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Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research 1-2/2004

01-12-2004 | Original Article

Typography and color: Effects of salience and fluency on conscious recollective experience

Auteurs: Thomas Wehr, Werner Wippich

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 1-2/2004

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Abstract

Within one experiment the central assumptions of the distinctiveness/fluency account of recollective experience were tested and contrasted with predictions of processing theory. To manipulate perceptual salience, the typography of words was varied. Effects of conceptual salience were induced by a variation of word color. In the study phase participants generated different word or object images according to presented words. To manipulate perceptual and conceptual fluency one test group underwent a priming procedure in the test phase, consisting of a recognition test, whereby some primes were identical to the target words typographically or by color and others were not. Additionally, all participants were asked to make judgments of recollective experience (remember, know, guess) after the old/new decisions. The results of the data analyses confirm the distinctiveness/fluency account. Words written in an unusual typography or color were judged significantly more often as “remembered” than normal words. The priming procedure uncovered some effects of fluency on reaction times: Old/new decisions took less time if prime and target words were perceptually or conceptually identical.
Voetnoten
1
Rajaram (1993) pointed out this problem and tried to solve it by presenting the prime in lower case letters and the target word in upper case letters (table—TABLE). This operationalization must be criticized, however, because the change in letter form is a change in typography, thus introducing another (unregarded) source of variance in her experiment.
 
2
It may be feared that this difference indicates a difference in response bias that could affect the remember/know distribution. This was one reason for collecting guess responses. Guess responses were found to be distributed in the same direction as false alarms (2.12% vs. 5.25% for test groups priming and nonpriming respectively; F(1,79) = 77.8, MS e = 4.01, ω2 = .16). Within each test group, highly significant regression analyses (with guess responses predicting false alarms) indicate that the guess category served well for the correction of response bias (R 2 = .49, F(1,38) = 36.56, p < .001 for the test group priming; R 2 = .73, F(1,38) = 103.02, p < .001 for the test group nonpriming).
 
3
The same analysis was done for the typography manipulation, but no significant differences were observed, neither for remembered words (M TU-TU = 1,742.16 ms vs. M TN-TU = 2,040.57 ms; M TN-TN = 1,817.75 ms vs. M TU-TN = 1,617.78 ms), nor for known words (M TU-TU = 1,489.69 ms vs. M TN-TU = 1,516.23 ms; M TN-TN = 2,080.18 ms vs. M TU-TN = 1,982.74 ms)
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Typography and color: Effects of salience and fluency on conscious recollective experience
Auteurs
Thomas Wehr
Werner Wippich
Publicatiedatum
01-12-2004
Uitgeverij
Springer-Verlag
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 1-2/2004
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-003-0162-5