (2015a). Predicting adverse childhood experiences: The importance of neighborhood context in youth trauma among delinquent youth. Crime & Delinquency. doi: 10.​1177/​0011128715570628​.
go back to reference Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Jackowski, K., & Greenwald, M. A. (2015b). A multilevel examination of risk/need change scores, community context, and successful reentry of committed juvenile offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. doi: 10.​1177/​1541204015596052​. Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Jackowski, K., & Greenwald, M. A. (2015b). A multilevel examination of risk/need change scores, community context, and successful reentry of committed juvenile offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. doi: 10.​1177/​1541204015596052​.
go back to reference Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Piquero, A. R., & Epps, N. (2015c). The relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and juvenile offending trajectories in a juvenile offender sample. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43, 229–241. CrossRef Baglivio, M. T., Wolff, K. T., Piquero, A. R., & Epps, N. (2015c). The relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and juvenile offending trajectories in a juvenile offender sample. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43, 229–241. CrossRef
go back to reference Baumer, E. P., Messner, S. F., & Felson, R. (1998). Influence of crack cocaine on robbery, burglary, and homicide rates: A cross-city, longitudinal analysis. Journal of Crime and Delinquency, 33, 316–340. CrossRef Baumer, E. P., Messner, S. F., & Felson, R. (1998). Influence of crack cocaine on robbery, burglary, and homicide rates: A cross-city, longitudinal analysis. Journal of Crime and Delinquency, 33, 316–340. CrossRef
go back to reference Brett, J., & Werbel, J. (1980). The effect of job transfers on employees and their families. Washington, DC: Employee Relocation Council. Brett, J., & Werbel, J. (1980). The effect of job transfers on employees and their families. Washington, DC: Employee Relocation Council.
go back to reference Briggs, X. D. S., Popkin, S. J., & Goering, J. (2010). Moving to opportunity: The story of an American experiment to fight ghetto poverty. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. CrossRef Briggs, X. D. S., Popkin, S. J., & Goering, J. (2010). Moving to opportunity: The story of an American experiment to fight ghetto poverty. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Klebenov, P. K., & Sealand, N. S. (1993). Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent development? American Journal of Sociology, 99, 353–395. CrossRef Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Klebenov, P. K., & Sealand, N. S. (1993). Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent development? American Journal of Sociology, 99, 353–395. CrossRef
go back to reference Brown, A. C., & Orthner, D. K. (1990). Relocation and personal well-being among early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 10, 366–381. CrossRef Brown, A. C., & Orthner, D. K. (1990). Relocation and personal well-being among early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 10, 366–381. CrossRef
go back to reference Bursik, R. J. (1988). Social disorganization and theories of crime and delinquency: Problems and prospects. Criminology, 26, 519–551. CrossRef Bursik, R. J. (1988). Social disorganization and theories of crime and delinquency: Problems and prospects. Criminology, 26, 519–551. CrossRef
go back to reference Clampet-Lundquist, S., Edin, K., Kling, J. R., & Duncan, G. J. (2011). Moving teenagers out of high-risk neighborhoods: How girls fare better than boys. American Journal of Sociology, 116, 1154–1189. CrossRef Clampet-Lundquist, S., Edin, K., Kling, J. R., & Duncan, G. J. (2011). Moving teenagers out of high-risk neighborhoods: How girls fare better than boys. American Journal of Sociology, 116, 1154–1189. CrossRef
go back to reference Cohen, P., Brook, J. S., Cohen, J., Velez, N., & Garcia, M. (1990). Common and uncommon pathways to adolescent psychopathology and problem behavior. In L. N. Robins & M. Rutter (Eds.), Straight and devious pathways from childhood to adulthood (pp. 242–258). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Cohen, P., Brook, J. S., Cohen, J., Velez, N., & Garcia, M. (1990). Common and uncommon pathways to adolescent psychopathology and problem behavior. In L. N. Robins & M. Rutter (Eds.), Straight and devious pathways from childhood to adulthood (pp. 242–258). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Cohen, P., Johnson, J., Struening, E. L., & Brook, J. S. (1989). Family mobility as a risk factor for childhood psychopathology. In B. Cooper & T. Helgason (Eds.), Epidemiology and the prevention of mental disorders (pp. 145–156). New York, NY: Routledge. Cohen, P., Johnson, J., Struening, E. L., & Brook, J. S. (1989). Family mobility as a risk factor for childhood psychopathology. In B. Cooper & T. Helgason (Eds.), Epidemiology and the prevention of mental disorders (pp. 145–156). New York, NY: Routledge.
go back to reference Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital and the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, S95–S120. CrossRef Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital and the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, S95–S120. CrossRef
go back to reference Crowder, K., & South, S. J. (2003). Neighborhood distress and school dropout: The variable significance of community context. Social Science Research, 32, 659–698. CrossRef Crowder, K., & South, S. J. (2003). Neighborhood distress and school dropout: The variable significance of community context. Social Science Research, 32, 659–698. CrossRef
go back to reference Crutchfield, R. D., Gerrken, M. R., & Gove, W. R. (1982). Crime rate and social integration: The impact of metropolitan mobility. Criminology, 20, 467–478. CrossRef Crutchfield, R. D., Gerrken, M. R., & Gove, W. R. (1982). Crime rate and social integration: The impact of metropolitan mobility. Criminology, 20, 467–478. CrossRef
go back to reference DeWit, D. J. (1998). Frequent childhood geographic relocation: Its impact on drug use initiation and development of alcohol and other drug-related problems among adolescents and young adults. Addictive Behaviors, 23, 623–634. CrossRefPubMed DeWit, D. J. (1998). Frequent childhood geographic relocation: Its impact on drug use initiation and development of alcohol and other drug-related problems among adolescents and young adults. Addictive Behaviors, 23, 623–634. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Elliott, D. S., Wilson, W. J., Huizinga, D., Sampson, R. J., Elliott, A., & Rankin, B. (1996). The effects of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent development. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 33, 389–426. CrossRef Elliott, D. S., Wilson, W. J., Huizinga, D., Sampson, R. J., Elliott, A., & Rankin, B. (1996). The effects of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent development. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 33, 389–426. CrossRef
go back to reference Farrington, D. P. (1986). Age and crime. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 7, pp. 189–250). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Farrington, D. P. (1986). Age and crime. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 7, pp. 189–250). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
go back to reference Farrington, D. P. (1997). Early prediction of violent and non-violent youthful offending. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 5, 51–66. CrossRef Farrington, D. P. (1997). Early prediction of violent and non-violent youthful offending. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 5, 51–66. CrossRef
go back to reference Farrington, D. P., Piquero, A. R., & Jennings, W. G. (2013). Offending from childhood to late middle age: Recent results from the Cambridge study in delinquent development. New York, NY: Springer. CrossRef Farrington, D. P., Piquero, A. R., & Jennings, W. G. (2013). Offending from childhood to late middle age: Recent results from the Cambridge study in delinquent development. New York, NY: Springer. CrossRef
go back to reference Fauth, R. C., Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2005). Early impacts of moving from poor to middle-class neighborhoods on low-income youth. Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 415–439. CrossRef Fauth, R. C., Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2005). Early impacts of moving from poor to middle-class neighborhoods on low-income youth. Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 415–439. CrossRef
go back to reference Fischer, C. S. (2002). Ever-more rooted Americans. City and Community, 1, 175–193. CrossRef Fischer, C. S. (2002). Ever-more rooted Americans. City and Community, 1, 175–193. CrossRef
go back to reference Gasper, J., DeLuca, S., & Estacion, A. (2010). Coming and going: Explaining the effects of residential and school mobility on adolescent delinquency. Social Science Research, 39, 459–476. CrossRef Gasper, J., DeLuca, S., & Estacion, A. (2010). Coming and going: Explaining the effects of residential and school mobility on adolescent delinquency. Social Science Research, 39, 459–476. CrossRef
go back to reference Giordano, P. C., & Cernkovich, S. A. (1997). Gender and antisocial behavior. In David M. Stoff, James Breiling, & Jack D. Maser (Eds.), The handbook of antisocial behavior (pp. 496–510). New York: Wiley. Giordano, P. C., & Cernkovich, S. A. (1997). Gender and antisocial behavior. In David M. Stoff, James Breiling, & Jack D. Maser (Eds.), The handbook of antisocial behavior (pp. 496–510). New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Goering, J., & Feins, J. D. (Eds.). (2003). Choosing a better life? Evaluating the Moving to Opportunities social experiment. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Goering, J., & Feins, J. D. (Eds.). (2003). Choosing a better life? Evaluating the Moving to Opportunities social experiment. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
go back to reference Gorman-Smith, D. (2008). Urban neighborhoods, families, and juvenile delinquency. The Prevention Researcher, 15, 17–20. Gorman-Smith, D. (2008). Urban neighborhoods, families, and juvenile delinquency. The Prevention Researcher, 15, 17–20.
go back to reference Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
go back to reference Graif, C. (2015). Delinquency and gender moderation in the Moving to Opportunity intervention: The role of extended neighborhoods. Criminology, 53, 366–398. CrossRef Graif, C. (2015). Delinquency and gender moderation in the Moving to Opportunity intervention: The role of extended neighborhoods. Criminology, 53, 366–398. CrossRef
go back to reference Guo, S., & Fraser, M. W. (2010). Propensity score analysis: Statistical methods and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Guo, S., & Fraser, M. W. (2010). Propensity score analysis: Statistical methods and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Hagan, J., MacMillan, R., & Wheaton, B. (1996). New kid in town: Social capital and the life course effects of family migration on children. American Sociological Review, 61, 368–385. CrossRef Hagan, J., MacMillan, R., & Wheaton, B. (1996). New kid in town: Social capital and the life course effects of family migration on children. American Sociological Review, 61, 368–385. CrossRef
go back to reference Haynie, D. L., & South, S. J. (2005). Residential mobility and adolescent violence. Social Forces, 84, 363–376. Haynie, D. L., & South, S. J. (2005). Residential mobility and adolescent violence. Social Forces, 84, 363–376.
go back to reference Haynie, D. L., South, S. J., & Bose, S. (2006a). The company you keep: Adolescent mobility and peer behavior. Sociological Inquiry, 76, 397–426. CrossRef Haynie, D. L., South, S. J., & Bose, S. (2006a). The company you keep: Adolescent mobility and peer behavior. Sociological Inquiry, 76, 397–426. CrossRef
go back to reference Haynie, D. L., South, S. J., & Bose, S. (2006b). Residential mobility and attempted suicide among adolescents: An individual-level analysis. The Sociological Quarterly, 47, 693–721. CrossRef Haynie, D. L., South, S. J., & Bose, S. (2006b). Residential mobility and attempted suicide among adolescents: An individual-level analysis. The Sociological Quarterly, 47, 693–721. CrossRef
go back to reference Heimer, K., & De Coster, S. (1999). The gendering of violent delinquency. Criminology, 37, 277–312. CrossRef Heimer, K., & De Coster, S. (1999). The gendering of violent delinquency. Criminology, 37, 277–312. CrossRef
go back to reference Hendershott, A. B. (1989). Residential mobility, social support and adolescent self-concept. Adolescence, 24, 217–232. PubMed Hendershott, A. B. (1989). Residential mobility, social support and adolescent self-concept. Adolescence, 24, 217–232. PubMed
go back to reference Ingersoll, G. M., Camman, J. P., & Eckerling, W. D. (1989). Geographic mobility and student achievement in an urban setting. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11, 143–149. CrossRef Ingersoll, G. M., Camman, J. P., & Eckerling, W. D. (1989). Geographic mobility and student achievement in an urban setting. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11, 143–149. CrossRef
go back to reference Jencks, C., & Mayer, S. E. (1990). The social consequences of growing up in a poor neighborhood. In L. E. Lynn Jr & M. G. H. McGeary (Eds.), Inner-city poverty in the United States (pp. 111–186). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Jencks, C., & Mayer, S. E. (1990). The social consequences of growing up in a poor neighborhood. In L. E. Lynn Jr & M. G. H. McGeary (Eds.), Inner-city poverty in the United States (pp. 111–186). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
go back to reference Katz, L. F., Kling, J. R., & Liebman, J. B. (2001). Moving to Opportunity in Boston: Early results of a randomized mobility experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116, 607–654. CrossRef Katz, L. F., Kling, J. R., & Liebman, J. B. (2001). Moving to Opportunity in Boston: Early results of a randomized mobility experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116, 607–654. CrossRef
go back to reference Keels, M., Duncan, G. J., Deluca, S., Mendenhall, R., & Rosenbaum, J. (2005). Fifteen years later: Can residential mobility programs provide a long-term escape from neighborhood segregation, crime, and poverty? Demography, 42, 51–73. CrossRefPubMed Keels, M., Duncan, G. J., Deluca, S., Mendenhall, R., & Rosenbaum, J. (2005). Fifteen years later: Can residential mobility programs provide a long-term escape from neighborhood segregation, crime, and poverty? Demography, 42, 51–73. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kling, J. R., Liebman, J. B., & Katz, L. F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75, 83–119. CrossRef Kling, J. R., Liebman, J. B., & Katz, L. F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75, 83–119. CrossRef
go back to reference Kling, J. R., Ludwig, J., & Katz, L. F. (2005). Neighborhood effects on crime for female and male youth: Evidence from a randomized housing voucher experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120, 87–130. Kling, J. R., Ludwig, J., & Katz, L. F. (2005). Neighborhood effects on crime for female and male youth: Evidence from a randomized housing voucher experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120, 87–130.
go back to reference Kubrin, C. E., & Stewart, E. A. (2006). Predicting who reoffends: The neglected role of neighborhood context in recidivism studies. Criminology, 44, 165–197. CrossRef Kubrin, C. E., & Stewart, E. A. (2006). Predicting who reoffends: The neglected role of neighborhood context in recidivism studies. Criminology, 44, 165–197. CrossRef
go back to reference Leventhal, T., & BrooksGunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: The effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 309–327. CrossRefPubMed Leventhal, T., & BrooksGunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: The effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 309–327. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). Moving to Opportunity: An experimental study of neighborhood effects on mental health. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1576–1582. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). Moving to Opportunity: An experimental study of neighborhood effects on mental health. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1576–1582. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2005). Neighborhood and gender effects on family processes: Results from the Moving to Opportunity program. Family Relations, 54, 633–643. CrossRef Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2005). Neighborhood and gender effects on family processes: Results from the Moving to Opportunity program. Family Relations, 54, 633–643. CrossRef
go back to reference Logan, J. R., & Alba, R. D. (1993). Locational returns to human capital: Minority access to suburban community resources. Demography, 30, 243–268. CrossRefPubMed Logan, J. R., & Alba, R. D. (1993). Locational returns to human capital: Minority access to suburban community resources. Demography, 30, 243–268. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ludwig, J., Duncan, G. J., & Hirschfield, P. (2001). Urban poverty and juvenile crime: Evidence from a randomized housing-mobility experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116, 665–679. CrossRef Ludwig, J., Duncan, G. J., & Hirschfield, P. (2001). Urban poverty and juvenile crime: Evidence from a randomized housing-mobility experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116, 665–679. CrossRef
go back to reference Mears, D. P., Ploeger, M., & Warr, M. (1998). Explaining the gender gap in delinquency: Peer influence and moral evaluations of behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35, 251–266. CrossRef Mears, D. P., Ploeger, M., & Warr, M. (1998). Explaining the gender gap in delinquency: Peer influence and moral evaluations of behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35, 251–266. CrossRef
go back to reference Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescent-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701. CrossRefPubMed Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescent-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Morenoff, J. D., Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. (2001). Neighborhood inequality, collective efficacy, and spatial dynamics of urban violence. Criminology, 39, 517–558. CrossRef Morenoff, J. D., Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. (2001). Neighborhood inequality, collective efficacy, and spatial dynamics of urban violence. Criminology, 39, 517–558. CrossRef
go back to reference Orthner, D. K., Brody, G., & Covi, R. (1985). The teenager’s survival guide to moving. New York, NY: Macmillan. Orthner, D. K., Brody, G., & Covi, R. (1985). The teenager’s survival guide to moving. New York, NY: Macmillan.
go back to reference Orthner, D. K., Giddings, M., & Quinn, W. (1987). Youth in transition: A study of Air Force youth. Washington, DC: U.S. Air Force. Orthner, D. K., Giddings, M., & Quinn, W. (1987). Youth in transition: A study of Air Force youth. Washington, DC: U.S. Air Force.
go back to reference Pittman, J. F., & Bowen, G. L. (1994). Adolescents on the move. Youth and Society, 26, 69–91. CrossRef Pittman, J. F., & Bowen, G. L. (1994). Adolescents on the move. Youth and Society, 26, 69–91. CrossRef
go back to reference Pribesh, S., & Downey, D. B. (1999). Why are residential school moves associated with poor school performance? Demography, 36, 521–534. CrossRefPubMed Pribesh, S., & Downey, D. B. (1999). Why are residential school moves associated with poor school performance? Demography, 36, 521–534. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1983). The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika, 70, 41–55. CrossRef Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1983). The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika, 70, 41–55. CrossRef
go back to reference Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1984). Reducing bias in observational studies using subclassification on the propensity score. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 79, 516–524. CrossRef Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1984). Reducing bias in observational studies using subclassification on the propensity score. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 79, 516–524. CrossRef
go back to reference Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1985). Constructing a control group using multivariate matched sampling methods that incorporate the propensity score. American Statistician, 3, 33–38. Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1985). Constructing a control group using multivariate matched sampling methods that incorporate the propensity score. American Statistician, 3, 33–38.
go back to reference Rubinowitz, L. S., & Rosenbaum, J. E. (2000). Crossing the class and color lines: From public housing to white suburbia. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Rubinowitz, L. S., & Rosenbaum, J. E. (2000). Crossing the class and color lines: From public housing to white suburbia. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
go back to reference Sampson, R. J. (2012). Great American city: Chicago and the enduring neighborhood effect. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef Sampson, R. J. (2012). Great American city: Chicago and the enduring neighborhood effect. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Sampson, R. J., & Groves, W. B. (1989). Neighborhood structure and crime: Testing social disorganization theory. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 774–802. CrossRef Sampson, R. J., & Groves, W. B. (1989). Neighborhood structure and crime: Testing social disorganization theory. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 774–802. CrossRef
go back to reference Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
go back to reference Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D., & Gannon-Rowley, T. (2002). Assessing neighborhood effects: Social processes and new directions in research. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 443–478. CrossRef Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D., & Gannon-Rowley, T. (2002). Assessing neighborhood effects: Social processes and new directions in research. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 443–478. CrossRef
go back to reference Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, R. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924. CrossRefPubMed Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, R. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Sciandra, M., Sanbonmatsu, L., Duncan, G. J., Gennetian, L. A., Katz, L. F., Kessler, R. C., et al. (2013). Long-term effects of the Moving to Opportunity residential mobility experiment on crime and delinquency. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 9, 451–489. CrossRef Sciandra, M., Sanbonmatsu, L., Duncan, G. J., Gennetian, L. A., Katz, L. F., Kessler, R. C., et al. (2013). Long-term effects of the Moving to Opportunity residential mobility experiment on crime and delinquency. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 9, 451–489. CrossRef
go back to reference Shaw, J. (1982). Geographic mobility and the military child. Military Medicine, 140, 416–440. Shaw, J. (1982). Geographic mobility and the military child. Military Medicine, 140, 416–440.
go back to reference Shaw, C., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Shaw, C., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
go back to reference Simpson, G., & Fowler, M. G. (1994). Geographic mobility and children’s emotional/behavioral adjustment and school functioning. Pediatrics, 93, 303–309. PubMed Simpson, G., & Fowler, M. G. (1994). Geographic mobility and children’s emotional/behavioral adjustment and school functioning. Pediatrics, 93, 303–309. PubMed
go back to reference South, S. J., & Baumer, E. P. (2000). Deciphering community and race effects on adolescent premarital childbearing. Social Forces, 78, 1379–1407. CrossRef South, S. J., & Baumer, E. P. (2000). Deciphering community and race effects on adolescent premarital childbearing. Social Forces, 78, 1379–1407. CrossRef
go back to reference South, S. J., & Crowder, K. (1997). Escaping distressed neighborhoods: Individual, community, and metropolitan influences. American Journal of Sociology, 102, 1040–1084. CrossRef South, S. J., & Crowder, K. (1997). Escaping distressed neighborhoods: Individual, community, and metropolitan influences. American Journal of Sociology, 102, 1040–1084. CrossRef
go back to reference South, S. J., Crowder, K., & Pais, J. (2008). Inter-neighborhood migration and spatial assimilation in a multi-ethnic world: Comparing Latinos, Blacks, and Anglos. Social Forces, 81, 415–443. CrossRef South, S. J., Crowder, K., & Pais, J. (2008). Inter-neighborhood migration and spatial assimilation in a multi-ethnic world: Comparing Latinos, Blacks, and Anglos. Social Forces, 81, 415–443. CrossRef
go back to reference South, S. J., Haynie, D. L., & Bose, S. (2007). Student mobility and school dropout. Social Science Research, 36, 68–94. CrossRef South, S. J., Haynie, D. L., & Bose, S. (2007). Student mobility and school dropout. Social Science Research, 36, 68–94. CrossRef
go back to reference South, S. J., Lutz, A., & Baumer, E. P. (2005). Adolescent residential mobility and premature life-course transitions: The role of peer networks. Sociological Studies of Children and Youth, 11, 23–52. CrossRef South, S. J., Lutz, A., & Baumer, E. P. (2005). Adolescent residential mobility and premature life-course transitions: The role of peer networks. Sociological Studies of Children and Youth, 11, 23–52. CrossRef
go back to reference Stark, R. (1987). Deviant places: A theory of the ecology of crime. Criminology, 25, 893–910. CrossRef Stark, R. (1987). Deviant places: A theory of the ecology of crime. Criminology, 25, 893–910. CrossRef
go back to reference Sutherland, E. H. (1947). Criminology (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott. Sutherland, E. H. (1947). Criminology (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.
go back to reference Tittle, C. R., & Paternoster, R. (1988). Geographic mobility and criminal behavior. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 25, 301–343. CrossRef Tittle, C. R., & Paternoster, R. (1988). Geographic mobility and criminal behavior. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 25, 301–343. CrossRef
go back to reference Tucker, C. J., Marx, J., & Long, L. (1998). ‘Moving On’: Residential mobility and children’s school lives. Sociology of Education, 71, 111–129. CrossRef Tucker, C. J., Marx, J., & Long, L. (1998). ‘Moving On’: Residential mobility and children’s school lives. Sociology of Education, 71, 111–129. CrossRef
go back to reference U.S. Census Bureau. (2014a). Reason for moving: 2012 to 2013. Current population reports, P20-574 (pp. 1–15). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Census Bureau. (2014a). Reason for moving: 2012 to 2013. Current population reports, P20-574 (pp. 1–15). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
go back to reference Votruba, M. E., & Kling, J. R. (2009). Effects of neighborhood characteristics on the mortality of black male youth: Evidence from Gautreaux. Social Science and Medicine, 68, 814–823. CrossRefPubMed Votruba, M. E., & Kling, J. R. (2009). Effects of neighborhood characteristics on the mortality of black male youth: Evidence from Gautreaux. Social Science and Medicine, 68, 814–823. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Weber, E. G. (2005). Geographic relocation frequency, resilience, and military adolescent behavior. Military Medicine, 170, 638–642. CrossRefPubMed Weber, E. G. (2005). Geographic relocation frequency, resilience, and military adolescent behavior. Military Medicine, 170, 638–642. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
go back to reference Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., & Piquero, A. R. (2015b). The relationship between adverse childhood experiences and recidivism in a sample of juvenile offenders in community-based treatment. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. doi: 10.​1177/​0306624X15613992​. PubMed Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., & Piquero, A. R. (2015b). The relationship between adverse childhood experiences and recidivism in a sample of juvenile offenders in community-based treatment. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. doi: 10.​1177/​0306624X15613992​. PubMed
go back to reference Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., Piquero, A. R., Vaughn, M. G., & DeLisi, M. (2015c). The triple crown of antisocial behavior: Effortful control, negative emotionality, and community disadvantage. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. doi: 10.​1177/​1541204015599042​. Wolff, K. T., Baglivio, M. T., Piquero, A. R., Vaughn, M. G., & DeLisi, M. (2015c). The triple crown of antisocial behavior: Effortful control, negative emotionality, and community disadvantage. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. doi: 10.​1177/​1541204015599042​.
go back to reference Wood, D., Halfon, N., Scarlata, D., Newacheck, P., & Nessim, S. (1993). Impact of family relocation on children’s growth, development, school function, and behavior. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270, 1334–1338. CrossRefPubMed Wood, D., Halfon, N., Scarlata, D., Newacheck, P., & Nessim, S. (1993). Impact of family relocation on children’s growth, development, school function, and behavior. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270, 1334–1338. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wright, K. A., Kim, B., Chassin, L., Losoya, S. H., & Piquero, A. R. (2014). Ecological context, concentrated disadvantage, and youth reoffending: Identifying social mechanisms in a sample of serious adolescent offenders. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43, 1781–1799. CrossRefPubMed Wright, K. A., Kim, B., Chassin, L., Losoya, S. H., & Piquero, A. R. (2014). Ecological context, concentrated disadvantage, and youth reoffending: Identifying social mechanisms in a sample of serious adolescent offenders. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43, 1781–1799. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wright, K. A., & Rodriguez, N. (2014). A closer look at the paradox: Examining immigration and youth reoffending in Arizona. Justice Quarterly, 31, 882–904. CrossRef Wright, K. A., & Rodriguez, N. (2014). A closer look at the paradox: Examining immigration and youth reoffending in Arizona. Justice Quarterly, 31, 882–904. CrossRef
go back to reference Zimmerman, G. M., & Messner, S. F. (2010). Neighborhood context and the gender gap in adolescent violent crime. American Sociological Review, 75, 958–980. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Zimmerman, G. M., & Messner, S. F. (2010). Neighborhood context and the gender gap in adolescent violent crime. American Sociological Review, 75, 958–980. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Metagegevens
Titel
The Mobility of Youth in the Justice System: Implications for Recidivism
Auteurs
Kevin T. Wolff
Michael T. Baglivio
Jonathan Intravia
Mark A. Greenwald
Nathan Epps
Publicatiedatum
23-05-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 7/2017
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0498-y