Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness 2/2018

22-08-2017 | ORIGINAL PAPER

Improvements in Critical Thinking Performance Following Mindfulness Meditation Depend on Thinking Dispositions

Auteurs: Chris Noone, Michael J. Hogan

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 2/2018

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Many claims have been made regarding the application of mindfulness meditation to the improvement of critical thinking skills, with some suggesting improved executive function as a mechanism. This study tests theoretical assumptions related to these claims. Sixty-five Irish university students took part in an active-controlled mixed factorial experiment designed to investigate the effects of a guided mindfulness meditation on the primary measures of executive function and critical thinking. The secondary measures assessed key thinking dispositions, including the need for cognition and actively open-minded thinking, state mindfulness and dispositional mindfulness. The 2 × 2 mixed analyses of variance showed no evidence of an effect of the interaction between time (pre vs. post) and group (mindfulness vs. sham meditation) on executive function indices (p < 0.39) or critical thinking performance (p = 0.11). No evidence was found for indirect effects of group allocation on critical thinking through either state mindfulness or executive function. Moderation models demonstrated evidence that the effects of the mindfulness meditation on critical thinking were conditional on need for cognition (b = −0.24 [−0.40, −0.08]) and actively open-minded thinking (b = −0.14 [−0.25, −0.04]) dispositions. In addition, participants who reported low levels of non-reactivity demonstrated decreased critical thinking performance following the mindfulness meditation, which was mediated by slower reaction times on the executive functioning task (b = −53.37 [−92.65, −14.08]). In summary, a brief guided mindfulness meditation appears to facilitate critical thinking for those low in need for cognition and actively open-minded thinking. However, it is unclear whether executive function is a mechanism underlying this relationship.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference Bohlmeijer, E., Klooster, P. M., Fledderus, M., Veehof, M., & Baer, R. (2011). Psychometric properties of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in depressed adults and development of a short form. Assessment, 18(3), 308–320. doi: 10.​1177/​1073191111408231​. CrossRefPubMed Bohlmeijer, E., Klooster, P. M., Fledderus, M., Veehof, M., & Baer, R. (2011). Psychometric properties of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in depressed adults and development of a short form. Assessment, 18(3), 308–320. doi: 10.​1177/​1073191111408231​. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848. CrossRefPubMed Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Colzato, L. S., Szapora, A., Lippelt, D., & Hommel, B. (2017). Prior meditation practice modulates performance and strategy use in convergent- and divergent-thinking problems. Mindfulness, 8(1), 10–16. doi: 10.​1007/​s12671-014-0352-9. CrossRef Colzato, L. S., Szapora, A., Lippelt, D., & Hommel, B. (2017). Prior meditation practice modulates performance and strategy use in convergent- and divergent-thinking problems. Mindfulness, 8(1), 10–16. doi: 10.​1007/​s12671-014-0352-9. CrossRef
go back to reference Dickenson, J., Berkman, E. T., Arch, J., & Lieberman, M. D. (2013). Neural correlates of focused attention during a brief mindfulness induction. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(1), 40–47. doi: 10.​1093/​scan/​nss030. CrossRefPubMed Dickenson, J., Berkman, E. T., Arch, J., & Lieberman, M. D. (2013). Neural correlates of focused attention during a brief mindfulness induction. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(1), 40–47. doi: 10.​1093/​scan/​nss030. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Eisenlohr-Moul, T. A., Walsh, E. C., Charnigo Jr., R. J., Lynam, D. R., & Baer, R. A. (2012). The “what” and the “how” of dispositional mindfulness: using interactions among subscales of the five-facet mindfulness questionnaire to understand its relation to substance use. Assessment, 19(3), 276–286. doi: 10.​1177/​1073191112446658​. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Eisenlohr-Moul, T. A., Walsh, E. C., Charnigo Jr., R. J., Lynam, D. R., & Baer, R. A. (2012). The “what” and the “how” of dispositional mindfulness: using interactions among subscales of the five-facet mindfulness questionnaire to understand its relation to substance use. Assessment, 19(3), 276–286. doi: 10.​1177/​1073191112446658​. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Facione, P. A. (2013). Critical thinking: what it is and why it counts (2013 Update). San Jose: California Academic Press. Facione, P. A. (2013). Critical thinking: what it is and why it counts (2013 Update). San Jose: California Academic Press.
go back to reference Fisher, N. R., Thompson, L., & Malinowski, P. (2016). What is being induced in mindfulness experiments? A systematic analysis of the components, composition and emphasis of “mindfulness inductions”. Paper presented at the Internatioinal Conference on Mindfulness, Rome, Italy. Fisher, N. R., Thompson, L., & Malinowski, P. (2016). What is being induced in mindfulness experiments? A systematic analysis of the components, composition and emphasis of “mindfulness inductions”. Paper presented at the Internatioinal Conference on Mindfulness, Rome, Italy.
go back to reference Frewen, P., Hargraves, H., DePierro, J., Andrea, W. D., & Flodrowski, L. (2016). Meditation breath attention scores (MBAS): development and investigation of an internet-based assessment of focused attention during meditation practice. Psychological Assessment, 28(7), 830–840. doi: 10.​1037/​pas0000283. CrossRefPubMed Frewen, P., Hargraves, H., DePierro, J., Andrea, W. D., & Flodrowski, L. (2016). Meditation breath attention scores (MBAS): development and investigation of an internet-based assessment of focused attention during meditation practice. Psychological Assessment, 28(7), 830–840. doi: 10.​1037/​pas0000283. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Goodman, R. J. (2014). Present with an uncertain future: dispositional mindfulness, covariation bias, and event-related potential responses to emotional stimuli in uncertain contexts (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Virginia Commonwealth University. Richmond, VA. Goodman, R. J. (2014). Present with an uncertain future: dispositional mindfulness, covariation bias, and event-related potential responses to emotional stimuli in uncertain contexts (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Virginia Commonwealth University. Richmond, VA.
go back to reference Halpern, D. F. (1998). Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains: dispositions, skills, structure training, and metacognitive monitoring. American Psychologist, 53(4), 449–455. CrossRefPubMed Halpern, D. F. (1998). Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains: dispositions, skills, structure training, and metacognitive monitoring. American Psychologist, 53(4), 449–455. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Halpern, D. F. (2010). Halpern critical thinking assessment. Moedling: SCHUHFRIED (Vienna Test System). Halpern, D. F. (2010). Halpern critical thinking assessment. Moedling: SCHUHFRIED (Vienna Test System).
go back to reference Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference IBM Corp. (2013). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 22.0. Armonk: IBM Corp. IBM Corp. (2013). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 22.0. Armonk: IBM Corp.
go back to reference JASP Team. (2016). JASP, version 0.7.5.5. Amsterdam: JASP Team. JASP Team. (2016). JASP, version 0.7.5.5. Amsterdam: JASP Team.
go back to reference Kee, Y. H., Chatzisarantis, N. N. L. D., Kong, P. W., Chow, J. Y., & Chen, L. H. (2012). Mindfulness, movement control, and attentional focus strategies: effects of mindfulness on a postural balance task. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 34(5), 561–579. CrossRefPubMed Kee, Y. H., Chatzisarantis, N. N. L. D., Kong, P. W., Chow, J. Y., & Chen, L. H. (2012). Mindfulness, movement control, and attentional focus strategies: effects of mindfulness on a postural balance task. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 34(5), 561–579. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Levinson, D. B., Stoll, E. L., Kindy, S. D., Merry, H. L., & Davidson, R. J. (2014). A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1202. doi: 10.​3389/​fpsyg.​2014.​01202 Levinson, D. B., Stoll, E. L., Kindy, S. D., Merry, H. L., & Davidson, R. J. (2014). A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1202. doi: 10.​3389/​fpsyg.​2014.​01202
go back to reference Lilja, J. L., Lundh, L. G., Josefsson, T., & Falkenström, F. (2013). Observing as an essential facet of mindfulness: a comparison of FFMQ patterns in meditating and non-meditating individuals. Mindfulness, 4(3), 203–212. doi: 10.​1007/​s12671-012-0111-8. CrossRef Lilja, J. L., Lundh, L. G., Josefsson, T., & Falkenström, F. (2013). Observing as an essential facet of mindfulness: a comparison of FFMQ patterns in meditating and non-meditating individuals. Mindfulness, 4(3), 203–212. doi: 10.​1007/​s12671-012-0111-8. CrossRef
go back to reference Lueke, A., & Gibson, B. (2016). Brief mindfulness meditation reduces discrimination. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 3(1), 34–44. doi: 10.​1037/​cns0000081. Lueke, A., & Gibson, B. (2016). Brief mindfulness meditation reduces discrimination. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 3(1), 34–44. doi: 10.​1037/​cns0000081.
go back to reference Mindfulness All-Party Parliamentary Group. (2015). Mindful nation UK. London: The Mindfulness Initiative. Mindfulness All-Party Parliamentary Group. (2015). Mindful nation UK. London: The Mindfulness Initiative.
go back to reference Noone, C., Bunting, B., & Hogan, M. J. (2015). Does mindfulness enhance critical thinking? Evidence for the mediating effects of executive functioning in the relationship between mindfulness and critical thinking. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 2043. doi: 10.​3389/​fpsyg.​2015.​02043. Noone, C., Bunting, B., & Hogan, M. J. (2015). Does mindfulness enhance critical thinking? Evidence for the mediating effects of executive functioning in the relationship between mindfulness and critical thinking. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 2043. doi: 10.​3389/​fpsyg.​2015.​02043.
go back to reference Oyer, B., Gillespie, M., Issah, M., & Fasko, D. (2012). The role of personality in argument evaluation. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines, 27(2), 40–49. Oyer, B., Gillespie, M., Issah, M., & Fasko, D. (2012). The role of personality in argument evaluation. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines, 27(2), 40–49.
go back to reference Peters, G.-J. Y. (2014). The alpha and the omega of scale reliability and validity: why and how to abandon Cronbach’s alpha and the route towards more comprehensive assessment of scale quality. European Health Psychologist, 16(2), 56–69. Peters, G.-J. Y. (2014). The alpha and the omega of scale reliability and validity: why and how to abandon Cronbach’s alpha and the route towards more comprehensive assessment of scale quality. European Health Psychologist, 16(2), 56–69.
go back to reference Pykett, J., Lilley, R., Whitehead, M., Howell, R., & Jones, R. (2016). Mindfulness, behaviour change and decision making: an experimental trial. Birmingham: University of Birmingham. Pykett, J., Lilley, R., Whitehead, M., Howell, R., & Jones, R. (2016). Mindfulness, behaviour change and decision making: an experimental trial. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.
go back to reference Rossi, J. S. (2012). Statistical power analysis. In: W. A. Schinka & W. F. Velicer (Eds.), handbook of psychology volume 2: Research methods in psychology (pp. 71–109). Hoboken: Wiley. Rossi, J. S. (2012). Statistical power analysis. In: W. A. Schinka & W. F. Velicer (Eds.), handbook of psychology volume 2: Research methods in psychology (pp. 71–109). Hoboken: Wiley.
go back to reference Shapiro, S. L., Brown, K. W., & Astin, J. (2011). Toward the integration of meditation into higher education: a review of research evidence. Teachers College Record, 113(3), 493–528. Shapiro, S. L., Brown, K. W., & Astin, J. (2011). Toward the integration of meditation into higher education: a review of research evidence. Teachers College Record, 113(3), 493–528.
go back to reference Spies, K., Hesse, F., & Hummitzsch, C. (1996). Mood and capacity in Baddeley’s model of human memory. Zeitschrift für Psychologie mit Zeitschrift für Angewandte Psychologie, 204(4), 367–381. Spies, K., Hesse, F., & Hummitzsch, C. (1996). Mood and capacity in Baddeley’s model of human memory. Zeitschrift für Psychologie mit Zeitschrift für Angewandte Psychologie, 204(4), 367–381.
go back to reference Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1997). Reasoning independently of prior belief and individual differences in actively open-minded thinking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(2), 342–357. CrossRef Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1997). Reasoning independently of prior belief and individual differences in actively open-minded thinking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(2), 342–357. CrossRef
go back to reference Teper, R., Segal, Z. V., & Inzlicht, M. (2013). Inside the mindful mind: how mindfulness enhances emotion regulation through improvements in executive control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(6), 449–454. doi: 10.​1177/​0963721413495869​. CrossRef Teper, R., Segal, Z. V., & Inzlicht, M. (2013). Inside the mindful mind: how mindfulness enhances emotion regulation through improvements in executive control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(6), 449–454. doi: 10.​1177/​0963721413495869​. CrossRef
go back to reference Vago, D. R. (2014). Mapping modalities of self-awareness in mindfulness practice: a potential mechanism for clarifying habits of mind. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1307(1), 28–42. CrossRefPubMed Vago, D. R. (2014). Mapping modalities of self-awareness in mindfulness practice: a potential mechanism for clarifying habits of mind. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1307(1), 28–42. CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Improvements in Critical Thinking Performance Following Mindfulness Meditation Depend on Thinking Dispositions
Auteurs
Chris Noone
Michael J. Hogan
Publicatiedatum
22-08-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 2/2018
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0789-8