Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Child Psychiatry & Human Development 1/2015

01-02-2015 | Original Article

Anxiety Disorders and Behavioral Inhibition in Preschool Children: A Population-Based Study

Auteurs: Frank W. Paulus, Aline Backes, Charlotte S. Sander, Monika Weber, Alexander von Gontard

Gepubliceerd in: Child Psychiatry & Human Development | Uitgave 1/2015

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study assessed the prevalence of anxiety disorders in preschool children and their associations with behavioral inhibition as a temperamental precursor. A representative sample of 1,342 children aged 4–7 years (M = 6;1, SD = 4.80) was examined with a standardized parental questionnaire, including items referring to anxiety disorders at the current age and behavioral inhibition at the age of 2 years. The total prevalence of anxiety disorders was 22.2 %. Separation anxiety (SAD) affected 7 %, social phobia (SOC) 10.7 %, specific phobia (PHOB) 9.8 % and depression/generalized anxiety (MDD/GAD) 3.4 % of children. The prevalence of most types of anxiety was higher in girls except for separation anxiety, which affected more boys. Behavioral inhibition in the second year of life was associated with all types of anxiety. Anxiety disorders are common but frequently overlooked in preschool children. Different subtypes can be differentiated and are often preceded by behavioral inhibition. Assessment, prevention and treatment of anxiety disorders are recommended in preschool children.
Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Egger HL, Angold A (2006) Common emotional and behavioural disorders in preschool children: presentation, nosology, and epidemiology. J Child Psychol Psychiat 46:313–337 CrossRef Egger HL, Angold A (2006) Common emotional and behavioural disorders in preschool children: presentation, nosology, and epidemiology. J Child Psychol Psychiat 46:313–337 CrossRef
2.
go back to reference Essau CA, Olaya B, Ollendick TH (2013) Classification of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. In: Essau CA, Ollendick TH (eds) The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of the treatment of childhood and adolescent anxiety. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, pp 1–21 CrossRef Essau CA, Olaya B, Ollendick TH (2013) Classification of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. In: Essau CA, Ollendick TH (eds) The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of the treatment of childhood and adolescent anxiety. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, pp 1–21 CrossRef
3.
go back to reference WHO (1996) Multiaxial classification of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge WHO (1996) Multiaxial classification of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
4.
go back to reference APA (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.) (DSM-5) American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC APA (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.) (DSM-5) American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC
5.
go back to reference Cartwright-Hatton S, McNicol K, Doubleday E (2006) Anxiety in a neglected population: prevalence of anxiety disorders in pre-adolescent children. Clin Psychol Rev 26:817–833 PubMedCrossRef Cartwright-Hatton S, McNicol K, Doubleday E (2006) Anxiety in a neglected population: prevalence of anxiety disorders in pre-adolescent children. Clin Psychol Rev 26:817–833 PubMedCrossRef
6.
go back to reference Ford T, Goodman R, Meltzer H (2003) The British child and adolescent mental health survey 1999: the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:1203–1211 PubMedCrossRef Ford T, Goodman R, Meltzer H (2003) The British child and adolescent mental health survey 1999: the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:1203–1211 PubMedCrossRef
7.
go back to reference Kroes M, Kalff AC, Kessels A, Steyaert J, Feron F, Van Someren A et al (2001) Child psychiatric diagnoses in a population of Dutch schoolchildren aged 6–8 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:1401–1409 PubMedCrossRef Kroes M, Kalff AC, Kessels A, Steyaert J, Feron F, Van Someren A et al (2001) Child psychiatric diagnoses in a population of Dutch schoolchildren aged 6–8 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:1401–1409 PubMedCrossRef
8.
go back to reference Costello EJ, Mustillo S, Erkanli A, Keeler G, Angold A (2003) Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:837–844 PubMedCrossRef Costello EJ, Mustillo S, Erkanli A, Keeler G, Angold A (2003) Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:837–844 PubMedCrossRef
9.
go back to reference Canals J, Marti-Henneberg C, Fernandez-Ballart J, Clivillé R, Domènech E (1992) Scores on the state-trait anxiety inventory for children in a longitudinal study of pubertal Spanish youth. Psychol Rep 71:503–512 PubMedCrossRef Canals J, Marti-Henneberg C, Fernandez-Ballart J, Clivillé R, Domènech E (1992) Scores on the state-trait anxiety inventory for children in a longitudinal study of pubertal Spanish youth. Psychol Rep 71:503–512 PubMedCrossRef
10.
go back to reference McLean CP, Anderson ER (2009) Brave men and timid women? A review of the gender differences in fear and anxiety. Clin Psychol Rev 29:496–505 PubMedCrossRef McLean CP, Anderson ER (2009) Brave men and timid women? A review of the gender differences in fear and anxiety. Clin Psychol Rev 29:496–505 PubMedCrossRef
11.
go back to reference Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (2005) Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:593–602 PubMedCrossRef Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (2005) Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:593–602 PubMedCrossRef
12.
go back to reference Bodden DHM, Dirksen CD, Bögels SM (2008) Societal burden of clinically anxious youth referred for treatment: a cost-of-illness study. J Abnorm Child Psychol 36:487–497 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Bodden DHM, Dirksen CD, Bögels SM (2008) Societal burden of clinically anxious youth referred for treatment: a cost-of-illness study. J Abnorm Child Psychol 36:487–497 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
13.
go back to reference Egger HL, Angold A (2006) Anxiety Disorders. In: Luby JL (ed) Handbook of preschool mental health: development, disorders, and treatment. Guilford Press, New York, pp 137–164 Egger HL, Angold A (2006) Anxiety Disorders. In: Luby JL (ed) Handbook of preschool mental health: development, disorders, and treatment. Guilford Press, New York, pp 137–164
14.
go back to reference Lavigne JV, LeBailly SA, Hopkins J, Gouze KR, Binns HJ (2009) The prevalence of ADHD, ODD, depression, and anxiety in a community sample of 4-year-olds’. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 38:315–328 PubMedCrossRef Lavigne JV, LeBailly SA, Hopkins J, Gouze KR, Binns HJ (2009) The prevalence of ADHD, ODD, depression, and anxiety in a community sample of 4-year-olds’. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 38:315–328 PubMedCrossRef
15.
go back to reference Gadow KD, Sprafkin J, Nolan EE (2001) DSM-IV symptoms in community and clinic preschool children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:1383–1392 PubMedCrossRef Gadow KD, Sprafkin J, Nolan EE (2001) DSM-IV symptoms in community and clinic preschool children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:1383–1392 PubMedCrossRef
16.
go back to reference Poulton R, Milne BJ, Craske MG, Menzies RG (2001) A longitudinal study of the etiology of separation anxiety. Behav Res Ther 39:1395–1410 PubMedCrossRef Poulton R, Milne BJ, Craske MG, Menzies RG (2001) A longitudinal study of the etiology of separation anxiety. Behav Res Ther 39:1395–1410 PubMedCrossRef
17.
go back to reference Sterba S, Egger HL, Adrian A (2007) Diagnostic specificity and nonspecificity in the dimensions of preschool psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48:1005–1013 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Sterba S, Egger HL, Adrian A (2007) Diagnostic specificity and nonspecificity in the dimensions of preschool psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48:1005–1013 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
18.
go back to reference Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA (2000) Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles. University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry, Burlington Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA (2000) Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles. University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry, Burlington
19.
go back to reference Egger HL, Angold A (2004) The preschool age psychiatric assessment (PAPA): a structured parent interview for diagnosing psychiatric disorders in preschool children. In: DelCarmen-Wiggins R, Carter A (eds) Handbook of infant, toddler, and preschool mental health assessment. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 223–243 Egger HL, Angold A (2004) The preschool age psychiatric assessment (PAPA): a structured parent interview for diagnosing psychiatric disorders in preschool children. In: DelCarmen-Wiggins R, Carter A (eds) Handbook of infant, toddler, and preschool mental health assessment. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 223–243
20.
go back to reference Kagan J, Reznick JS, Snidman N (1988) Biological bases of childhood shyness. Science 240:167–171 PubMedCrossRef Kagan J, Reznick JS, Snidman N (1988) Biological bases of childhood shyness. Science 240:167–171 PubMedCrossRef
21.
go back to reference Asendorpf JB (1989) Shyness as a final pathway for two different kinds of inhibition. J Person Soc Psychol 57:481–492 CrossRef Asendorpf JB (1989) Shyness as a final pathway for two different kinds of inhibition. J Person Soc Psychol 57:481–492 CrossRef
22.
go back to reference Kagan J, Snidman N, Kahn V, Towsley S (2007) The preservation of two infant temperaments into adolescence. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 72:1–75 PubMed Kagan J, Snidman N, Kahn V, Towsley S (2007) The preservation of two infant temperaments into adolescence. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 72:1–75 PubMed
23.
go back to reference Schwartz CE, Wright CI, Shin LM, Kagan J, Rauch SL (2003) Inhibited and uninhibited infants ‘grown up’: adult amygdalar response to novelty. Science 300:1952–1953 PubMedCrossRef Schwartz CE, Wright CI, Shin LM, Kagan J, Rauch SL (2003) Inhibited and uninhibited infants ‘grown up’: adult amygdalar response to novelty. Science 300:1952–1953 PubMedCrossRef
24.
go back to reference Pérez-Edgar K, Roberson-Nay R, Hardin MG, Poeth K, Guyer AE, Nelson EE et al (2007) Attention alters neural responses to evocative faces in behaviourally inhibited adolescents. Neuroimage 35:1538–1546 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Pérez-Edgar K, Roberson-Nay R, Hardin MG, Poeth K, Guyer AE, Nelson EE et al (2007) Attention alters neural responses to evocative faces in behaviourally inhibited adolescents. Neuroimage 35:1538–1546 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
25.
go back to reference Smoller JW, Rosenbaum JF, Biederman J, Kennedy J, Dai D, Racette SR et al (2003) Association of a genetic marker at the corticotrophin-releasing hormone locus with behavioural inhibition. Biol Psychiatry 54:1376–1381 PubMedCrossRef Smoller JW, Rosenbaum JF, Biederman J, Kennedy J, Dai D, Racette SR et al (2003) Association of a genetic marker at the corticotrophin-releasing hormone locus with behavioural inhibition. Biol Psychiatry 54:1376–1381 PubMedCrossRef
26.
go back to reference Smoller JW, Yamaki LH, Fagerness JA, Biederman J, Racette S, Laird NM et al (2005) The corticotrophin-releasing hormone gene and behavioural inhibition in children at risk for panic disorder. Biol Psychiatry 57:1485–1492 PubMedCrossRef Smoller JW, Yamaki LH, Fagerness JA, Biederman J, Racette S, Laird NM et al (2005) The corticotrophin-releasing hormone gene and behavioural inhibition in children at risk for panic disorder. Biol Psychiatry 57:1485–1492 PubMedCrossRef
27.
go back to reference Fox NA, Calkins SD, Bell MA (1994) Neural plasticity and development in the first two years of life: evidence from cognitive and socioemotional domains of research. Dev Psychopathol 6:677–696 CrossRef Fox NA, Calkins SD, Bell MA (1994) Neural plasticity and development in the first two years of life: evidence from cognitive and socioemotional domains of research. Dev Psychopathol 6:677–696 CrossRef
28.
go back to reference Fox NA, Henderson HA, Marshall PJ, Nichols KE, Ghera MM (2005) Behavioral inhibition: linking biology and behaviour within a developmental framework. Annu Rev Psychol 56:235–262 PubMedCrossRef Fox NA, Henderson HA, Marshall PJ, Nichols KE, Ghera MM (2005) Behavioral inhibition: linking biology and behaviour within a developmental framework. Annu Rev Psychol 56:235–262 PubMedCrossRef
29.
go back to reference Kennedy SJ, Rapee RM, Edwards SL (2009) A selective intervention program for inhibited preschool-aged children of parents with an anxiety disorder: effects on current anxiety Disorders and temperament. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 48:602–609 CrossRef Kennedy SJ, Rapee RM, Edwards SL (2009) A selective intervention program for inhibited preschool-aged children of parents with an anxiety disorder: effects on current anxiety Disorders and temperament. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 48:602–609 CrossRef
30.
go back to reference Kagan J (1994) Galen’s prophecy. Basic Books, New York Kagan J (1994) Galen’s prophecy. Basic Books, New York
31.
go back to reference Park S, Belsky J, Putnam S, Crnic K (1997) Infant emotionality, parenting, and 3-year inhibition: exploring stability and lawful discontinuity in a male sample. Dev Psychol 3:218–272 CrossRef Park S, Belsky J, Putnam S, Crnic K (1997) Infant emotionality, parenting, and 3-year inhibition: exploring stability and lawful discontinuity in a male sample. Dev Psychol 3:218–272 CrossRef
32.
go back to reference Kagan J (2012) The biography of Behavioral Inhibition. In: Zentner M, Shiner RL (eds) Handbook of temperament. Guilford Press, New York, pp 69–82 Kagan J (2012) The biography of Behavioral Inhibition. In: Zentner M, Shiner RL (eds) Handbook of temperament. Guilford Press, New York, pp 69–82
33.
go back to reference Rothbart MK (1981) Measurement of temperament in infancy. Child Dev 52:569–578 CrossRef Rothbart MK (1981) Measurement of temperament in infancy. Child Dev 52:569–578 CrossRef
34.
go back to reference Gensthaler A, Möhler E, Resch F, Paulus F, Schwenck C, Freitag CM, Goth K (2013) Retrospective assessment of behavioral inhibition in infants and toddlers: development of a parent report questionnaire. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 44:152–165 PubMedCrossRef Gensthaler A, Möhler E, Resch F, Paulus F, Schwenck C, Freitag CM, Goth K (2013) Retrospective assessment of behavioral inhibition in infants and toddlers: development of a parent report questionnaire. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 44:152–165 PubMedCrossRef
35.
go back to reference Hirshfeld-Becker DR, Biederman J (2002) Rationale and principles for early intervention with young children at risk for anxiety disorders. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 5:161–172 PubMedCrossRef Hirshfeld-Becker DR, Biederman J (2002) Rationale and principles for early intervention with young children at risk for anxiety disorders. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 5:161–172 PubMedCrossRef
36.
go back to reference Schwartz CE, Snidman N, Kagan J (1999) Adolescent social anxiety as an outcome of inhibited temperament in childhood. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:1008–1015 PubMedCrossRef Schwartz CE, Snidman N, Kagan J (1999) Adolescent social anxiety as an outcome of inhibited temperament in childhood. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:1008–1015 PubMedCrossRef
37.
go back to reference Hirshfeld-Becker DR (2010) Familial and temperamental risk factors for social anxiety disorder. In: Gazelle H, Rubin KH (eds) Social anxiety in childhood: Bridging developmental and clinical perspectives. New Dir Child Adolesc Dev 127:51–65. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Hirshfeld-Becker DR (2010) Familial and temperamental risk factors for social anxiety disorder. In: Gazelle H, Rubin KH (eds) Social anxiety in childhood: Bridging developmental and clinical perspectives. New Dir Child Adolesc Dev 127:51–65. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
38.
go back to reference Biederman J, Faraone SV, Hirshfeld-Becker DR, Friedman D, Robin JA, Rosenbaum JF (2001) Patterns of psychopathology and dysfunction in high-risk children of parents with panic disorder and major depression. Am J Psychiatry 158:49–57 PubMedCrossRef Biederman J, Faraone SV, Hirshfeld-Becker DR, Friedman D, Robin JA, Rosenbaum JF (2001) Patterns of psychopathology and dysfunction in high-risk children of parents with panic disorder and major depression. Am J Psychiatry 158:49–57 PubMedCrossRef
39.
go back to reference Hayward C, Killen JD, Kraemer HC, Taylor CB (1998) Linking selfreported childhood behavioral inhibition to adolescent social phobia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37:1308–1318 PubMedCrossRef Hayward C, Killen JD, Kraemer HC, Taylor CB (1998) Linking selfreported childhood behavioral inhibition to adolescent social phobia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37:1308–1318 PubMedCrossRef
40.
go back to reference Mick MA, Telch MJ (1998) Social anxiety and history of behavioral inhibition in young adults. J Anx Disor 12:1–20 CrossRef Mick MA, Telch MJ (1998) Social anxiety and history of behavioral inhibition in young adults. J Anx Disor 12:1–20 CrossRef
41.
go back to reference Prior M, Smart D, Sanson A, Oberklaid F (2000) Does shy-inhibited temperament in childhood lead to anxiety problems in adolescence? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:461–468 PubMedCrossRef Prior M, Smart D, Sanson A, Oberklaid F (2000) Does shy-inhibited temperament in childhood lead to anxiety problems in adolescence? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:461–468 PubMedCrossRef
42.
go back to reference Zeanah CH, Boris NW, Larrieu JA (1997) Infant development and developmental risk: a review of the past 10 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:165–178 PubMedCrossRef Zeanah CH, Boris NW, Larrieu JA (1997) Infant development and developmental risk: a review of the past 10 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:165–178 PubMedCrossRef
43.
go back to reference Achenbach TM (1991) Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 profile. University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Burlington Achenbach TM (1991) Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 profile. University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, Burlington
44.
go back to reference Arbeitsgruppe Deutsche Child Behavior Checklist (1998) Elternfragebogen über das Verhalten von Kindern und Jugendlichen (CBCL/4-18) [Parent questionnaire on the behavior of children and adolescents] 2nd ed. with german norms. Ed by Döpfner M, Plück J, Bölte S, Lenz K, Melchers P, Heim K. Arbeitsgruppe Kinder-, Jugend-, und Familiendiagnostik (KFDJ), Cologne Arbeitsgruppe Deutsche Child Behavior Checklist (1998) Elternfragebogen über das Verhalten von Kindern und Jugendlichen (CBCL/4-18) [Parent questionnaire on the behavior of children and adolescents] 2nd ed. with german norms. Ed by Döpfner M, Plück J, Bölte S, Lenz K, Melchers P, Heim K. Arbeitsgruppe Kinder-, Jugend-, und Familiendiagnostik (KFDJ), Cologne
45.
go back to reference Döpfner M, Görtz-Dorten A, Lehmkuhl G, Breuer D, Goletz H (2008) DISYPS-II -Diagnostik-System für psychische Störungen nach ICD-10 und DSM-IV für Kinder und Jugendliche-II [Diagnostic System for Mental Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence], 1st edn. Huber, Bern Döpfner M, Görtz-Dorten A, Lehmkuhl G, Breuer D, Goletz H (2008) DISYPS-II -Diagnostik-System für psychische Störungen nach ICD-10 und DSM-IV für Kinder und Jugendliche-II [Diagnostic System for Mental Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence], 1st edn. Huber, Bern
46.
go back to reference Goth A, Gensthaler A, Moehler E (2008) RIBI (Retro-Infant-BI). Unpublished Manual. Ruprecht Karls University Heidelberg Goth A, Gensthaler A, Moehler E (2008) RIBI (Retro-Infant-BI). Unpublished Manual. Ruprecht Karls University Heidelberg
47.
go back to reference Kagan J (1988) Temperamental contributions to social behavior. Am Psychol 44:668–674 CrossRef Kagan J (1988) Temperamental contributions to social behavior. Am Psychol 44:668–674 CrossRef
48.
go back to reference Essau CA, Gabbidon J (2013) Epidemiology, comorbidity and mental health services utilization. In: Essau CA, Ollendick TH (eds) The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of the treatment of childhood and adolescent anxiety. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, pp 24–42 CrossRef Essau CA, Gabbidon J (2013) Epidemiology, comorbidity and mental health services utilization. In: Essau CA, Ollendick TH (eds) The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of the treatment of childhood and adolescent anxiety. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, pp 24–42 CrossRef
49.
go back to reference Last CG, Perrin S, Hersen M, Kadzin AE (1992) DSM-III anxiety disorders in children: sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 31:1070–1076 PubMedCrossRef Last CG, Perrin S, Hersen M, Kadzin AE (1992) DSM-III anxiety disorders in children: sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 31:1070–1076 PubMedCrossRef
50.
go back to reference Feigon SA, Waldman ID, Levy F, Hay DA (2001) Genetic and environmental influences on separation anxiety disorder symptoms and theid moderation by age and sex. Behav Genet 31:403–411 PubMedCrossRef Feigon SA, Waldman ID, Levy F, Hay DA (2001) Genetic and environmental influences on separation anxiety disorder symptoms and theid moderation by age and sex. Behav Genet 31:403–411 PubMedCrossRef
51.
go back to reference Leung PWL, Hung S, Ho TP, Lee CC, Liu WS et al (2008) Prevalence of DSM-IV disorders in Chinese adolescents and the effects of an impairment criterion: a pilot community study in Hong Kong. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 17:452–461 PubMedCrossRef Leung PWL, Hung S, Ho TP, Lee CC, Liu WS et al (2008) Prevalence of DSM-IV disorders in Chinese adolescents and the effects of an impairment criterion: a pilot community study in Hong Kong. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 17:452–461 PubMedCrossRef
52.
go back to reference Kagan J (1989) Unstable ideas. Temperament, cognition, and self. Harvard University Press, Cambridge Kagan J (1989) Unstable ideas. Temperament, cognition, and self. Harvard University Press, Cambridge
53.
go back to reference Laucht M, Esser G, Schmidt MH (2000) Externalisierende und Internalisierende Störungen in der Kindheit: untersuchungen zur Entwicklungspsychopathologie [Externalizing and internalizing disorders in childhood: studies on developmental psychopathology]. Z Klin Psychol Psychoth 29:284–292 CrossRef Laucht M, Esser G, Schmidt MH (2000) Externalisierende und Internalisierende Störungen in der Kindheit: untersuchungen zur Entwicklungspsychopathologie [Externalizing and internalizing disorders in childhood: studies on developmental psychopathology]. Z Klin Psychol Psychoth 29:284–292 CrossRef
54.
go back to reference Hirshfeld-Becker DR, Micco J, Henin A, Bloomeld A, Biederman J, Rosenbaum J (2008) Behavioral inhibition. Depr Anx 25:357–367 CrossRef Hirshfeld-Becker DR, Micco J, Henin A, Bloomeld A, Biederman J, Rosenbaum J (2008) Behavioral inhibition. Depr Anx 25:357–367 CrossRef
55.
go back to reference Caron C, Rutter M (1991) Comorbidity in child psychopathology: concepts, issues and research strategies. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 32:1063–1080 PubMedCrossRef Caron C, Rutter M (1991) Comorbidity in child psychopathology: concepts, issues and research strategies. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 32:1063–1080 PubMedCrossRef
56.
57.
go back to reference Forbes EA, Bertocci MA, Gregory AM, Ryan ND, Axelson DA et al (2008) Objective sleep in pediatric anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47:148–155 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Forbes EA, Bertocci MA, Gregory AM, Ryan ND, Axelson DA et al (2008) Objective sleep in pediatric anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47:148–155 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
58.
go back to reference Alfano CA, Ginsburg GS, Kingery JN (2007) Sleep-related problems among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:224–232 PubMedCrossRef Alfano CA, Ginsburg GS, Kingery JN (2007) Sleep-related problems among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:224–232 PubMedCrossRef
59.
go back to reference Fox NA, Henderson HA, Rubin KH, Calkins SD, Schmidt LA (2001) Continuity and discontinuity of behavioural inhibition and exuberance: psychophysiological and behavioural influences across the first four years of life. Child Dev 72:1–21 PubMedCrossRef Fox NA, Henderson HA, Rubin KH, Calkins SD, Schmidt LA (2001) Continuity and discontinuity of behavioural inhibition and exuberance: psychophysiological and behavioural influences across the first four years of life. Child Dev 72:1–21 PubMedCrossRef
60.
go back to reference Rapee RM, Kennedy S, Ingram M, Edwards S, Sweeney L (2005) Prevention and early intervention of anxiety disorders in inhibited preschool children. J Consult Clin Psychol 73:488–497 PubMedCrossRef Rapee RM, Kennedy S, Ingram M, Edwards S, Sweeney L (2005) Prevention and early intervention of anxiety disorders in inhibited preschool children. J Consult Clin Psychol 73:488–497 PubMedCrossRef
61.
go back to reference Rapee RM, Kennedy SJ, Ingram M, Edwards SL, Sweeney L (2010) Altering the trajectory of anxiety in at-risk young children. Am J Psychiatry 167:1518–1525 PubMedCrossRef Rapee RM, Kennedy SJ, Ingram M, Edwards SL, Sweeney L (2010) Altering the trajectory of anxiety in at-risk young children. Am J Psychiatry 167:1518–1525 PubMedCrossRef
62.
go back to reference Tacket JL (2006) Evaluating models of the personality-psychopathology relationship in children and adolescents. Clin Psychol Rev 26:584–599 CrossRef Tacket JL (2006) Evaluating models of the personality-psychopathology relationship in children and adolescents. Clin Psychol Rev 26:584–599 CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Anxiety Disorders and Behavioral Inhibition in Preschool Children: A Population-Based Study
Auteurs
Frank W. Paulus
Aline Backes
Charlotte S. Sander
Monika Weber
Alexander von Gontard
Publicatiedatum
01-02-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Child Psychiatry & Human Development / Uitgave 1/2015
Print ISSN: 0009-398X
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3327
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-014-0460-8

Andere artikelen Uitgave 1/2015

Child Psychiatry & Human Development 1/2015 Naar de uitgave