Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Conceptualizing the construct of flow in terms of ‘deep and effortless concentration’, we developed two measurement scales designed to index individual differences in flow during ‘internal’ tasks, such as thinking (deep effortless concentration: internal—DECI) and during ‘external’ tasks, such as while playing a sport (deep effortless concentration: external—DECE). These scales were highly correlated, indicating that individuals prone to experiencing flow in external contexts are also prone to experience flow in internal contexts. Nonetheless, a measurement model construing internal and external flow as related, but separate, constructs was found to fit the data significantly better than a model where they were construed as a single construct. We then explored associations between flow and various forms of everyday inattention. In addition, we explored the relation between flow and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS), an index of absorption, as well as the Big Five personality traits. Amongst other things, we found that flow was negatively related to inattention, indicating that people who experience flow more frequently may experience relatively less inattention in everyday contexts.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Aherne, C., Moran, A. P., & Lonsdale, C. (2011). The effect of mindfulness training on athletes’ flow: an initial investigation. The Sport Psychologist, 25(2), 177–189. CrossRef
Arbuckle, J. L. (2016). Amos (Version 24.0) (Computer Program). Chicago: IBM SPSS.
Asakawa, K. (2010). Flow experience, culture, and well-being: How do autotelic Japanese college students feel, behave, and think in their daily lives? Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(2), 205–223. CrossRef
Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241.
Carriere, J. S. A., Cheyne, J. A., & Smilek, D. (2008). Everyday attention lapses and memory failures: The affective consequences of mindlessness. Consciousness and Cognition, 17(3), 835–847. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2007.04.008. CrossRefPubMed
Carriere, J. S. A., Seli, P., & Smilek, D. (2013). Wandering in both mind and body: individual differences in mind wandering and inattention predict fidgeting. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne De Psychologie Expérimentale, 67(1), 19–31. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031438. CrossRefPubMed
Catley, D.E.L.W.Y.N., & Duda, J.L. (1997). Psychological antecedents of the frequency and intensity of flow in golfers. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 28(4), 309–322.
Cermakova, L., Moneta, G.B., & Spada, M.M. (2010). Dispositional flow as a mediator of the relationships between attentional control and approaches to studying during academic examination preparation. Educational Psychology, 30(5), 495–511. CrossRef
Cheyne, J. A., Carriere, J.S.A., & Smilek, D. (2006). Absent-mindedness: Lapses of conscious awareness and everyday cognitive failures. Consciousness and Cognition, 15(3), 578–592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2005.11.009. CrossRefPubMed
Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (2008). The revised neo personality inventory (neo-pi-r). The SAGE Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment, 2, 179–198.
Crust, L., & Swann, C. (2013). The relationship between mental toughness and dispositional flow. European Journal of Sport Science, 13(2), 215–220. CrossRef
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1978). Attention and the Holistic Approach to Behaviour. In K. S. Pope & J. L. Singer (Eds.), The Stream of Consciousness (pp. 335–358). New York: Plenum. CrossRef
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1988). The flow experience and its significance for human psychology. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), Optimal experience: psychological studies of flow in consciousness (pp. 15–35). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Beyond boredom and anxiety. Jossey-Bass. (Original work published 1975).
Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Nakamura, J. (2010). Effortless attention in everyday life: A systematic phenomenology. In B. Bruya (Ed.), Effortless attention: a new perspective in the cognitive science of attention and action (pp. 179–190). Cambridge: The MIT Press. CrossRef
Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., & Laurenceau, J. P. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: The development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29(3), 177. CrossRef
Hamari, J., & Koivisto, J. (2014). Measuring flow in gamification: Dispositional flow scale-2. Computers in Human Behavior, 40, 133–143. CrossRef
Han, S. (1988). The relationship between life satisfaction and flow in elderly Korean immigrants. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), Optimal experience: psychological studies of flow in consciousness (pp. 138–149). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Harari, Y. N. (2008). Combat flow: military, political, and ethical dimensions of subjective well-being in war. Review of General Psychology, 12(3), 253. CrossRef
Hockey, R. (2013). The psychology of fatigue: work, effort and control. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Jackson, S. A., & Eklund, R. C. (2002). Assessing flow in physical activity: the flow state scale-2 and dispositional flow scale-2. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 24(2), 133–150. CrossRef
Jackson, S. A., Ford, S. K., Kimiecik, J. C., & Marsh, H. W. (1998). Psychological correlates of flow in sport. Journal of Sport and exercise Psychology, 20(4), 358–378. CrossRef
Jackson, S. A., & Marsh, H. W. (1996). Development and validation of a scale to measure optimal experience: the Flow State Scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 18(1), 17–35. CrossRef
Jackson, S. A., Thomas, P. R., Marsh, H. W., & Smethurst, C. J. (2001). Relationships between flow, self-concept, psychological skills, and performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13(2), 129–153. CrossRef
John, O. P., Donahue, E. M., & Kentle, R. L. (1991). The Big Five Inventory–Versions 4a and 54. Berkeley: University of California.
John, O. P., Naumann, L. P., & Soto, C. J. (2008). Paradigm shift to the integrative Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and conceptual issues. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: theory and research (pp. 114–158). New York: Guilford Press.
Keller, J., Ringelhan, S., & Blomann, F. (2011). Does skills–demands compatibility result in intrinsic motivation? Experimental test of a basic notion proposed in the theory of flow experiences. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(5), 408–417. CrossRef
Kihlstrom, J. F. (2011). Tellegen Absorption Scale. https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~jfkihlstrom/TAS.htm. Accessed 4 June 2018
Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modelling. New York: Guilford Press.
Landhäußer, A., & Keller, J. (2012). Flow and its affective, cognitive, and performance-related consequences. In Advances in flow research (pp. 65–85). New York: Springer. CrossRef
Levitin, D. J. (2014). The organized mind: Thinking straight in the age of information overload. Penguin.
Macbeth, J. (1988). Ocean cruising. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), Optimal experience: psychological studies of flow in consciousness (pp. 214–231). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Martin, A. J., & Jackson, S. A. (2008). Brief approaches to assessing task absorption and enhanced subjective experience: Examining ‘short’ and ‘core’ flow in diverse performance domains. Motivation and Emotion, 32(3), 141–157. CrossRef
Marty-Dugas, J., Ralph, B. C. W., Oakman, J. M., & Smilek, D. (2018). The relation between smartphone use and everyday inattention. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 5(1), 46–62. https://doi.org/10.1037/cns0000131.
Moore, B. A. (2013). Propensity for experiencing flow: The roles of cognitive flexibility and mindfulness. The Humanistic Psychologist, 41(4), 319. CrossRef
Mosing, M. A., Magnusson, P. K., Pedersen, N. L., Nakamura, J., Madison, G., & Ullén, F. (2012). Heritability of proneness for psychological flow experiences. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(5), 699–704. CrossRef
Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2002). The concept of flow. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 89–105). New York: Oxford University Press.
Pain, M. A., Harwood, C., & Anderson, R. (2011). Pre-competition imagery and music: the impact on flow and performance in competitive soccer. The Sport Psychologist, 25(2), 212–232. CrossRef
Pates, J., Karageorghis, C. I., Fryer, R., & Maynard, I. (2003). Effects of asynchronous music on flow states and shooting performance among netball players. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 4(4), 415–427. CrossRef
Peifer, C., Schulz, A., Schächinger, H., Baumann, N., & Antoni, C. H. (2014). The relation of flow-experience and physiological arousal under stress—can u shape it? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 53, 62–69. CrossRef
Ralph, B. C. (2017). Media multitasking and performance on attentionally demanding tasks (Doctoral Thesis). https://uwspace.fuwaterloo.ca/handle/10012/12098. Accessed 4 April 2018.
Ralph, B. C., Seli, P., Wilson, K. E., & Smilek, D. (2018) Volitional media multitasking: Awareness of performance costs and modulation of media multitasking as a function of task demand. Psychological Research (under review).
Raven, J.C. (1962). Advanced progressive matrices. Set II. London: H. K. Lewis & Co. Distributed in the USA by The Psychological Corporation. San Antonio. Texas.
Raven, J.C. (1965). Advanced Progressive Matrices. Sets I and II. London: H. K. Lewis & Co. Distributed in the USA by The Psychological Corporation. San Antonio, Texas.
Ross, S. R., & Keiser, H. N. (2014). Autotelic personality through a five-factor lens: individual differences in flow-propensity. Personality and Individual Differences, 59, 3–8. CrossRef
Sato, I. (1988). Bosozoku: flow in Japanese motorcycle gangs. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness (pp. 92–117). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Seli, P., Risko, E. F., & Smilek, D. (2016). Assessing the associations among trait and state levels of deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering. Consciousness and Cognition, 41, 50–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2016.02.002. CrossRefPubMed
Sirois, F. M. (2014). Absorbed in the moment? An investigation of procrastination, absorption and cognitive failures. Personality and individual differences, 71, 30–34. CrossRef
Smyser, C. H., & Baron, D. A. (1993). Hypnotizability, absorption, and subscales of the Dissociative Experiences Scale in a nonclinical population. Dissociation: Progress in the Dissociative Disorders,6(1), 42–46.
Stavrou, N. A., Jackson, S. A., Zervas, Y., & Karteroliotis, K. (2007). Flow experience and athletes’ performance with reference to the orthogonal model of flow. The Sport Psychologist, 21(4), 438–457. CrossRef
Swann, C. (2016). Flow in Sport. In L. Harmat, F. O. Anderson, F. Ullén, J. Wright & G. Sadlo (Eds.), Flow Experience (pp. 51–64). Switzerland: Springer. CrossRef
Swann, C., Keegan, R. J., Piggott, D., & Crust, L. (2012). A systematic review of the experience, occurrence, and controllability of flow states in elite sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(6), 807–819. CrossRef
Tellegen, A. (1992). Note on structure and meaning of the MPQ Absorption scale. University of Minnesota (Un-published manuscript).
Ullén, F., de Manzano, Ö, Almeida, R., Magnusson, P. K., Pedersen, N. L., Nakamura, J., Madison, G. (2012). Proneness for psychological flow in everyday life: Associations with personality and intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(2), 167–172. CrossRef
Ullén, F., de Manzano, Ö, Theorell, T., & Harmat, L. (2010). 10 The physiology of effortless attention: correlates of state flow and flow proneness. Effortless attention: a new perspective in the cognitive science of attention and action, p. 205.
Ullén, F., Harmat, L., Theorell, T., & Madison, G. (2016). Flow and individual differences—a phenotypic analysis of data from more than 10,000 twin individuals. In L. Harmat, F. O. Anderson, F. Ullén, J. Wright & G. Sadlo (Eds.), Flow experience (pp. 267–288). Springer International Publishing.
Wang, Z., Irwin, M., Cooper, C., & Srivastava, J. (2015). Multidimensions of media multitasking and adaptive media selection. Human Communication Research, 41(1), 102–127. CrossRef
Wright, J. J., Sadlo, G., & Stew, G. (2006). Challenge-skills and mindfulness: an exploration of the conundrum of flow process. OTJR: Occupation, participation and health, 26(1), 25–32.
Wright, J. J., Sadlo, G., & Stew, G. (2007). Further explorations into the conundrum of flow process. Journal of Occupational Science, 14(3), 136–144. CrossRef
- Deep, effortless concentration: re-examining the flow concept and exploring relations with inattention, absorption, and personality
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
- Psychological Research
An International Journal of Perception, Attention, Memory, and Action
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772