Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Comorbidity amongst anxiety disorders is very common in children as in adults and leads to considerable distress and impairment, yet is poorly understood. Multivariate genetic analyses can shed light on the origins of this comorbidity by revealing whether genetic or environmental risks for one disorder also influence another. We examined the genetic and environmental influences on the comorbidity between three common childhood anxiety disorders: Specific Phobia, Separation Anxiety and Social Phobia.
Using a two-phase design 4,662 twin-pairs were screened in the first phase and 854 pairs were assessed in the second phase by maternal-informant diagnostic interview using DSM-IV criteria.
Multivariate genetic analysis revealed significant shared environmental over-lap between Specific Phobia and Separation Anxiety and significant familial and non-shared environmental over-lap between Specific Phobia and Social Phobia.
Familial influences, especially shared environment, are central to the comorbidity between Specific Phobia and both Separation Anxiety and Social Phobia.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (1993). Depressive comorbidity in children and adolescents: empirical, theoretical, and methodological issues. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1779–1791. PubMed
Bruce, S. E., Yonkers, K. A., Otto, M. W., Eisen, J. L., Weisberg, R. B., Pagano, M., et al. (2005). Influence of psychiatric comorbidity on recovery and recurrence in generalized anxiety disorder, Social Phobia, and panic disorder: A 12-year prospective study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1179–1187. PubMedCrossRef
Chorpita, B. F., Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1998). Perceived control as a mediator of family environment in etiological models of childhood anxiety. Behavior Therapy, 29, 457–476. CrossRef
Cobham, V. E., Dadds, M. R., & Spence, S. H. (1998). The role of parental anxiety in the treatment of childhood anxiety. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 66, 893–905. CrossRef
Cohen, J. A. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 37–46. CrossRef
Eaves, L. J., Silberg, J. L., Meyer, J. M., Maes, H. H., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., et al. (1997). Genetics and developmental psychopathology: 2. The main effects of genes and environment on behavioral problems in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 965–980. PubMedCrossRef
Field, A. P., Ball, J. E., Kawycz, N. J., & Moore, H. (2007). Parent–child relationships and the verbal information pathway to fear in children: Two preliminary experiments. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 35, 473–486. CrossRef
Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 39, 581–586. CrossRef
Kendler, K. S. (1996). Major depression and generalised anxiety disorder. Same genes, (partly)different environments—revisited. British Journal of Psychiatry Supplement, 68–75.
Lichtenstein, P., & Annas, P. (2000). Heritability and prevalence of specific fears and phobia in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 41, 927–937. CrossRef
Maser, J. D., & Cloninger, C. R. (1990). Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Neale, M. (1999). Mx: Statistical modeling (5th ed.). Richmond, VA 23298: Department of Psychiatry.
Neale, M., & Cardon, L. (1992). Methodology for genetic studies of twins and families. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publications.
Oest, L. G., & Treffers, P. D. A. (2001). Onset, course, and outcome for anxiety disorders in children. In W. K. Silverman, & P. D. A. Treffers (Eds.) Anxiety disorders in children and adoelscents: Research, assessment and intervention. Cambridge Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (pp. 293–312). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Otto, M. W., Pollack, M. H., Maki, K. M., Gould, R. A., Worthington III, J. J., Smoller, J. W., et al. (2001). Childhood history of anxiety disorders among adults with Social Phobia: Rates, correlates, and comparisons with patients with panic disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 14, 209–213. PubMedCrossRef
Perrin, S., & Last, C. G. (1995). Dealing with comorbidity. In A. R. Eisen, C. A. Kearney, & C. E. Schaefer (Eds.) Clinical handbook of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (pp. 412–435). Lanham, MD, US: Jason Aronson.
Pollack, M. H. (2001). Comorbidity, neurobiology, and pharmacotherapy of social anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62(Suppl 12), 24–29. PubMed
Rohde, P., Lewinsohn, P., & Seeley, J. (1997). Comparability of telephone and face to face interviews in assessing axis I and II disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1593–1598. PubMed
Schneier, F. R., Johnson, J., Hornig, C. D., Liebowitz, M. R., & Weissman, M. M. (1992). Social Phobia. Comorbidity and morbidity in an epidemiologic sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 282–288. PubMed
Silverman, W. K., & Nelles, W. B. (1998). The anxiety disorders interview schedule for children. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 772–778. CrossRef
Silverman, W. K., & Rabian, B. (1995). Test–retest reliability of the DSM-III-R childhood anxiety disorders symptoms using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 9, 139–150. CrossRef
Sobin, C., Weissman, M., Goldstein, R. B., & Adams, P. (1993). Diagnostic interviewing for family studies: Comparing telephone and face to face methods for diagnosis of lifetime psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric Genetics, 3, 227–233. CrossRef
Topolski, T. D., Hewitt, J. K., Eaves, L. J., Silberg, J. L., Meyer, J. M., Rutter, M., et al. (1997). Genetic and environmental influences on child reports of manifest anxiety and symptoms of Separation Anxiety and overanxious disorders: A community-based twin study. Behavior Genetics, 27, 15–28. PubMedCrossRef
- A Multivariate Genetic Analysis of Specific Phobia, Separation Anxiety and Social Phobia in Early Childhood
Thalia C. Eley
Fruhling V. Rijsdijk
Thomas G. O’Connor
- Springer US