Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Chronic pain may be related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The current study examined whether persistent bodily pain was related to cardiovascular disease risk factors, whether these effects were moderated by body mass index (BMI), and, if not, whether chronic pain accounted for unique variance in CVD risk factors. Participants were women (N = 2,135) in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. A high pain frequency variable (high pain in 0 through 4 assessments) was coded to reflect the frequency of high levels of bodily pain across the first 3 years of the study. Six CVD risk factors and BMI were measured at follow-up year 3. High pain frequency and BMI were correlated significantly with risk factors, although effects for the former were small. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed high pain frequency × BMI interactions for 5 of 6 CVD risk factors. Dissecting the interactions revealed a similar pattern across 4 risk factors: for women with normal BMI, there was a “dose–response” in which increasing frequency of high pain revealed increasingly worse CVD risk factor levels, whereas for women with obese BMI, high pain frequency was unrelated to risk factors. For obese women, increasing frequency of high pain was associated with higher blood glucose. Although BMI is a well-established CVD risk factor, evaluation of CVD risk level may be improved by considering the incidence of persistent pain, particularly in normal weight women (BMI < 25 kg/m2) lower BMI.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bogers, R. P., Bemelmans, W. J., Hoogenveen, R. T., Boshuizen, H. C., Woodward, M., Knekt, P., et al. (2007). Association of overweight with increased risk of coronary heart disease partly independent of blood pressure and cholesterol levels: A meta-analysis of 21 cohort studies including more than 300 000 persons. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167, 1720–1728. CrossRefPubMed
Bruehl, S., & Chung, O. Y. (2004). Interactions between the cardiovascular and pain regulatory systems: An updated review of mechanisms and possible alterations in chronic pain. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review, 28, 395–414. CrossRef
Bruehl, S., McCubbin, J. A., & Harden, R. N. (1999). Theoretical review: Altered pain regulatory systems in chronic pain. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review, 23, 877–890. CrossRef
Clearfield, M. B. (2005). C-reactive protein: A new risk assessment tool for cardiovascular disease. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 105, 409–416. PubMed
Duruoz, M. T., Turan, Y., Gurgan, A., & Deveci, H. (2013). Evaluation of metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic low back pain. Rheumatology International, 15, 215–220.
Furlan, R., Colombo, S., Perego, F., Atzeni, F., Diana, A., Barbic, F., et al. (2005). Abnormalities of cardiovascular neural control and reduced orthostatic tolerance in patients with primary fibromyalgia. Journal of Rheumatology, 32, 1787–1793. PubMed
Goodson, N. J., Smith, B. H., Hocking, L. J., McGilchrist, M. M., Dominiczak, A. F., Morris, A., et al. (2013). Cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome are more prevalent in people reporting chronic pain: Results from a cross-sectional general population study. Pain, 154, 1595–1602. CrossRefPubMed
Institute of Medicine. (2011). Relieving pain in America: A blueprint for transforming prevention, care, education, and research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Klein, S., Burke, L. E., Bray, G. A., Blair, S., Allison, D. B., Pi-Sunyer, X., et al. (2004). Clinical implications of obesity with specific focus on cardiovascular disease: A statement for professionals from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism: Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation, 110, 2952–2967. CrossRefPubMed
Lavie, C. J., Milani, R. V., & Ventura, H. O. (2009). Obesity and cardiovascular disease: Risk factor, paradox, and impact of weight loss. Journal of American College of Cardiology, 53, 1925–1932. CrossRef
Nieuwenhuizen, A. G., & Rutters, F. (2008). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis in the regulation of energy balance. Physiology & Behavior, 94, 169–177. CrossRef
Olsen, R. B., Bruehl, S., Nielsen, C. S., Rosseland, L. A., Eggen, A. E., Stubhaug, A. (2013). Hypertension prevalence and diminished blood pressure-related hypoalgesia in individuals reporting chronic pain in a general population. The Tromsø study. Pain, 154, 257–262.
Poirier, P., Giles, T. D., Bray, G. A., et al. (2006). Obesity and cardiovascular disease: Pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss: an update of the 1997 American Heart Association scientific statement on obesity and heart disease from the obesity committee of the council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism. Circulation, 113, 898–918. CrossRefPubMed
Sowers, M. C., Sternfeld, B., Morganstein, D., et al. (2000). SWAN: A multicenter, multiethnic, community-based cohort study of women and the menopausal transition. In R. M. R. Lobo & J. Kelsey (Eds.), Menopause: Biology and pathobiology (pp. 175–188). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. CrossRef
Steiner, P., Freidel, J., Bremner, W., & Stein, E. (1981). Standardization of micromethods for plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol with the lipid clinics’ methodology. Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, 19, 850.
Thommasen, H. V., & Zhang, W. (2006). Impact of chronic disease on quality of life in the Bella Coola Valley. Rural and Remote Health, 6, 528. PubMed
Van den Bussche, H., Koller, D., Kolonko, T., Hansen, H., Wegscheider, K., Glaeske, G., et al. (2011). Which chronic diseases and disease combinations are specific to multimorbidity in the elderly? Results of a claims data based cross-sectional study in Germany. BMC Public Health, 11, 101. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
Von Korff, M., Crane, P., Lane, M., Miglioretti, D. L., Simon, G., Saunders, K., et al. (2005). Chronic spinal pain and physical-mental comorbidity in the United States: Results from the national comorbidity survey replication. Pain, 113, 331–339. CrossRef
Wang, H., Ahrens, C., Rief, W., Gantz, S., Schiltenwolf, M., & Richter, W. (2010). Influence of depression symptoms on serum tumor necrosis factor-α of patients with chronic low back pain. Arthritis Research and Therapy, 12, 186–193. CrossRef
Ware, J. E., Kosinski, M., & Keller, S. D. (1994). SF-36 physical and mental health summary scales: A users’ manual. Boston: The Health Institute.
Warnick, G. R., & Albers, J. J. (1978). A comprehensive evaluation of the heparin-manganese precipitation procedure for estimating high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Journal of Lipid Research, 19, 65–76. PubMed
- Chronic pain, body mass index and cardiovascular disease risk factors: tests of moderation, unique and shared relationships in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)
John W. Burns
Phillip J. Quartana
Sheila A. Dugan
Karen A. Matthews
Howard M. Kravitz
- Springer US