Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Research indicates that sexual minority youth are disproportionately criminalized in the U.S. and subjected to abusive treatment while in correctional facilities. However, the scope and extent of disparities based on sexual orientation remains largely overlooked in the juvenile justice literature. This study, based on a nationally representative federal agency survey conducted in 2012 (N = 8785; 9.9% girls), reveals that 39.4% of girls and 3.2% of boys in juvenile correctional facilities identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. These youth, particularly gay and bisexual boys, report higher rates of sexual victimization compared to their heterosexual peers. Sexual minority youth, defined as both lesbian, gay, and bisexual identified youth as well as youth who identified as straight and reported some same-sex attraction, were also 2–3 times more likely than heterosexual youth to report prior episodes of detention lasting a year or more. Implications for future research and public policy are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Abrams, L. S., Kim, K., & Anderson-Nathe, B. (2005). Paradoxes of treatment in juvenile corrections. Child and Youth Care Forum, 34(1), 7–25. CrossRef
Amnesty International. (2005). Stonewalled: Police abuse and misconduct against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in the US. New York, NY: Amnesty International Publications. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/AMR51/122/2005/en/
Ball, M. (2014). What’s queer about queer criminology? In D. Peterson, & V. R. Panfil (Eds.). Handbook of LGBT communities, crime, and uustice (pp. 531–555). New York, NY: Springer. CrossRef
Beaver, K. M., Connolly, E. J., Schwartz, J. A., Boutwell, B. B., Barnes, J. C., & Nedelec, J. L. (2016). Sexual orientation and involvement in nonviolent and violent delinquent behaviors: Findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent to adult health. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(7), 1759–1769. CrossRefPubMed
Beck, A. J., Cantor, D., Hartge, J., & Smith, T. (2013). Sexual victimization in juvenile facilities reported by youth, 2012. (NCJ Publication No. 241708). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/svjfry12.pdf. CrossRef
Beck, A. J., Bruce, C., Cantor, D., Hartge, J., Heaton, L., & Ren, W. (2016). Facility-level And individual-level correlates of sexual victimization in juvenile facilities, 2012. (NCJ Publication No. 249877). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5663.
Belknap, J., Holsinger, K., & Little, J. (2012). Sexual minority status, abuse, and self-harming behaviors among incarcerated girls. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 5(2), 173–185. CrossRef
Bishop, D. M., Leiber, M., & Johnson, J. (2010). Contexts of decision making in the juvenile justice system: An organizational approach to understanding minority overrepresentation. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 8(3), 213–233. CrossRef
Bridges, G. S., & Steen, S. (1998). Racial disparities in official assessments of juvenile offenders: Attributional stereotypes as mediating mechanisms. American Sociological Review, 63(4), 554–570. CrossRef
Burdge, H., Licona, A. C., & Hyemingway, Z. T. (2014). LGBTQ youth of color: Discipline disparities, school push-out, and the school-to-prison pipeline. San Francisco, CA: Gay-Straight Alliance Network and Tucson, AZ: Crossroads Collaborative at the University of Arizona. https://gsanetwork.org/files/aboutus/LGBTQ_brief_FINAL-web.pdf/.
Center for American Progress & Movement Advancement Project. (2016). Unjust: How the Broken Criminal Justice System Fails LGBTQ Youth. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress and Denver, CO: Movement Advancement Project. http://www.lgbtmap.org/file/lgbt-criminal-justice-youth.pdf.
Chesney-Lind, M., & Shelden, R. G. (2013). Girls, delinquency, and juvenile justice. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Coalition for Juvenile Justice (2016). Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC): Facts and Resources. http://www.juvjustice.org/sites/default/files/ckfinder/files/DMC%20factsheet%20draft%20--%20Final%20for%20Print.pdf, December 25, 2016.
Cochran, J. C., & Mears, D. P. (2014). Race, ethnic, and gender divides in juvenile court sanctioning and rehabilitative intervention. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 52, 181–212. CrossRef
Cochran, B. N., Stewart, A. J., Ginzler, J. A., & Cauce, A. M. (2002). Challenges faced by homeless sexual minorities: Comparison of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender homeless adolescents with their heterosexual counterparts. American Journal of Public Health, 92(5), 773–777. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Conover-Williams, M. (2014). The queer delinquent: Impacts of risk and protective factors on sexual minority juvenile offending in the US. In D. Peterson, & V. R. Panfil (Eds.). Handbook of LGBT communities, crime, and justice (pp. 449–472). New York, NY: Springer. CrossRef
Crenshaw, K., Ocen, P., & Nanda, J. (2015). Black girls matter: Pushed out, overpoliced and underprotected. New York, NY: African American Policy Forum, Center for Intersectionality and Social Policy Studies. http://www.law.columbia.edu/null/download?&exclusive=filemgr.download&file_id=613546.
Dank, M., Yu, L., Yahner, J., Pelletier, E., Mora, M., & Conner, B. (2015). Locked. Interactions with the criminal justice and child welfare systems for LGBTQ youth, YMSM, and YWSW who engage in survival sex. New York, NY: The Urban Institute. http://www.urban.org/research/publication/locked-interactions-criminal-justice-and-child-welfare-systems-lgbtq-youth-ymsm-and-ywsw-who-engage-survival-sex.
Dierkhising, C. B., Lane, A., & Natsuaki, M. N. (2014). Victims behind bars: A preliminary study of abuse during juvenile incarceration and post-release social and emotional functioning. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 20(2), 181. CrossRef
Dowd, N. E. (Ed.) (2015). A new juvenile justice system: Total reform for a broken system. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Durso, L. E., & Gates, G. J. (2012). Serving our youth: Findings from a national survey of services providers working with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. Los Angeles, CA: The Williams Institute. http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Durso-Gates-LGBT-Homeless-Youth-Survey-July-2012.pdf.
Estrada, R., & Marksamer, J. (2006). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender young people in state custody: Making the child welfare and juvenile justice systems safe for all youth through litigation, advocacy, and education. Temple Law Review, 79, 415.
Fagan, J., & Kupchik, A. (2011). Juvenile incarceration and the pains of imprisonment. Duke Forum for Law and Social Change, 3, 29.
Feinstein, R., Greenblatt, A., Hass, L., Kohn, S., & Rana, J. (2001). Justice for all? A report on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered youth in the New York juvenile justice system. New York, NY: Urban Justice Center.
Ford, J. D., Hartman, J. K., Hawke, J., & Chapman, J. F. (2008). Traumatic victimization, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse risk among juvenile justice-involved youth. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 1(1), 75–92. CrossRef
Freedman, E. B. (1996). The prison lesbian: Race, class, and the construction of the aggressive female homosexual, 1915-1965. Feminist Studies, 22(2), 397–423. CrossRef
Friedman, M. S., Marshal, M. P., Guadamuz, T. E., Wei, C., Wong, C. F., Saewyc, E. M., & Stall, R. (2011). A meta-analysis of disparities in childhood sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, and peer victimization among sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals. American Journal of Public Health, 101(8), 1481–1494. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Garnette, L., Irvine, A., Reyes, C., & Wilber, S. (2011). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and the juvenile justice system. In F. T. Sherman & F. H. Jacobs (Eds.), Juvenile justice: Advancing research, policy, and practice (pp. 156–173). New York, NY: Wiley. CrossRef
Graham, L. F. (2014). Navigating community institutions: Black transgender women’s experiences in schools, the criminal justice system, and churches. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 11(4), 274–287. CrossRef
Guevara, L., Herz, D., & Spohn, C. (2006). Gender and juvenile justice decision making: What role does race play? Feminist Criminology, 1(4), 258–282. CrossRef
Herman, J.L., Brown, T.N.T., Flores, A.R., Meyer, I.H., Wilson, B.D.M., & Stemple, L. (2016). Sexual victimization of incarcerated transgender people in the United States: Findings and limitations based on the National Inmate Survey (NIS-3). Manuscript in Preparation.
Hockenberry, S. (2016). Juveniles in Residential Placement, 2013. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. http://www.ncjj.org/pdf/Juvenile%20Arrests%20Bulletins/249507.pdf.
Holman, B., & Ziedenberg, J. (2006). The dangers of detention: The impact of incarcerating youth in detention and other secure facilities. Washington, DC: Justice Policy Institute. http://www.justicepolicy.org/images/upload/06-11_rep_dangersofdetention_jj.pdf.
Holsinger, K., & Hodge, J. P. (2014). The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender girls in juvenile justice systems. Feminist Criminology, 11(1), 23–47. CrossRef
Hunt, J., & Moodie-Mills, A. (2012). The unfair criminalization of gay and transgender youth: An overview of the experiences of LGBT youth in the juvenile justice system. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=267708.
Irvine, A. (2010). “We’ve had three of them”: Addressing the invisibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual and gender nonconforming youths in the juvenile justice system. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 19(3), 675–701.
Irvine, A., & Canfield (2016). The overrepresentation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning, gender nonconforming and transgender youth within the child welfare to juvenile justice crossover population. Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law, 24(2), 243–261.
Javaid, A. (2015). The dark side of men: The nature of masculinity and its uneasy relationship with male rape. Journal of Men’s Studies, 23(3), 271–292. CrossRef
Kann, L., Olsen, E. O., McManus, T., Harris, W. H., Shanklin, S. L., & Flint, K. H., et al. (2016). Sexual identity, sex of sexual contacts, and health-related behaviors among students in grades 9–12—United States and selected sites, 2015. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 65(No. SS-9), 1–202.
Kosciw, J. G., Greytak, E. A., Bartkiewicz, M. J., Boesen, M. J., & Palmer, N. A. (2011). The 2011 national school climate survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York, NY: Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN). http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED535177.
Majd, K., Marksamer, J., & Reyes, C. (2009). Hidden injustice: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth in juvenile courts. San Francisco, CA: Legal Services for Children and National Center for Lesbian Rights and Washington, DC: National Juvenile Defender Center. http://www.nclrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/hidden_injustice.pdf.
Marksamer, J. (2008). And by the way, do you know he thinks he’s a girl? The failures of law, policy and legal representation for transgender youth in juvenile delinquency courts. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 5(1), 72–92. CrossRef
Maschi, T., Hatcher, S. S., Schwalbe, C. S., & Rosato, N. S. (2008). Mapping the social service pathways of youth to and through the juvenile justice system: A comprehensive review. Children and Youth Services Review, 30(12), 1376–1385. CrossRef
McCarthy, P., Schiraldi, V., & Shark, M. (2016). The future of youth justice: A community-based alternative to the youth prison model. New Thinking in Community Corrections Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. (NCJ Publication No. 250142).
Meiners, E. R. (2011). Ending the school-to-prison pipeline/building abolition futures. The Urban Review, 43(4), 547–565. CrossRef
Mendel, R. A. (2010). No place for kids: The case for reducing juvenile incarceration. Baltimore, MD: The Annie E. Casey Foundation. http://www.aecf.org/resources/no-place-for-kids-full-report.
Meyer, I., Flores, A., Stemple, L., Romero, A., Wilson, B. D. M., & Herman, J. (2017). Incarceration Rates and Traits of Sexual Minorities in the United States: National Inmate Survey, 2011–2012. American Journal of Public Health, 107(2), 234–240.
Mitchell, R. C., Panzarello, A., Grynkiewicz, A., & Galupo, M. P. (2015). Sexual minority and heterosexual former foster youth: A comparison of abuse experiences and trauma-related beliefs. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 27(1), 1–16. CrossRef
Mitchum, P., & Moodie-Mills, A. C. (2014). Beyond bullying: How hostile school climate perpetuates the school-to-prison pipeline for LGBT youth. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/criminal-justice/report/2014/02/27/84179/beyond-bullying/.
Mogul, J. L., Ritchie, A. J., & Whitlock, K. (2011). Queer (in) justice: The criminalization of LGBT people in the United States (Vol. 5). Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Mountz, S. E. (2016). That’s the sound of the police state-sanctioned violence and resistance among LGBT young people previously incarcerated in girls’ juvenile justice facilities. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work, 31(3), 287–302. CrossRef
Nanda, J. (2011). Blind discretion: Girls of color & delinquency in the juvenile justice system. UCLA Law Review, 59, 1502.
Pasko, L. (2010). Damaged daughters: The history of girls’ sexuality and the juvenile justice system. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 100(3), 1099–1130.
Pasko, L. (2008). The wayward girl revisited: Understanding the gendered nature of juvenile justice and delinquency. Sociology Compass, 2(3), 821–836. CrossRef
Perry, M. H. (2011). Sister citizen: Shame, stereotypes, and black women in America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Poteat, V. P., Scheer, J. R., & Chong, E. S. (2016). Sexual orientation-based disparities in school and juvenile justice discipline: A multiple group comparison of contributing factors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(2), 229. CrossRef
Richardson, L. S., & Goff, P. A. (2014). Interrogating Racial Violence. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 12, 115–152.
Richie, B. (2005). Queering antiprison work. In J. Sudbury (Ed.). Global lockdown: Race gender, and the prison industrial complex (pp. 73–86). New York, NY: Routledge.
Robinson, A. (2017). The forgotten intersection: Black LGBTQ/GNC youth in juvenile detention in the United States. In L.D. Follins & J.M. Lassiter (Eds.), Black LGBT Health in the United States: The Intersection of Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation (pp.11–23). London, United Kingdom: Lexington Books.
Saar, M. S., Epstein, R., Rosenthal, L., & Vafa, Y. (2015). The sexual abuse to prison pipeline: The girls’ story. Washington, DC: Human Rights Project for Girls and Center for Poverty and Inequality at Georgetown University Law Center. http://www.law.georgetown.edu/academics/centers-institutes/poverty-inequality/upload/2015_COP_sexual-abuse_layout_web-2.pdf.
Sedlak, A. J., McPherson, K. S., & Basena, M. (2013). Nature and risk of victimization: Findings from the survey of youth in residential placement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (Juvenile Justice Bulletin, NCJ Publication No. 240703).
Sedlak, A. J., & McPherson, K. S. (2010). Conditions of confinement: Findings from the Survey of Youth in Residential Placement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/227729.pdf (NCJ Publication No. 227729).
Snapp, S. D., Hoenig, J. M., Fields, A., & Russell, S. T. (2015). Messy, butch, and queer LGBTQ youth and the school-to-prison pipeline. Journal of Adolescent Research, 30(1), 57–82. CrossRef
Steffensmeier, D., Ulmer, J., & Kramer, J. (1998). The interaction of race, gender, and age in criminal sentencing: The punishment cost of being young, black, and male. Criminology, 36(4), 763–798. CrossRef
Teplin, L. A., Welty, L. J., Abram, K. M., Dulcan, M. K., & Washburn, J. J. (2012). Prevalence and persistence of psychiatric disorders in youth after detention. JAMA Psychiatry, 69, 1031–1043.
Walters, M. L., Chen, J., & Breiding, M. J. (2013). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 findings on victimization by sexual orientation. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/pdf/NISVS_SOfindings.pdf (NCJ Publication No. 241083).
Weiss, K. G. (2008). Male sexual victimization: Examining men’s experiences of rape and sexual assault. Men and Masculinities, 12(3), 275–298. CrossRef
W. Hayward Burns Institute. (2016). Stemming the rising tide: Racial & ethnic disparities in youth incarceration & strategies for change. Oakland, CA: W. Hayward Burns Institute. http://www.burnsinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Stemming-the-Rising-Tide_FINAL.pdf.
Wilkinson, W. W. (2008). Threatening the patriarchy: Testing an explanatory paradigm of anti-lesbian attitudes. Sex Roles, 59(7–8), 512–520. CrossRef
Wilson, B. D. M., Harper, G. W., Hidalgo, M. A., Jamil, O. B., Torres, R. S., & Isabel Fernandez, M., Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions. (2010). Negotiating dominant masculinity ideology: Strategies used by gay, bisexual and questioning male adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 169–185. doi: 10.1007/s10464-009-9291-3. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Wilson, B. D. M., & Kastanis, A. A. (2015). Sexual and gender minority disproportionality and disparities in child welfare: A population-based study. Children and Youth Services Review, 58, 11–17. CrossRef
Woods, J. B. (2014). Queer contestations and the future of a critical “queer” criminology. Critical Criminology, 22(1), 5–19. CrossRef
Woronoff, R., Estrada, R., Sommer, S., & Marzullo, M. A. (2006). Out of the margins: A report on regional listening forums highlighting the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth in care. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America and New York, NY: Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund. https://www.lambdalegal.org/sites/default/files/publications/downloads/out-of-the-margins.pdf.
- Disproportionality and Disparities among Sexual Minority Youth in Custody
Bianca D. M. Wilson
Sid P. Jordan
Ilan H. Meyer
Andrew R. Flores
Jody L. Herman
- Springer US