Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Juveniles who have committed sexual offenses are subject to specialized treatment and policies based on their assumed unique dangerousness, despite contradictory evidence. Limited information is available regarding risk factors and their relationships to outcomes in this population. The comparative frequency and predictive utility of empirically supported risk factors for general delinquency were examined using data from the Pathways to Desistance study. Adolescent males who committed sexual offenses (n = 127) were compared to adolescent males who committed non-sexual offenses (n = 1021). At the start of the study, the sample ranged in age from 14 to 18 (M = 16.00, SD = 1.12) and self-identified as primarily African American (44 %), Latino (29 %), or White (25 %). Outcomes were measured over 7 years and included general and sexual recidivism, involvement in school and work, and positive relationships with peers and adults. The results indicated a few small differences in the presence of risk factors and their relationship to outcomes, with many similarities. Juveniles who have committed sexual offenses had equivalent general recidivism but higher sexual recidivism, though this rate was low (7.87 %, or 10 of the 127 adolescents who had committed sexual offenses). New clinical and policy approaches may be needed given the similarities between groups.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Aalsma, M. C., White, L. M., Lau, K. S. L., Perkins, A., Monahan, P., & Grisso, T. (2015). Behavioral health care needs, detention-based care, and criminal recidivism at community reentry from juvenile detention: A multisite survival curve analysis. American Journal of Public Health,105, 1372–1387. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302529. PubMedCrossRef
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association. CrossRef
Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010). The psychology of criminal conduct (5th ed.). New Providence, NJ: Matthew Bender & Company Inc.
Arizona Revised Statutes § 13-3821.D.
Bandura, A., Barbarnelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,71(2), 364–374. CrossRef
Boonmann, C., Jansen, L. M. C., t’Hart-Kerkhoffs, L. A., Vahl, P., Hillege, S. L., Doreleijers, T. A. H., et al. (2015). Self-reported psychopathic traits in sexually offending juveniles compared with generally offending juveniles and general population youth. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology,59(1), 85–95. doi: 10.1177/0306624X13508612. PubMedCrossRef
Burton, D., Demuynck, S., & Yoder, J. R. (2014). Executive dysfunction predicts delinquency but not characteristics of sexual aggression among adolescent sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment. doi: 10.1177/1079063214556357.
Cardwell, S. M., Piquero, A. R., Jennings, W. G., Copes, H., Schubert, C. A., & Mulvey, E. P. (2015). Variability in moral disengagement and its relation to offending in a sample of serious youthful offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior,42, 819–839. CrossRef
Elliot, D. S. (1990). National youth survey. Denver: Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado.
Fanniff, A. M., & Kolko, D. J. (2012). Victim age based subtypes of juveniles adjudicated for sexual offenses: Comparisons across domains in an outpatient sample. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment,24(3), 224–264. doi: 10.1177/1079063211416516.
Farrington, D. P., & Loeber, R. (2000). Epidemiology of juvenile violence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America,9(4), 733–748. PubMed
Fazel, S., Singh, J. P., Doll, H., & Grann, M. (2012). Use of risk assessment instruments to predict violence and antisocial behaviour in 73 samples involving 24,827 people: Systematic review and meta-analysis. British Medical Journal,345(e4692), 1–12.
Forth, A., Kosson, D., & Hare, R. (2003). The hare psychopathy checklist: Youth version, technical manual. NY: Multi-Health Systems Inc.
Frick, P. J. (2004). The inventory of callous-unemotional traits. New Orleans, LA: University of New Orleans.
Graham v. Florida, 130 S. Ct. 2011 (2010).
Hagan, M. P., Gust-Brey, K. L., Cho, M. E., & Dow, E. (2001). Eight-year comparative analyses of adolescent rapists, adolescent child molesters, other adolescent delinquents, and the general population. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology,45(3), 314–324. doi: 10.1177/0306624X01453004. CrossRef
Harris, A. J., Walfield, S. M., Shields, R. T., & Letourneau, E. J. (2015). Collateral consequences of juvenile sex offender registration and notification: Results from a survey of treatment providers. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment. doi: 10.1177/1079063215574004.
Haynie, D. L. (2002). Friendship networks and delinquency: The relative nature of peer delinquency. Journal of Quantitative Criminology,18(2), 99–134. CrossRef
Henggeler, S. W., Letourneau, E. J., Chapman, J. E., Borduin, C. M., Schewe, P. A., & McCart, M. R. (2009). Mediators of change for multisystemic therapy with juvenile sexual offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,77(3), 451–462. doi: 10.1037/a0013971. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Huey, S. J., Henggeler, S. W., Brondino, M. J., & Pickrel, S. G. (2000). Mechanisms of change in Multisystemic Therapy: Reducing delinquent behavior through therapist adherence and improved family and peer functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,68(3), 451–467. doi: 10.1037//0022-006X.68.3.451. PubMedCrossRef
Huizinga, D., Esbensen, F., & Weihar, A. (1991). Are there multiple paths to delinquency? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology,82, 83–118. CrossRef
Human Rights Watch. (2013). Raised on the registry: The irreparable harm of placing children on sex offender registries in the US. Washington, D.C.: Human Rights Watch. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/us0513_ForUpload_1.pdf.
Institute of Behavioral Science. (1990). Youth interview schedule: Denver youth study. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado (unpublished).
Jennings, W. G., Zgoba, K., & Tewksbury, R. (2012). A comparative longitudinal analysis of recidivism trajectories and collateral consequences for sex and non-sex offenders released since the implementation of sex offender registration and community notification. Journal of Crime & Justice,35, 356–364. CrossRef
Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2001). Understanding desistance from crime. Crime and Justice,28, 1–69. CrossRef
Letourneau, E. J., & Caldwell, M. F. (2013). Expensive, harmful policies that don’t work or how juvenile sexual offending is addressed in the U.S. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy,8(3–4), 23–29. CrossRef
Letourneau, E. J., Henngeler, S. W., McCart, M. R., Borduin, C. M., Schewe, P. A., & Armstrong, K. S. (2013b). Two-year follow-up of a randomized effectiveness trial evaluating MST for juveniles who sexually offend. Journal of Family Psychology,27(6), 978–985. doi: 10.1037/a0034710. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Lussier, P., & Blokland, A. (2014). The adolescence-adulthood transition and Robins’s continuity paradox: Criminal career patterns of juvenile and adult sex offenders in a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study. Journal of Criminal Justice,42(2), 153–163. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2013.07.004. CrossRef
McGrath, R. J., Cumming, G. F., Burchard, B. L., Zeoli, S., & Ellerby, L. (2010). Current practices and emerging trends in sexual abuser management: The Safer Society 2009 North American Survey. Retrieved from http://www.safersociety.org/downloadables/WP141-Current_Practices_Emerging_Trends.pdf.
McGrath, R. J., Lasher, M. P., & Cumming, G. F. (2011). A model of static and dynamic sex offender risk assessment. Washington, DC: Final Report to the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
Miner, M. H., Romine, R. S., Robinson, B. E., Berg, D., & Knight, R. A. (2014). Anxious attachment, social isolation, and indicators of sex drive and compulsivity: Predictors of child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescent males? Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment,28(2), 132–153. doi: 10.1177/1079063214547585. CrossRef
Moffitt, T. E. (2003). Life-course-persistent and adolescent-limited antisocial behavior: A 10-year research review and a research agenda. In B. B. Lahey, T. E. Moffitt, & A. Caspi (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp. 49–75). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Monahan, K., Steinberg, L., & Piquero, A. R. (2015). Juvenile justice policy and practice: A developmental perspective. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 44, pp. 577–619). Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Mulvey, E. P., Steinberg, L., Fagan, J., Cauffman, E., Piquero, A. R., Chassin, L., et al. (2004). Theory and research on desistance from antisocial activity among serious adolescent offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice,2(3), 213–236. doi: 10.1177/1541204004265864. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Nakkula, M. J., Way, N., Stauber, H. Y., & London, P. (1990). Teenage risk prevention questionnaire and interview: An integrative assessment of adolescent high-risk behavior. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University, Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology.
Paternoster, R., Brame, R., Mazerolle, P., & Piquero, A. (1998). Using the correct statistical test for the equality of regression coefficients. Criminology,36(4), 859–866. CrossRef
Phillips, J., & Springer, F. (1992). Extended national youth sports program 1991–92 evaluation highlights, part two: Individual protective factors index (IPFI) and risk assessment study (Report prepared for the National Collegiate Athletic Association). Sacramento, CA: EMT Associates Research.
Pierce, G., Sarason, I. G., Sarason, B. R., Solky-Butzel, J. A., & Nagle, L. C. (1997). Assessing the quality of personal relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,14, 339–356. CrossRef
Piquero, A. R., Blumstein, A., Brame, R., Haapanen, R., Mulvey, E. P., & Nagin, D. S. (2001). Assessing the impact of exposure time and incapacitation on longitudinal trajectories of criminal offending. Journal of Adolescent Research,16, 54–74. CrossRef
Piquero, A. R., Farrington, D. P., & Blumstein, A. (2003). The criminal career paradigm: Background and recent developments. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 30, pp. 359–506). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Piquero, A. R., Farrington, D. P., Jennings, W. G., Diamond, B., & Craig, J. (2012). Sex offenders and sex offending in the Cambridge study in delinquent development: Prevalence, frequency, specialization, recidivism, and (dis)continuity over the life course. Journal of Crime & Justice,35(3), 412–426. doi: 10.1080/0735648X.2012.688527. CrossRef
Piquero, A. R., Schubert, C. A., & Brame, R. (2014). Comparing official and self-report records of offending across gender and race/ethnicity in a longitudinal study of serious youthful offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency,51, 526–566. CrossRef
Pittman, N., & Nguyen, Q. (2011). A snapshot of juvenile sex offender registration and notification laws. Philadelphia, PA: Defender Association of Philadelphia. www.pajuvdefenders.org/file/snapshot.pdf.
Reynolds, C. R., & Richmond, B. O. (1985). Revised children’s manifest anxiety scale. RCMAS manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Schmidt, F., Sinclair, S. M., & Thomasdóttir, S. (2015). Predictive validity of the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory with youth who have committed sexual and non-sexual offenses: The utility of professional override. Criminal Justice and Behavior. doi: 10.1177/0093854815603389.
Schubert, C. A., Mulvey, E. P., & Glasheen, C. (2011). Influence of mental health and substance use problems and criminogenic risk on outcomes in serious juvenile offenders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,50(9), 925–937. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2011.06.006. PubMedCrossRef
Thornberry, T. P., Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. J., & Chard Wierschem, D. (1993). The role of juvenile gangs in facilitating delinquent behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency,30(1), 55–87. CrossRef
Tyler, T. (1997). Procedural fairness and compliance with the law. Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics,133(2/2), 219–240.
van den Berg, C., Bijleveld, C., & Hendriks, J. (2015). The juvenile sex offender: Criminal careers and life events. Sexual Abuse: A journal of Research and Treatment. doi: 10.1177/1079063215580967.
van der Put, C. E., & Asscher, J. J. (2015). Protective factors in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending: A comparison between three subgroups. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment,27(1), 109–126. doi: 10.1177/1079063214549259.
van der Put, C. E., van Vugt, E. S., Stams, G. J. J. J. M., Dekovic, M., & van der Laan, P. H. (2013). Differences in the prevalence and impact of risk factors for general recidivism between different types of juveniles who have committed sexual offenses (JSOs) and juveniles who have committed nonsexual offenses (NSOs). Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment,25(1), 41–68. doi: 10.1177/1079063212452615.
van Wijk, A. P., Blokland, A. A. J., Duits, N., Vermeiren, R., & Harkink, J. (2007). Relating psychiatric disorders, offender and offence characteristics in a sample of adolescent sex offenders and non-sex offenders. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health,17, 15–30. doi: 10.1002/cbm.628. PubMedCrossRef
van Wijk, A. P., Loeber, R., Vermeiren, R., Pardini, D., Bullens, R., & Doreleijers, T. (2005). Violent juvenile sex offenders compared with violent juvenile nonsex offenders: Explorative findings from the Pittsburgh Youth Study. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment,17(3), 333–352. doi: 10.1007/s11194-005-5062-3.
Vitopoulos, N. A., Peterson-Badali, M., & Skilling, T. A. (2012). The relationship between matching service to criminogenic need and recidivism in male and female youth: Examining the RNR principles in practice. Criminal Justice and Behavior,39(8), 1025–1041. doi: 10.1177/0093854812442895. CrossRef
Walden, T. A., Harris, V. S., Weiss, B., & Catron, T. (1995). Telling what we feel: Self- reports of emotion regulation and control among grade school children. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Indianapolis, IN.
Walters, G. D., & Cohen, T. H. (2016). Criminal thought process as a dynamic risk factor: Variable- and person-oriented approaches to recidivism prediction. Law and Human Behavior. doi: 10.1037/lhb0000185.
Wanklyn, S. G., Ward, A. K., Cormier, N. S., Day, D. M., & Newman, J. E. (2012). Can we distinguish juvenile violent sex offenders, violent non-sex offenders, and versatile violent sex offenders based on childhood risk factors? Journal of Interpersonal Violence,27(11), 2128–2143. doi: 10.1177/0886260511432153. PubMedCrossRef
White, B. A., Jarrett, M. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2013). Self-regulation deficits explain the link between reactive aggression and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment,35(1), 1–9. doi: 10.1007/s10862-012-9310-9. CrossRef
White, S. F., Van Tieghem, M., Brislin, S. J., Sypher, I., Sinclair, S., Pine, D. S., et al. (2016). Neural correlates of the propensity for retaliatory behavior in youths with disruptive behavior disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry,173(3), 282–290. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.15020250. PubMedCrossRef
World Health Organization. (1990). Composite international diagnostic interview. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Zimring, F. E. (2004). An American travesty: Legal responses to adolescent sexual offending. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef
Zimring, F. E., Piquero, A. R., & Jennings, W. G. (2007). Sexual delinquency in Racine: Does early sex offending predict later sex offending in youth and young adulthood. Criminology and Public Policy,6, 507–534. CrossRef
- Risk and Outcomes: Are Adolescents Charged with Sex Offenses Different from Other Adolescent Offenders?
Amanda M. Fanniff
Carol A. Schubert
Edward P. Mulvey
Anne-Marie R. Iselin
Alex R. Piquero
- Springer US