Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

01-08-2008

The Role of Family Functioning in Bipolar Disorder in Families

Auteurs: Tina D. Du Rocher Schudlich, Eric A. Youngstrom, Joseph R. Calabrese, Robert L. Findling

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 6/2008

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Investigated the association between family functioning and conflict and their links with mood disorder in parents and with children’s risk for bipolar disorder. Participants were 272 families with a child between the ages of 5–17 years. Parents’ history of psychiatric diagnoses and children’s current diagnoses were obtained via semi-structured interviews. Parent report on the Family Assessment Device and the Conflict Behavior Questionnaire measured family functioning and conflict, respectively. Results revealed a small but significant indirect pathway from parental diagnosis of mood disorder to child bipolar disorder through impaired family functioning, via increased family conflict. Parental mood disorders were also significantly related to other negative outcomes in children, including unipolar depression and oppositional defiant disorder. Associations between parent diagnoses and family functioning changed depending on youth age, but not youth sex.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
Because AMOS does not allow for modeling of latent thresholds for bivariate outcome variables, analyses were also run in M-Plus 4.0, using both WLSMV, ML, and MLR estimators, to explicitly model the thresholds for categorical outcomes. These analyses did not result in any changes in the paths in terms of sign or significance; nor did the models appear to change in terms of fit. We also estimated the polyserial correlations using the “polyserial” procedure in R version 2.4.0 to examine whether modeling them instead of point-biserial estimates would change findings. The polyserial and point-biserial correlations were all well within one standard error of each other. The correlation between youth bipolar spectrum status and CBQ Total score was 0.42 for point-biserial and 0.38 for polyserial estimation (standard error = 0.06). For youth bipolar status and FAD total score, both correlations were 0.01 (with a standard error of 0.08). Given the similarity in findings, the greater range of model comparison statistics available in AMOS versus M-Plus, and the greater congruence between the AMOS model and the current thinking about bipolar disorder as being a spectrum, not a categorical, phenomenon, we chose to present the AMOS results in the main body of the paper. Results of the M-Plus analyses are available upon request from the corresponding author.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association (2001). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association (2001). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Adrian, C., & Hammen, C. (1993). Stress exposure and stress generation in children of depressed mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 354–359.PubMedCrossRef Adrian, C., & Hammen, C. (1993). Stress exposure and stress generation in children of depressed mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 354–359.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Anderson, C. A., & Hammen, C. L. (1993). Psychosocial outcomes of children of unipolar depressed, bipolar, medically ill, and normal women: A longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 448–454.PubMedCrossRef Anderson, C. A., & Hammen, C. L. (1993). Psychosocial outcomes of children of unipolar depressed, bipolar, medically ill, and normal women: A longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 448–454.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Andreasen, N. C., Endicott, J., Spitzer, R. L., & Winokur, G. (1977). The family history method using diagnostic criteria. Reliability and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 1229–1235.PubMed Andreasen, N. C., Endicott, J., Spitzer, R. L., & Winokur, G. (1977). The family history method using diagnostic criteria. Reliability and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 1229–1235.PubMed
go back to reference Arbuckle, J. L., & Wothke, W. (1999). Amos 4.0 users guide. Chicago: SmallWaters Corporation. Arbuckle, J. L., & Wothke, W. (1999). Amos 4.0 users guide. Chicago: SmallWaters Corporation.
go back to reference Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.PubMedCrossRef Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Berument, S. K., Rutter, M., Lord, C., Pickles, A., & Bailey, A. (1999). Autism screening questionnaire: diagnostic validity. British Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 444–451.PubMed Berument, S. K., Rutter, M., Lord, C., Pickles, A., & Bailey, A. (1999). Autism screening questionnaire: diagnostic validity. British Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 444–451.PubMed
go back to reference Biederman, J., Kwon, A., Wozniak, J., Mick, E., Markowitz, S., Fazio, V., et al. (2004). Absence of gender differences in pediatric bipolar disorder: Findings from a large sample of referred youth. Journal of Affective Disorders, 83, 207–214.PubMedCrossRef Biederman, J., Kwon, A., Wozniak, J., Mick, E., Markowitz, S., Fazio, V., et al. (2004). Absence of gender differences in pediatric bipolar disorder: Findings from a large sample of referred youth. Journal of Affective Disorders, 83, 207–214.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bossuyt, P. M., Reitsma, J. B., Bruns, D. E., Gatsonis, C. A., Glasziou, P. P., Irwig, L. M., et al. (2003). Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative. British Medical Journal, 326, 41–44.PubMedCrossRef Bossuyt, P. M., Reitsma, J. B., Bruns, D. E., Gatsonis, C. A., Glasziou, P. P., Irwig, L. M., et al. (2003). Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative. British Medical Journal, 326, 41–44.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Byles, J., Byrne, C., Boyle, M. H., & Offord, D. R. (1988). Ontario Child Health Study: Reliability and validity of the general functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device. Family Process, 27, 97–104.PubMedCrossRef Byles, J., Byrne, C., Boyle, M. H., & Offord, D. R. (1988). Ontario Child Health Study: Reliability and validity of the general functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device. Family Process, 27, 97–104.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Caplan, H., Cogill, S., Alexandra, H., Robson, K., Katz, R., & Kumar, R. (1989). Maternal depression and the emotional development of the child. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 818–823.PubMedCrossRef Caplan, H., Cogill, S., Alexandra, H., Robson, K., Katz, R., & Kumar, R. (1989). Maternal depression and the emotional development of the child. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 818–823.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chang, K. D., Blasey, C., Ketter, T. A., & Steiner, H. (2001). Family environment of children and adolescents with bipolar parents. Bipolar Disorders, 3, 73–78.PubMedCrossRef Chang, K. D., Blasey, C., Ketter, T. A., & Steiner, H. (2001). Family environment of children and adolescents with bipolar parents. Bipolar Disorders, 3, 73–78.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Conrad, M., & Hammen, C. (1989). Role of maternal depression in perceptions of child maladjustment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 663–667.PubMedCrossRef Conrad, M., & Hammen, C. (1989). Role of maternal depression in perceptions of child maladjustment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 663–667.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cooke, R. G., Young, L. T., Mohri, L., Blake, P., & Joffe, R. T. (1999). Family-of-origin characteristics in bipolar disorder: A controlled study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 379–381. Cooke, R. G., Young, L. T., Mohri, L., Blake, P., & Joffe, R. T. (1999). Family-of-origin characteristics in bipolar disorder: A controlled study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 379–381.
go back to reference Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. T. (1994). Maternal depression and child development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 73–112.PubMedCrossRef Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. T. (1994). Maternal depression and child development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 73–112.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cummings, E. M., Davies, P. T., & Campbell, S. B. (2000). Developmental psychopathology and family process: Theory, research, and clinical implications. New York: Guilford. Cummings, E. M., Davies, P. T., & Campbell, S. B. (2000). Developmental psychopathology and family process: Theory, research, and clinical implications. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Danielson, C. K., Feeny, N. C., Findling, R. L., & Youngstrom, E. A. (2004). Psychosocial treatment of bipolar disorders in adolescents: A proposed cognitive-behavioral intervention. Cognitive & Behavioral Practice, 11, 283–297.CrossRef Danielson, C. K., Feeny, N. C., Findling, R. L., & Youngstrom, E. A. (2004). Psychosocial treatment of bipolar disorders in adolescents: A proposed cognitive-behavioral intervention. Cognitive & Behavioral Practice, 11, 283–297.CrossRef
go back to reference Davis, B., Sheeber, L., Hops, H., & Tildesley, E. (2000). Adolescent responses to depressive parental behaviors in problems-solving interactions: Implications for depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 451–465.PubMedCrossRef Davis, B., Sheeber, L., Hops, H., & Tildesley, E. (2000). Adolescent responses to depressive parental behaviors in problems-solving interactions: Implications for depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 451–465.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference DelBello, M. P., & Geller, B. (2001). Review of studies of child and adolescent offspring of bipolar parents. Bipolar Disorders, 3, 325–334.PubMedCrossRef DelBello, M. P., & Geller, B. (2001). Review of studies of child and adolescent offspring of bipolar parents. Bipolar Disorders, 3, 325–334.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Downey, G., & Coyne, J. C. (1990). Children of depressed parents: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 50–76.PubMedCrossRef Downey, G., & Coyne, J. C. (1990). Children of depressed parents: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 50–76.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Du Rocher Schudlich, T. D. (2004). Parental dysphoria, marital conflict, and parenting:Relations with children’s emotional security and adjustment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Du Rocher Schudlich, T. D. (2004). Parental dysphoria, marital conflict, and parenting:Relations with children’s emotional security and adjustment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
go back to reference Du Rocher Schudlich, T. D., & Cummings, E. M. (2003). Parental dysphoria and children’s internalizing symptoms: Marital conflict styles as mediators of risk. Child Development, 74, 1663–1681.PubMedCrossRef Du Rocher Schudlich, T. D., & Cummings, E. M. (2003). Parental dysphoria and children’s internalizing symptoms: Marital conflict styles as mediators of risk. Child Development, 74, 1663–1681.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Du Rocher Schudlich, T. D., Papp, L. M., & Cummings, E. M. (2004). Relations of husbands’ and wives’ dysphoria to marital conflict resolution strategies. Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 171–183.PubMedCrossRef Du Rocher Schudlich, T. D., Papp, L. M., & Cummings, E. M. (2004). Relations of husbands’ and wives’ dysphoria to marital conflict resolution strategies. Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 171–183.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). Examiner’s manual for the peabody picture vocabulary test – third edition. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service. Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). Examiner’s manual for the peabody picture vocabulary test – third edition. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
go back to reference Endicott, J., & Spitzer, R. L. (1978). A diagnostic interview: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837–844.PubMed Endicott, J., & Spitzer, R. L. (1978). A diagnostic interview: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837–844.PubMed
go back to reference Epstein, N. B., Baldwin, L. M., & Bishop, D. S. (1983). The McMaster Family Assessment Device. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 9, 171–180.CrossRef Epstein, N. B., Baldwin, L. M., & Bishop, D. S. (1983). The McMaster Family Assessment Device. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 9, 171–180.CrossRef
go back to reference Erdfelder, E., Faul, F., & Buchner, A. (1996). GPower: A general power analysis program. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 28, 1–11. Erdfelder, E., Faul, F., & Buchner, A. (1996). GPower: A general power analysis program. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 28, 1–11.
go back to reference Feeny, N. C., Danielson, C., Schwartz, L., Youngstrom, E. A., & Findling, R. L. (2006). CBT for bipolar disorders in adolescents: A pilot study. Bipolar Disorders, 8, 508–515.PubMedCrossRef Feeny, N. C., Danielson, C., Schwartz, L., Youngstrom, E. A., & Findling, R. L. (2006). CBT for bipolar disorders in adolescents: A pilot study. Bipolar Disorders, 8, 508–515.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fergusson, D., Horwood, L. J., & Lynskey, M. (1995). Maternal depressive symptoms and depressive symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 1161–1178.PubMedCrossRef Fergusson, D., Horwood, L. J., & Lynskey, M. (1995). Maternal depressive symptoms and depressive symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 1161–1178.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Findling, R. L., Gracious, B. L., McNamara, N. K., Youngstrom, E. A., Demeter, C., & Calabrese, J. R. (2001). Rapid, continuous cycling and psychiatric co-morbidity in pediatric bipolar I disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 3, 202–210.PubMedCrossRef Findling, R. L., Gracious, B. L., McNamara, N. K., Youngstrom, E. A., Demeter, C., & Calabrese, J. R. (2001). Rapid, continuous cycling and psychiatric co-morbidity in pediatric bipolar I disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 3, 202–210.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Forehand, R., & Jones, D. J. (2003). Neighborhood violence and coparent conflict: Interactive influence on child psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 591–604.PubMedCrossRef Forehand, R., & Jones, D. J. (2003). Neighborhood violence and coparent conflict: Interactive influence on child psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 591–604.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Forehand, R., & McCombs, A. (1988). Unraveling the antecedent-consequence conditions in maternal depression and adolescent functioning. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 26, 399–405.PubMedCrossRef Forehand, R., & McCombs, A. (1988). Unraveling the antecedent-consequence conditions in maternal depression and adolescent functioning. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 26, 399–405.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fristad, M. A. (1999). Psychoeducation: A model intervention for families with mood disordered children. The Family Psychologist, 15, 14–18. Fristad, M. A. (1999). Psychoeducation: A model intervention for families with mood disordered children. The Family Psychologist, 15, 14–18.
go back to reference Fristad, M. A., Gavazzi, S. M., & Mackinaw-Koons, B. (2003). Family psychoeducation: An adjunctive intervention for children with bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 53, 1000–1008.PubMedCrossRef Fristad, M. A., Gavazzi, S. M., & Mackinaw-Koons, B. (2003). Family psychoeducation: An adjunctive intervention for children with bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 53, 1000–1008.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fristad, M. A., & Goldberg-Arnold, J. S. (2004). Raising a moody child: How to cope with depression and bipolar disorder. New York: Guilford. Fristad, M. A., & Goldberg-Arnold, J. S. (2004). Raising a moody child: How to cope with depression and bipolar disorder. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Fristad, M. A., Goldberg-Arnold, J. S., & Gavazzi, S. M. (2002). Multifamily psychoeducation groups (MFPG) for families of children with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 4, 254–262.PubMedCrossRef Fristad, M. A., Goldberg-Arnold, J. S., & Gavazzi, S. M. (2002). Multifamily psychoeducation groups (MFPG) for families of children with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 4, 254–262.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fristad, M. A., Weller, E. B., & Weller, R. A. (1992). The mania rating scale: Can it be used in children? A preliminary report. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 252–257.CrossRef Fristad, M. A., Weller, E. B., & Weller, R. A. (1992). The mania rating scale: Can it be used in children? A preliminary report. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 252–257.CrossRef
go back to reference Ge, X., Conger, R. D., Lorenz, F. O., Shanahan, M., Elder, G., et al. (1995). Mutual influences in parent and adolescent psychological distress. Developmental Psychology, 31, 406–419.CrossRef Ge, X., Conger, R. D., Lorenz, F. O., Shanahan, M., Elder, G., et al. (1995). Mutual influences in parent and adolescent psychological distress. Developmental Psychology, 31, 406–419.CrossRef
go back to reference Geller, B., Craney, J. L., Bolhofner, K., DelBello, M. P., Axelson, D., Luby, J., et al. (2003). Phenomenology and longitudinal course of children with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype. In B. Geller, & M. P. DelBello (Eds.) Bipolar disorder in childhood and early adolescence (pp. 25–50). New York: Guilford. Geller, B., Craney, J. L., Bolhofner, K., DelBello, M. P., Axelson, D., Luby, J., et al. (2003). Phenomenology and longitudinal course of children with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype. In B. Geller, & M. P. DelBello (Eds.) Bipolar disorder in childhood and early adolescence (pp. 25–50). New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Geller, B., & Luby, J. (1997). Child and adolescent bipolar disorder: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1168–1176. Geller, B., & Luby, J. (1997). Child and adolescent bipolar disorder: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1168–1176.
go back to reference Geller, B., Tillman, R., Craney, J. L., & Bolhofner, K. (2004). Four-year prospective outcome and natural history of mania in children with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 459–467.PubMedCrossRef Geller, B., Tillman, R., Craney, J. L., & Bolhofner, K. (2004). Four-year prospective outcome and natural history of mania in children with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 459–467.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Goodwin, F. K., & Jamison, K. R. (1990). Manic-depressive illness. New York: Oxford University Press. Goodwin, F. K., & Jamison, K. R. (1990). Manic-depressive illness. New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Hammen, C. (1988). Self-cognitions, stressful events, and the prediction of depression in children of depressed mothers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 347–360.PubMedCrossRef Hammen, C. (1988). Self-cognitions, stressful events, and the prediction of depression in children of depressed mothers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 347–360.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hammen, C. (1991). Depression runs in families: The social context of risk and resilience in children of depressed mothers. New York: Springer. Hammen, C. (1991). Depression runs in families: The social context of risk and resilience in children of depressed mothers. New York: Springer.
go back to reference Hammen, C. (2002). Context of stress in families of children with depressed parents. In S. H. Goodman, & I. H. Gotlib (Eds.) Children of depressed parents (pp. 175–202). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRef Hammen, C. (2002). Context of stress in families of children with depressed parents. In S. H. Goodman, & I. H. Gotlib (Eds.) Children of depressed parents (pp. 175–202). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRef
go back to reference Hammen, C., Adrian, C., Gordon, D., Burge, D., Jaenicke, C., & Hiroto, D. (1987). Children of depressed mothers: Maternal strain and symptom predictors of dysfunction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96, 190–198.PubMedCrossRef Hammen, C., Adrian, C., Gordon, D., Burge, D., Jaenicke, C., & Hiroto, D. (1987). Children of depressed mothers: Maternal strain and symptom predictors of dysfunction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96, 190–198.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hammen, C., Burge, D., & Adrian, C. (1991). Timing of mother and child depression in a longitudinal study of children at risk. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 341–345.PubMedCrossRef Hammen, C., Burge, D., & Adrian, C. (1991). Timing of mother and child depression in a longitudinal study of children at risk. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 341–345.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hammen, C., Burge, D., Burney, E., & Adrian, C. (1990). Longitudinal study of diagnoses in children of women with unipolar and bipolar affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1112–1117.PubMed Hammen, C., Burge, D., Burney, E., & Adrian, C. (1990). Longitudinal study of diagnoses in children of women with unipolar and bipolar affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1112–1117.PubMed
go back to reference Hellander, M., Sisson, D. P., & Fristad, M. (2003). Internet support for parents of children with early-onset bipolar disorder. In B. Geller, & M. P. DelBello (Eds.) Bipolar disorder in childhood and early adolescence (pp. 314–329). New York: Guilford. Hellander, M., Sisson, D. P., & Fristad, M. (2003). Internet support for parents of children with early-onset bipolar disorder. In B. Geller, & M. P. DelBello (Eds.) Bipolar disorder in childhood and early adolescence (pp. 314–329). New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Hodgins, S., Faucher, B., Zarac, A., & Ellenbogen, M. (2002). Children of parents with bipolar disorder. A population at high risk for major affective disorders. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 11, 533–553.CrossRef Hodgins, S., Faucher, B., Zarac, A., & Ellenbogen, M. (2002). Children of parents with bipolar disorder. A population at high risk for major affective disorders. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 11, 533–553.CrossRef
go back to reference Hooley, J. M., & Hiller, J. B. (2001). Family relationships and major mental disorder: Risk factors and preventive strategies. In B. R. Sarason, & S. Duck (Eds.) Personal relationships: Implications for clinical and community psychology (pp. 61–87). New York: Wiley. Hooley, J. M., & Hiller, J. B. (2001). Family relationships and major mental disorder: Risk factors and preventive strategies. In B. R. Sarason, & S. Duck (Eds.) Personal relationships: Implications for clinical and community psychology (pp. 61–87). New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Judd, L. L., Akiskal, H. S., Schettler, P. J., Endicott, J., Leon, A. C., Solomon, D., et al. (2005). Psychosocial disability in the course of bipolar I and II disorders: A prospective, comparative, longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1322–1330.PubMedCrossRef Judd, L. L., Akiskal, H. S., Schettler, P. J., Endicott, J., Leon, A. C., Solomon, D., et al. (2005). Psychosocial disability in the course of bipolar I and II disorders: A prospective, comparative, longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1322–1330.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Keitner, G. I., Baldwin, L. M., Epstein, N. B., & Bishop, D. S. (1985). Family functioning in patients with affective disorders. International Journal of Family Psychiatry, 4, 405–437. Keitner, G. I., Baldwin, L. M., Epstein, N. B., & Bishop, D. S. (1985). Family functioning in patients with affective disorders. International Journal of Family Psychiatry, 4, 405–437.
go back to reference Kim, S., & Brody, G. H. (2005). Longitudinal pathways to psychological adjustment among black youth living in single-parent households. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 305–313.PubMedCrossRef Kim, S., & Brody, G. H. (2005). Longitudinal pathways to psychological adjustment among black youth living in single-parent households. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 305–313.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kirk, R. E. (1995). Experimental design: Procedures for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing. Kirk, R. E. (1995). Experimental design: Procedures for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing.
go back to reference Kotchick, B. A., Dorsey, S., & Heller, L. (2005). Predictors of parenting among African American single mothers: Personal and contextual factors. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 448–460.CrossRef Kotchick, B. A., Dorsey, S., & Heller, L. (2005). Predictors of parenting among African American single mothers: Personal and contextual factors. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 448–460.CrossRef
go back to reference Kowatch, R. A., Youngstrom, E. A., Danielyan, A. K., & Findling, R. L. (2005). Meta-analysis of the phenomenology and clinical characteristics of mania in children and adolescents. Bipolar Disorders, 7, 483–496.PubMedCrossRef Kowatch, R. A., Youngstrom, E. A., Danielyan, A. K., & Findling, R. L. (2005). Meta-analysis of the phenomenology and clinical characteristics of mania in children and adolescents. Bipolar Disorders, 7, 483–496.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lapalme, M., Hodgins, S., & LaRoche, C. (1997). Children of parents with bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis of risk for mental disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 623–631. Lapalme, M., Hodgins, S., & LaRoche, C. (1997). Children of parents with bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis of risk for mental disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 623–631.
go back to reference Leibenluft, E., Charney, D. S., Towbin, K. E., Bhangoo, R. K., & Pine, D. S. (2003). Defining clinical phenotypes of juvenile mania. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 430–437.PubMedCrossRef Leibenluft, E., Charney, D. S., Towbin, K. E., Bhangoo, R. K., & Pine, D. S. (2003). Defining clinical phenotypes of juvenile mania. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 430–437.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lytton, H. (1990). Child and parent effects in boys’ conduct disorder: A reinterpretation. Developmental Psychology, 26, 683–697.CrossRef Lytton, H. (1990). Child and parent effects in boys’ conduct disorder: A reinterpretation. Developmental Psychology, 26, 683–697.CrossRef
go back to reference MacKinnon, D. P., Krull, J. L., & Lockwood, C. M. (2000). Equivalence of the mediation, confounding and suppression effect. Prevention Science, 1, 173–181.PubMedCrossRef MacKinnon, D. P., Krull, J. L., & Lockwood, C. M. (2000). Equivalence of the mediation, confounding and suppression effect. Prevention Science, 1, 173–181.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7, 83–104.PubMedCrossRef MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7, 83–104.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference McGuffin, P., Rijsdijk, F., Andrew, M., Sham, P., Katz, R., & Cardno, A. (2003). The heritability of bipolar affective disorder and the genetic relationship to unipolar depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 497–502.PubMedCrossRef McGuffin, P., Rijsdijk, F., Andrew, M., Sham, P., Katz, R., & Cardno, A. (2003). The heritability of bipolar affective disorder and the genetic relationship to unipolar depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 497–502.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Meyer, S. E., Carlson, G. E., Wiggs, C. E., Ronsaville, D. S., Martinex, P. E., Klimes-Dougan, B., Gold, P. W., & Radke-Yarrow, M. (2006). A prospective high-risk study of the association among maternal negativity, apparent frontal lobe dysfunction, and the development of bipolar disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 573–289.PubMedCrossRef Meyer, S. E., Carlson, G. E., Wiggs, C. E., Ronsaville, D. S., Martinex, P. E., Klimes-Dougan, B., Gold, P. W., & Radke-Yarrow, M. (2006). A prospective high-risk study of the association among maternal negativity, apparent frontal lobe dysfunction, and the development of bipolar disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 573–289.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Miklowitz, D. J. (2004). The role of family systems in severe and recurrent psychiatric disorders: a developmental psychopathology view. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 667–688.PubMedCrossRef Miklowitz, D. J. (2004). The role of family systems in severe and recurrent psychiatric disorders: a developmental psychopathology view. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 667–688.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Miklowitz, D. J., George, E. L., Richards, J. A., Simoneau, T. L., & Suddath, R. L. (2003a). A randomized study of family focused psychoeducation and pharmacotherapy in the outpatient management of bipolar disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 904–912.PubMedCrossRef Miklowitz, D. J., George, E. L., Richards, J. A., Simoneau, T. L., & Suddath, R. L. (2003a). A randomized study of family focused psychoeducation and pharmacotherapy in the outpatient management of bipolar disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 904–912.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Miklowitz, D. J., Richards, J. A., George, E. L., Frank, E., Suddath, R. L., Powell, K. B., et al. (2003b). Integrated family and individual therapy for bipolar disorder: Results of a treatment development study. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 182–191.PubMedCrossRef Miklowitz, D. J., Richards, J. A., George, E. L., Frank, E., Suddath, R. L., Powell, K. B., et al. (2003b). Integrated family and individual therapy for bipolar disorder: Results of a treatment development study. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 182–191.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Miklowitz, D. J., Wisniewski, S. R., Miyahara, S., Otto, M. W., & Sachs, G. S. (2005). Perceived criticism from family members as a predictor of the one-year course of bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Research, 136, 101–111.PubMedCrossRef Miklowitz, D. J., Wisniewski, S. R., Miyahara, S., Otto, M. W., & Sachs, G. S. (2005). Perceived criticism from family members as a predictor of the one-year course of bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Research, 136, 101–111.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Miller, I. W., Kabacoff, R. I., Keitner, G. I., Epstein, N. B., & Bishop, D. S. (1986). Family functioning in families of psychiatric patients. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 27, 302–312.PubMedCrossRef Miller, I. W., Kabacoff, R. I., Keitner, G. I., Epstein, N. B., & Bishop, D. S. (1986). Family functioning in families of psychiatric patients. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 27, 302–312.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Murray, L., Sinclair, D., Cooper, P., Ducournau, P., & Turner, P. (1999). The socioemotional development of 5 year old children of postnatally depressed mothers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 1259–1271.PubMedCrossRef Murray, L., Sinclair, D., Cooper, P., Ducournau, P., & Turner, P. (1999). The socioemotional development of 5 year old children of postnatally depressed mothers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 1259–1271.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. Children and their development: Knowledge base, research agenda, and social policy application. American Psychologist, 44(Special issue), 329–335.PubMedCrossRef Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. Children and their development: Knowledge base, research agenda, and social policy application. American Psychologist, 44(Special issue), 329–335.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Perlis, R., Miyahara, S., Marangell, L. B., Wisniewski, S. R., Ostacher, M., DelBello, M. P., et al. (2004). Long-term implications of early onset in bipolar disorder: Data from the first 1000 participants in the systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD). Biological Psychiatry, 55, 875–881.PubMedCrossRef Perlis, R., Miyahara, S., Marangell, L. B., Wisniewski, S. R., Ostacher, M., DelBello, M. P., et al. (2004). Long-term implications of early onset in bipolar disorder: Data from the first 1000 participants in the systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD). Biological Psychiatry, 55, 875–881.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Petersen, A. C., Crockett, L., Richards, M., & Boxer, A. (1988). A self-report measure of pubertal status: Reliability, validity, and initial norms. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 17, 117–133.CrossRef Petersen, A. C., Crockett, L., Richards, M., & Boxer, A. (1988). A self-report measure of pubertal status: Reliability, validity, and initial norms. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 17, 117–133.CrossRef
go back to reference Poznanski, E. O., Miller, E., Salguero, C., & Kelsh, R. C. (1984). Preliminary studies of the reliability and validity of the Children’s Depression Rating Scale. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 191–197.PubMed Poznanski, E. O., Miller, E., Salguero, C., & Kelsh, R. C. (1984). Preliminary studies of the reliability and validity of the Children’s Depression Rating Scale. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 191–197.PubMed
go back to reference Prinz, R. J., Foster, S. L., Kent, R. N., & O’Leary, K. D. (1979). Multivariate assessment of conflict in distressed and nondistressed mother-adolescent dyads. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 691–700.PubMedCrossRef Prinz, R. J., Foster, S. L., Kent, R. N., & O’Leary, K. D. (1979). Multivariate assessment of conflict in distressed and nondistressed mother-adolescent dyads. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 691–700.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Radke-Yarrow, M. (1998). Children of depressed mothers: From early childhood to maturity. New York: Cambridge Press. Radke-Yarrow, M. (1998). Children of depressed mothers: From early childhood to maturity. New York: Cambridge Press.
go back to reference Rice, F., Harold, G., & Thapar, A. (2002). Negative life events as an account of age-related differences in the genetic aetiology of depression in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 977–987.CrossRef Rice, F., Harold, G., & Thapar, A. (2002). Negative life events as an account of age-related differences in the genetic aetiology of depression in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 977–987.CrossRef
go back to reference Robertson, H. A., Kuthcer, S. P., Bird, D., & Grasswick, L. (2001). Impact of early onset bipolar disorder on family functioning: Adolescents’ perceptions of family dynamics, communication, and problems. Journal of Affective Disorders, 66, 25–37.PubMedCrossRef Robertson, H. A., Kuthcer, S. P., Bird, D., & Grasswick, L. (2001). Impact of early onset bipolar disorder on family functioning: Adolescents’ perceptions of family dynamics, communication, and problems. Journal of Affective Disorders, 66, 25–37.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Robin, A. L., & Foster, S. L. (1989). Negotiating parent–adolescent conflict: A behavioral-family systems approach. New York: Guilford. Robin, A. L., & Foster, S. L. (1989). Negotiating parent–adolescent conflict: A behavioral-family systems approach. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Sanford, M., Boyle, M., McCleary, L., Miller, J., Steele, M., Duke, E., & Offord, D. (2006). A pilot study of adjunctive family psychoeducation in adolescent major depression: Feasibility and treatment effect. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 386–395.CrossRef Sanford, M., Boyle, M., McCleary, L., Miller, J., Steele, M., Duke, E., & Offord, D. (2006). A pilot study of adjunctive family psychoeducation in adolescent major depression: Feasibility and treatment effect. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 386–395.CrossRef
go back to reference Schwoeri, L., & Sholevar, G. P. (1994). The family transmission of depression. In G. P. Sholevar (Ed.) The transmission of depression in families and children: Assessment and Intervention (pp. 123–144). Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson. Schwoeri, L., & Sholevar, G. P. (1994). The family transmission of depression. In G. P. Sholevar (Ed.) The transmission of depression in families and children: Assessment and Intervention (pp. 123–144). Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
go back to reference Singh, M. K., Delbello, M. P., Stanford, K. E., Soutullo, C., McDonough-Ryan, P., McElroy, S. L., & Strakowski, S. M. (2007). Psychopathology in children of bipolar parents. Journal of Affective Disorders, 102, 131–136.PubMedCrossRef Singh, M. K., Delbello, M. P., Stanford, K. E., Soutullo, C., McDonough-Ryan, P., McElroy, S. L., & Strakowski, S. M. (2007). Psychopathology in children of bipolar parents. Journal of Affective Disorders, 102, 131–136.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Snyder, J. R. (1998). Marital conflict and child adjustment: What about gender? Developmental Review, 18, 390–420.CrossRef Snyder, J. R. (1998). Marital conflict and child adjustment: What about gender? Developmental Review, 18, 390–420.CrossRef
go back to reference Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models.In Sociological Methodology 1982 pp. 290–312. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models.In Sociological Methodology 1982 pp. 290–312. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.
go back to reference Young, R. C., Biggs, J. T., Ziegler, V. E., & Meyer, D. A. (1978). A rating scale for mania: Reliability, validity, and sensitivity. British Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 429–435.PubMed Young, R. C., Biggs, J. T., Ziegler, V. E., & Meyer, D. A. (1978). A rating scale for mania: Reliability, validity, and sensitivity. British Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 429–435.PubMed
go back to reference Youngstrom, E. A., & Kogos Youngstrom, J. (2005). Evidence based assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder, part 2: Incorporating information from behavior checklists. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 823–828.CrossRef Youngstrom, E. A., & Kogos Youngstrom, J. (2005). Evidence based assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder, part 2: Incorporating information from behavior checklists. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 823–828.CrossRef
go back to reference Youngstrom, E. A., Findling, R. L., Danielson, C. K., & Calabrese, J. R. (2001). Discriminative validity of parent report of hypomanic and depressive symptoms on the General Behavior Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 13, 267–276.PubMedCrossRef Youngstrom, E. A., Findling, R. L., Danielson, C. K., & Calabrese, J. R. (2001). Discriminative validity of parent report of hypomanic and depressive symptoms on the General Behavior Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 13, 267–276.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Youngstrom, E. A., Findling, R. L., Calabrese, J. R., Gracious, B. L., Demeter, C., Bedoya, B. D., et al. (2004). Comparing the diagnostic accuracy of six potential screening instruments for bipolar disorder in youths aged 5 to 17 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 847–858.CrossRef Youngstrom, E. A., Findling, R. L., Calabrese, J. R., Gracious, B. L., Demeter, C., Bedoya, B. D., et al. (2004). Comparing the diagnostic accuracy of six potential screening instruments for bipolar disorder in youths aged 5 to 17 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 847–858.CrossRef
go back to reference Zahn-Waxler, C., Mayfield, A., Radke-Yarrow, M., McKnew, D. H., Cytryn, L., & Davenport, Y. B. (1988). A follow-up investigation of offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 506–509.PubMed Zahn-Waxler, C., Mayfield, A., Radke-Yarrow, M., McKnew, D. H., Cytryn, L., & Davenport, Y. B. (1988). A follow-up investigation of offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 506–509.PubMed
go back to reference Zwaanswijk, M., van der Ende, J., Verhaak, P. F., Bensing, J., & Verhulst, F. (2005). Help-seeking for child psychopathology: Pathways to informal and professional services in The Netherlands. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 1292–1300.PubMedCrossRef Zwaanswijk, M., van der Ende, J., Verhaak, P. F., Bensing, J., & Verhulst, F. (2005). Help-seeking for child psychopathology: Pathways to informal and professional services in The Netherlands. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 1292–1300.PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
The Role of Family Functioning in Bipolar Disorder in Families
Auteurs
Tina D. Du Rocher Schudlich
Eric A. Youngstrom
Joseph R. Calabrese
Robert L. Findling
Publicatiedatum
01-08-2008
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 6/2008
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-008-9217-9

Andere artikelen Uitgave 6/2008

Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology 6/2008 Naar de uitgave