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22-02-2019 | Original Article

Selective attention effects on recognition: the roles of list context and perceptual difficulty

Auteurs: Hanae Davis, Tamara M. Rosner, Maria C. D’Angelo, Ellen MacLellan, Bruce Milliken

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 5/2020

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Abstract

Two recent studies reported superior recognition memory for items that were incongruent targets than for items that were congruent targets in a prior incidental study phase (Krebs et al. in Cereb Cortex (New York, NY) 25(3):833–843, 2015; Rosner et al. in Psychol Res 79(3):411–424, 2015). The present study examined this effect further by addressing two issues. First, we examined whether this effect is sensitive to the list context in which congruent and incongruent items are presented. In Experiment 1, this issue was addressed by manipulating the relative proportions of congruent and incongruent trials in the study phase. In Experiments 2A and 2B, the same issue was examined by contrasting randomly intermixed and blocked manipulations of congruency. The results of these experiments, as well as a trial-to-trial sequence analysis, demonstrate that the recognition advantage for incongruent over congruent items is robust and remarkably insensitive to list context. Second, we examined recognition of incongruent and congruent items relative to a single word baseline condition. Incongruent (Experiment 3A) and congruent (Experiment 3B) items were both better recognized than single word items, though this effect was substantially stronger for incongruent items. These results suggest that perceptual processing difficulty, rather than interference caused by different target and distractor identities on its own, contributes to the enhanced recognition of incongruent items. Together, the results demonstrate that processes that are sensitive to perceptual processing difficulty of items but largely insensitive to list context produce heightened recognition sensitivity for incongruent targets.
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1
Preliminary analyses for both the study and test phases first examined whether the counterbalancing variable of block order for proportion congruent (high/low) impacted performance. For the study phase, there were no significant effects involving the counterbalancing factor in the analysis of naming RTs, but one higher order interaction involving the counterbalancing factor in the analysis of errors. This interaction appeared to be driven by a small shift in the magnitude of the trial type × block effect for the two block orders, but generally error rates were low in all conditions and higher for incongruent than congruent trials in all conditions. For d′ values in the test phase, there was one higher order interaction involving block order that appeared to be driven by a trend toward larger trial type effects in the second block of trials than the first block of trials, a trend that we have seen in several other studies.
 
2
Preliminary analyses for both the study and test phases first examined whether the counterbalancing variable of block order impacted performance in the blocked condition. In Experiment 2A, no main effect of block order nor any interaction involving block order were significant in any of the analyses. In Experiment 2B, the only significant effect involving block order was a block order by trial type interaction in the analysis of dF(1, 22) = 5.291, p = 0.031, \(\eta _{{\text{p}}}^{2}\) = 0.184. This interaction appeared to be driven simply by better memory for the item type that was presented first and was, therefore, treated as a spurious one for the present purposes. The data for all subsequent analyses for both Experiments 2A and 2B were collapsed across the block order factor.
 
3
In addition, in Experiment 2A the stimuli were presented on a 20-in. HP LCD monitor rather than a 24-in. BENQ LED monitor.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Selective attention effects on recognition: the roles of list context and perceptual difficulty
Auteurs
Hanae Davis
Tamara M. Rosner
Maria C. D’Angelo
Ellen MacLellan
Bruce Milliken
Publicatiedatum
22-02-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 5/2020
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-019-01153-x

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