Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Working memory is one of several putative core neurocognitive processes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present work seeks to determine whether visual–spatial working memory is sensitive to motivational incentives, a laboratory analogue of behavioral treatment. Participants were 21 children (ages 7–10) with a diagnosis of ADHD-combined type. Participants completed a computerized spatial span task designed to assess storage of visual–spatial information (forward span) and manipulation of the stored information (backward span). The spatial span task was completed twice on the same day, once with a performance-based incentive (trial-wise feedback and points redeemable for prizes) and once without incentives. Participants performed significantly better on the backward span when rewarded for correct responses, compared to the no incentive condition. However, incentives had no effect on performance during the forward span. These findings may suggest the use of motivational incentives improved manipulation, but not storage, of visual–spatial information among children with ADHD. Possible explanations for the differential incentive effects are discussed, including the possibility that incentives prevented a vigilance decrement as task difficulty and time on task increased.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Academy of Pediatrics (2001). Clinical practice guidelines: Treatment of the school-age child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics, 108, 1–16. CrossRef
American Pyschiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Pyschiatric Association.
Baddeley, A., & Hitch, G. J. (1974). In G. A. Bower (Ed.) Recent advances in learning and motivation pp. 47–89. New York: Academic.
Castellanos, F. X., & Tannock, R. (2002). Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The search for endophenotypes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3(8), 617–628. PubMed
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Corkum, P. V., Schachar, R., & Siegel, L. S. (1996). Performance on the continuous performance task and the impact of reward. Journal of Attention Disorders, 1(2), 114–121. CrossRef
Corr, P. J. (2002). J.A. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory and frustrative nonreward: A theoretical note on expectancies in reactions to rewarding stimuli. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(7), 1247–1253. CrossRef
Douglas, V. I. (1989). Can Skinnerian theory explain attention deficit disorder? A reply to Barkley. In L. L. Bloomingdale, & J. Sergeant (Eds.) Attention deficit disorder: Current concepts and emerging trends in attentional and behavioral disorders of childhood (pp. 235–254). Oxford: Pergamon.
Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, J. W. E., Waschbusch, D. A., Gnagy, E. M., Lahey, B. B., Chronis, A. M., et al. (2006). A practical measure of impairment: Psychometric properties of the impairment rating scale in samples of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and two school-based samples. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35(3), 369–385. PubMedCrossRef
Geurts, H. M., Verte, S., Oosterlaan, J., Roeyers, H., Hartman, C. A., Mulder, E. J., et al. (2004). Can the children’s communication checklist differentiate between children with autism, children with ADHD, and normal controls? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(8), 1437–1453. PubMedCrossRef
Gray, J. A. (1982). The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gilbert, A. M., & Fiez, J. A. (2004). Integrating rewards and cognition in the frontal cortex. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 4(4), 540–552.
Haber, S. N., Fudge, J. L., & McFarland, N. R. (2000). Striatonigrostriatal pathways in primates form an ascending spiral from the shell to the dorsolateral striatum. The Journal of Neuroscience, 20(6), 2369–2382. PubMed
Huang-Pollock, C. L., Mikami, A. Y., Pfiffner, L., & McBurnett, K. (2007). ADHD subtype differences in motivational responsivity but not inhibitory control: Evidence from a reward-based variation of the stop signal paradigm. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(2), 127–136. PubMedCrossRef
Kaplan, E., Fein, D., Kramer, J., Delis, D., & Morris, R. (1999). WISC-III PI manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Kaplan, E., Fein, D., Kramer, J., Delis, D., & Morris, R. (2004). WISC-IV integrated. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Massetti, G. M., Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Loney, J., Ehrhardt, A., Lee, S. S., et al. (2007). Academic achievement over 8 years among children who met modified criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at 4–6 years of age. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. DOI 10.1007/s10802-007-9186-4
Milner, B. (1971). Interhemispheric differences in the localization of psychological processes in man. British Medical Bulletin, 27, 272–277. PubMed
Nigg, J. T. (2003). Response inhibition and disruptive behaviors: Toward a multiprocess conception of etiological heterogeneity for ADHD combined type and conduct disorder early-onset type. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1008, 170–182. CrossRef
Nigg, J. T. (2006). What Causes ADHD? Understanding what goes wrong and why. New York: Guilford.
Pelham, W. E., Jr., Fabiano, G. A. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37(1), 1–29. CrossRef
Pelham, W. E., Fabiano, G. A., Gnagy, E. M., Greiner, A. R., & Hoza, B. (2005a). The role of summer treatment programs in the context of comprehensive treatment for ADHD. In E. Hibbs, & P. Jensen (Eds.) Psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent disorders: Empirically based strategies for clinical practice (pp. 377–410). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Pelham, W. E., & Waschbusch, D. A. (1999). Behavioral intervention in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In H. C. Quay, & A. E. Hogan (Eds.) Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 255–278). New York: Kluwer.
Sergeant, J. A., Oosterlaan, J., & van der Meere, J. (1999). Information processing and energetic factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In H. C. Quay, & A. E. Hogan (Eds.) Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 75–104, 1999th ed.). New York, NY: Kluwer.
Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C. P., Dulcan, M. K., & Schwab-Stone, M. E. (2000). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): Description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(1), 28–38. CrossRef
Solanto, M. V., Wender, E. H., & Bartell, S. S. (1997). Effects of methylphenidate and behavioral contingencies on sustained attention in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A test of the reward dysfunction hypothesis. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 7(2), 123–136. PubMedCrossRef
Tannock, R., Ickowicz, A., & Schachar, R. (1995). Differential effects of methylphenidate on working memory in ADHD children with and without comorbid anxiety. Journal of the American Academy Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(7), 886–896. CrossRef
Waschbusch, D. A., Craig, R., Pelham Jr., W. E., & King, S. (2007). Self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Medication effects and comparisons with controls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(2), 275–286. PubMedCrossRef
Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock–Johnson III tests of achievement. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.
- The Effects of Incentives on Visual–Spatial Working Memory in Children with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Larry W. Hawk Jr.
Cynthia L. Lysczek
William E. Pelham Jr.
Sarah V. Spencer
Brian P. Gangloff
Daniel A. Waschbusch
- Springer US