Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research 1-2/2004

01-12-2004 | Original Article

Memory for actions: Item and relational information in categorized lists

Auteurs: Johannes Engelkamp, Kerstin H. Seiler, Hubert D. Zimmer

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 1-2/2004

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Enacting action phrases in subject-performed tasks (SPTs) leads to better free recall than hearing or reading the same materials in verbal tasks (VTs). This enactment effect is usually explained by better item-specific information in SPTs than in VTs. The role of relational information is controversial. In the present paper, we will take the multiple recall approach to study the role of item and relational information in memory for actions by computing the number of item gains and the number of item losses over trials. This approach has previously been applied to lists of unrelated action phrases. We applied it to categorically related lists, also allowing a measure of relational information by clustering scores. It was found that SPTs produced more item gains than VTs. This finding confirmed the assumption that SPTs provide better item-specific information than VTs. The number of item losses did not differ between VTs and SPTs. This finding suggests that relational information is equally provided by VTs and SPTs. However, the organizational scores showed a more differentiated picture. Clustering was greater in SPTs than in VTs with randomly presented lists, but not with blocked lists. We suggested that these results, as well as other findings from the literature, could be explained by distinguishing automatic and strategic processes and the types of item associations that are addressed by these processes.
Voetnoten
1
It was demonstrated by Engelkamp and Seiler (2003) that order information (i.e., encoding of the accidental item neighborhood) is not the basis of the number of losses in unrelated lists.
 
2
In this analysis the third trial was not included because it is exactly the midpoint that divides the recall sequences into the two halves. However, the effect remains the same if we contrast the first two against the last three recall trials.
 
3
Nairne, Riegler, and Serra (1991) and Golly-Häring, and Engelkamp (2003) showed that order information is not the basis of categorical clustering.
 
4
In each VT condition, one participant was excluded from the analysis because one of their ARC scores was not defined due to division by zero. The corresponding ANOVA is therefore based on 70 participants.
 
5
Whether the strategic processes in VTs are helpful seems to depend also on the specific categorical structure of the list. In most studies, the categorical list structure was based on the categorical status of the objects (e.g., actions with fruits such as “eat the apple,” “peel the banana,” “pick up the peach,” etc.; e.g., Bäckman et al., 1986; Engelkamp & Zimmer, 1996; Norris & West, 1993). In some studies, list structure was based on categories of actions or on actions that belong to certain episodes (e.g., Zimmer & Engelkamp, 1989, Experiments 1 and 2), or that were based on scripts, i.e., on typical action sequences (Engelkamp & Zimmer, 2002). It seems, for example, as if VTs benefit somewhat more from script information than SPTs. A further factor that is differentially determining the organization processes comes to the fore if the lists are organized according to two structures. Koriat and Pearlman-Avnion (2003) used a list that could be organized according to conceptual categories (much like episodes) as well as according to motor categories, i.e., according to certain movement patterns (e.g., “to spread a cover over the car,” or “to cover a patient with a blanket”). In this case, VTs were organized more than SPTs according to conceptual categories and SPTs more than VTs according to motor categories.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Anderson, J. R. (1983). A spreading activation theory of memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 261–295. Anderson, J. R. (1983). A spreading activation theory of memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 261–295.
go back to reference Bäckman, L., Nilsson, L. G., & Chalom, D. (1986). New evidence on the nature of the encoding of action events. Memory & Cognition, 14, 339–346. Bäckman, L., Nilsson, L. G., & Chalom, D. (1986). New evidence on the nature of the encoding of action events. Memory & Cognition, 14, 339–346.
go back to reference Bousfield, W. A. (1953). The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Journal of General Psychology, 49, 229–240. Bousfield, W. A. (1953). The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Journal of General Psychology, 49, 229–240.
go back to reference Burns, D. J. (1993). Item gains and item losses during hypermnesic recall: Implications for the item-specific-relational information distinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 163–173. Burns, D. J. (1993). Item gains and item losses during hypermnesic recall: Implications for the item-specific-relational information distinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 163–173.
go back to reference Burns, D. J., & Gold, D. E. (1999). An analysis of item gains and losses in retroactive interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25, 978–985. Burns, D. J., & Gold, D. E. (1999). An analysis of item gains and losses in retroactive interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25, 978–985.
go back to reference Burns, D. J., & Schoff, K. M. (1998). Slow and steady often ties the race: Effects of item-specific and relational processing on cumulative recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 1041–1051. Burns, D. J., & Schoff, K. M. (1998). Slow and steady often ties the race: Effects of item-specific and relational processing on cumulative recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 1041–1051.
go back to reference Cohen, R. L. (1981). On the generality of some memory laws. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 22, 267–281. Cohen, R. L. (1981). On the generality of some memory laws. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 22, 267–281.
go back to reference Cohen, R. L. (1983). The effect of encoding variables on the free recall of words and action events. Memory & Cognition, 11, 575–582. Cohen, R. L. (1983). The effect of encoding variables on the free recall of words and action events. Memory & Cognition, 11, 575–582.
go back to reference Cohen, R. L. (1985). On the generality of the laws of memory. In L. G. Nilsson & T. Archer (Eds.), Animal learning and human memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Cohen, R. L. (1985). On the generality of the laws of memory. In L. G. Nilsson & T. Archer (Eds.), Animal learning and human memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
go back to reference Einstein, G. O., & Hunt, R. R. (1980). Levels of processing and organization: Additive effects of individual item and relational processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6, 588–598. CrossRef Einstein, G. O., & Hunt, R. R. (1980). Levels of processing and organization: Additive effects of individual item and relational processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6, 588–598. CrossRef
go back to reference Engelkamp, J. (1986). Nouns and verbs in paired-associate learning: Instructional effects. Psychological Research, 48, 153–159. Engelkamp, J. (1986). Nouns and verbs in paired-associate learning: Instructional effects. Psychological Research, 48, 153–159.
go back to reference Engelkamp, J. (1988). Modality-specific encoding and word class in verbal learning. In M. Gruneberg, P. Morris, & R. N. Snykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory (Vol. 1, pp. 415–420). Chichester: Wiley. Engelkamp, J. (1988). Modality-specific encoding and word class in verbal learning. In M. Gruneberg, P. Morris, & R. N. Snykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory (Vol. 1, pp. 415–420). Chichester: Wiley.
go back to reference Engelkamp, J. (1995). Visual imagery and enactment in memory of actions. British Journal of Psychology, 86, 227–240. PubMed Engelkamp, J. (1995). Visual imagery and enactment in memory of actions. British Journal of Psychology, 86, 227–240. PubMed
go back to reference Engelkamp, J. (1998). Memory for actions. Hove: Psychology Press. Engelkamp, J. (1998). Memory for actions. Hove: Psychology Press.
go back to reference Engelkamp, J. & Seiler, K. (2003). Gains and losses in action memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Experimental Psychology, 56A, 829–848. Engelkamp, J. & Seiler, K. (2003). Gains and losses in action memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Experimental Psychology, 56A, 829–848.
go back to reference Engelkamp, J., & Zimmer, H. D. (1996). Organization and recall in verbal tasks and in subject-performed tasks. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 8, 257–273. CrossRef Engelkamp, J., & Zimmer, H. D. (1996). Organization and recall in verbal tasks and in subject-performed tasks. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 8, 257–273. CrossRef
go back to reference Engelkamp, J., & Zimmer, H. D. (2002). Free recall and organization as a function of varying relational encoding in action memory. Psychological Research, 66, 91–98. CrossRefPubMed Engelkamp, J., & Zimmer, H. D. (2002). Free recall and organization as a function of varying relational encoding in action memory. Psychological Research, 66, 91–98. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Engelkamp, J., Mohr, G., & Zimmer, H. D. (1991). Pair-relational encoding of performed nouns and verbs. Psychological Research, 53, 232–239. Engelkamp, J., Mohr, G., & Zimmer, H. D. (1991). Pair-relational encoding of performed nouns and verbs. Psychological Research, 53, 232–239.
go back to reference Engelkamp, J., Jahn, P., & Seiler, K. H. (2003). The item-order hypothesis reconsidered: The role of order information in free recall. Psychological Research, 67, 280–290. PubMed Engelkamp, J., Jahn, P., & Seiler, K. H. (2003). The item-order hypothesis reconsidered: The role of order information in free recall. Psychological Research, 67, 280–290. PubMed
go back to reference Engelkamp, J., Seiler, K. H., & Zimmer, H. D. (2003). Differential relational encoding of categorical information in memory for action events. Manuscript submitted for publication. Engelkamp, J., Seiler, K. H., & Zimmer, H. D. (2003). Differential relational encoding of categorical information in memory for action events. Manuscript submitted for publication.
go back to reference Gollin, E. S., & Sharps, M. J. (1988). Facilitation of free recall by categorical blocking depends on stimulus type. Memory & Cognition, 16, 539–544. Gollin, E. S., & Sharps, M. J. (1988). Facilitation of free recall by categorical blocking depends on stimulus type. Memory & Cognition, 16, 539–544.
go back to reference Golly-Häring, C., & Engelkamp, J. (2003). Categorical-relational and order-relational information in memory for subject-performed and experimenter-performed actions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 965–975. Golly-Häring, C., & Engelkamp, J. (2003). Categorical-relational and order-relational information in memory for subject-performed and experimenter-performed actions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 965–975.
go back to reference Helstrup, T. (1987). One, two or three memories? A problem-solving approach to memory for performed acts. Acta Psychologica, 66, 37–68. CrossRef Helstrup, T. (1987). One, two or three memories? A problem-solving approach to memory for performed acts. Acta Psychologica, 66, 37–68. CrossRef
go back to reference Hunt, R. R., & Einstein, G. O. (1981). Relational and item-specific information in memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20, 497–514. Hunt, R. R., & Einstein, G. O. (1981). Relational and item-specific information in memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20, 497–514.
go back to reference Hunt, R. R., & McDaniel, M. A. (1993). The enigma of organization and distinctiveness. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 421–445. CrossRef Hunt, R. R., & McDaniel, M. A. (1993). The enigma of organization and distinctiveness. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 421–445. CrossRef
go back to reference Klein, S. B., Loftus, J., Kihlstrom, J. F., & Aseron, R. (1989). Effects of item-specific and relational information on hypermnesic recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 1192–1197. Klein, S. B., Loftus, J., Kihlstrom, J. F., & Aseron, R. (1989). Effects of item-specific and relational information on hypermnesic recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 1192–1197.
go back to reference Knopf, M. (1991). Having shaved a kiwi fruit: Memory of unfamiliar subject-performed actions. Psychological Research, 53, 203–565. Knopf, M. (1991). Having shaved a kiwi fruit: Memory of unfamiliar subject-performed actions. Psychological Research, 53, 203–565.
go back to reference Koriat, A., & Pearlman-Avnion, S. (2003). Memory organization of action events and its relationship to memory performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 435–454. CrossRef Koriat, A., & Pearlman-Avnion, S. (2003). Memory organization of action events and its relationship to memory performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 435–454. CrossRef
go back to reference Kormi-Nouri, R. (1995). The nature of memory for action events: An episodic integration view. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 7, 337–363. Kormi-Nouri, R. (1995). The nature of memory for action events: An episodic integration view. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 7, 337–363.
go back to reference MacLeod, C. M., & Bassili, J. N. (1989). Are implicit and explicit tests differentially sensitive to item-specific versus relational information? In S. Lewandowsky & J. C. Dunn (Eds.), Implicit memory: Theoretical issues (pp. 159–172). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. MacLeod, C. M., & Bassili, J. N. (1989). Are implicit and explicit tests differentially sensitive to item-specific versus relational information? In S. Lewandowsky & J. C. Dunn (Eds.), Implicit memory: Theoretical issues (pp. 159–172). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
go back to reference Mandler, J. M. (1979). Categorical and schematic organization in memory. In C. R. Puff (Ed.) Memory, organization and structure (pp. 303–317). New York: Academic Press. Mandler, J. M. (1979). Categorical and schematic organization in memory. In C. R. Puff (Ed.) Memory, organization and structure (pp. 303–317). New York: Academic Press.
go back to reference McDaniel, M. A., Moore, B. A., & Whiteman, H. L. (1998). Dynamic changes in hypermnesia across early and late tests: A relational/item-specific account. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 173–185. McDaniel, M. A., Moore, B. A., & Whiteman, H. L. (1998). Dynamic changes in hypermnesia across early and late tests: A relational/item-specific account. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 173–185.
go back to reference McDaniel, M. A., DeLosh, E. L., & Merritt, P. (2000). Order information and retrieval distinctiveness: Recall of common versus bizarre material. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 422–435. McDaniel, M. A., DeLosh, E. L., & Merritt, P. (2000). Order information and retrieval distinctiveness: Recall of common versus bizarre material. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 422–435.
go back to reference McDaniel, M. A., Einstein, G. O., Dunay, P. K., & Cobb, R. E. (1986). Encoding difficulty and memory: Toward a unifying theory. Journal of Memory and Language, 25, 645–656. McDaniel, M. A., Einstein, G. O., Dunay, P. K., & Cobb, R. E. (1986). Encoding difficulty and memory: Toward a unifying theory. Journal of Memory and Language, 25, 645–656.
go back to reference Meyer, D. E., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1971). Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 90, 227–234. PubMed Meyer, D. E., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1971). Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 90, 227–234. PubMed
go back to reference Mohr, G., Engelkamp, J., & Zimmer, H. D. (1989). Recall and recognition of self-performed acts. Psychological Research, 51, 181–187. Mohr, G., Engelkamp, J., & Zimmer, H. D. (1989). Recall and recognition of self-performed acts. Psychological Research, 51, 181–187.
go back to reference Mulligan, N. (2000). Perceptual interference at encoding enhances item-specific encoding and disrupts relational encoding: Evidence from multiple recall tests. Memory & Cognition, 28, 539–546. Mulligan, N. (2000). Perceptual interference at encoding enhances item-specific encoding and disrupts relational encoding: Evidence from multiple recall tests. Memory & Cognition, 28, 539–546.
go back to reference Mulligan, N. (2001). Generation and hypermnesia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 436–450. Mulligan, N. (2001). Generation and hypermnesia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 436–450.
go back to reference Nairne, J. S., Pusen, C., & Widener, R. J., Jr. (1985). Representation in the mental lexicon: Implications for theories of the generation effect. Memory & Cognition, 13, 183–191. Nairne, J. S., Pusen, C., & Widener, R. J., Jr. (1985). Representation in the mental lexicon: Implications for theories of the generation effect. Memory & Cognition, 13, 183–191.
go back to reference Nairne, J. S., Riegler, G. L., & Serra, M. (1991). Dissociative effects of generation on item and order retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 702–709. Nairne, J. S., Riegler, G. L., & Serra, M. (1991). Dissociative effects of generation on item and order retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 702–709.
go back to reference Neely, J. H. (1977). Semantic priming and retrieval from lexical memory: Roles of inhibitionless spreading activation and limited capacity attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 106, 226–254. Neely, J. H. (1977). Semantic priming and retrieval from lexical memory: Roles of inhibitionless spreading activation and limited capacity attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 106, 226–254.
go back to reference Nilsson, L. G., Nyberg, L., Klingberg, F., Åberg, C., Persson, J., & Roland, P. E. (2000). Activity in motor areas while remembering action events. Neuro Report, 11, 2199–2201. Nilsson, L. G., Nyberg, L., Klingberg, F., Åberg, C., Persson, J., & Roland, P. E. (2000). Activity in motor areas while remembering action events. Neuro Report, 11, 2199–2201.
go back to reference Norris, M., & West, R. (1993). Activity memory and aging: The role of motor retrieval and strategic processing. Psychology and Aging, 8, 81–86. PubMed Norris, M., & West, R. (1993). Activity memory and aging: The role of motor retrieval and strategic processing. Psychology and Aging, 8, 81–86. PubMed
go back to reference Nyberg, L., Petersson, K. M., Nilsson, L. G., Sandblom, J., Åberg, C., & Ingvar, M. (2001). Reactivation of motor brain areas during explicit memory for actions. NeuroImage, 20, 1–8. Nyberg, L., Petersson, K. M., Nilsson, L. G., Sandblom, J., Åberg, C., & Ingvar, M. (2001). Reactivation of motor brain areas during explicit memory for actions. NeuroImage, 20, 1–8.
go back to reference Olofsson, U. (1997). Win some, lose some: Hypermnesia for actions reflects increased item-specific processing. Memory & Cognition, 25, 797–800. Olofsson, U. (1997). Win some, lose some: Hypermnesia for actions reflects increased item-specific processing. Memory & Cognition, 25, 797–800.
go back to reference Perea, M., & Rosa, E. (2002). The effects of associative and semantic priming in the lexical decision task. Psychological Research, 66, 180–194. CrossRefPubMed Perea, M., & Rosa, E. (2002). The effects of associative and semantic priming in the lexical decision task. Psychological Research, 66, 180–194. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Roencker, D. L., Thompson, C. P., & Brown, S. C. (1971). Comparison of measures for the estimation of clustering in free recall. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 45–48. Roencker, D. L., Thompson, C. P., & Brown, S. C. (1971). Comparison of measures for the estimation of clustering in free recall. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 45–48.
go back to reference Seiler, K., & Engelkamp, J. (2003). The role of item-specific information for the serial position curve in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 954–964. CrossRef Seiler, K., & Engelkamp, J. (2003). The role of item-specific information for the serial position curve in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 954–964. CrossRef
go back to reference Serra, M., & Nairne, J. S. (1993). Design controversies and the generation effect: Support for an item-order hypothesis. Memory & Cognition, 21, 34–40. Serra, M., & Nairne, J. S. (1993). Design controversies and the generation effect: Support for an item-order hypothesis. Memory & Cognition, 21, 34–40.
go back to reference Smith, R. E., & Hunt, R. R. (2000). The effects of distinctiveness require reinstatement of organization: The importance of intentional memory instructions. Journal of Memory and Language, 43, 431–446. CrossRef Smith, R. E., & Hunt, R. R. (2000). The effects of distinctiveness require reinstatement of organization: The importance of intentional memory instructions. Journal of Memory and Language, 43, 431–446. CrossRef
go back to reference Sternberg, R. J., & Tulving, E. (1977). The measurement of subjective organization in free recall. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 539–556. CrossRef Sternberg, R. J., & Tulving, E. (1977). The measurement of subjective organization in free recall. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 539–556. CrossRef
go back to reference Wippich, W. (1980). Bildhaftigkeit und Organisation: Untersuchungen zu einer differenzierten Organisationshypothese. Darmstadt, Germany: Steinkopff. Wippich, W. (1980). Bildhaftigkeit und Organisation: Untersuchungen zu einer differenzierten Organisationshypothese. Darmstadt, Germany: Steinkopff.
go back to reference Zimmer, H. D. (2001). Why do actions speak louder than words: Action memory as a variant of encoding manipulations or the result of a specific memory system? In H. D. Zimmer, et al. (Eds.), Memory for action: A distinct form of episodic memory? (pp. 151–198). New York: Oxford University Press. Zimmer, H. D. (2001). Why do actions speak louder than words: Action memory as a variant of encoding manipulations or the result of a specific memory system? In H. D. Zimmer, et al. (Eds.), Memory for action: A distinct form of episodic memory? (pp. 151–198). New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Zimmer, H. D., & Engelkamp, J. (1989). Does motor encoding enhance relational information? Psychological Research, 51, 158–167. Zimmer, H. D., & Engelkamp, J. (1989). Does motor encoding enhance relational information? Psychological Research, 51, 158–167.
go back to reference Zimmer, H. D., & Engelkamp, J. (1999). Levels of processing effects in subject-performed tasks. Memory & Cognition, 27, 907–914. Zimmer, H. D., & Engelkamp, J. (1999). Levels of processing effects in subject-performed tasks. Memory & Cognition, 27, 907–914.
go back to reference Zimmer, H. D., & Mohr, M. (1986). Organisation und Organisierbarkeit von Verben und Substantiven bei einer verbal-semantischen bzw. ‘modalitätsspezifischen’ Lernweise (Arbeiten der Fachrichtung Psychologie Nr. 100). [Organisation and facilities of organisation of verbs and nouns after semantic or modality-specific encoding.] Saarbrücken, Germany: Universität des Saarlandes. Zimmer, H. D., & Mohr, M. (1986). Organisation und Organisierbarkeit von Verben und Substantiven bei einer verbal-semantischen bzw. ‘modalitätsspezifischen’ Lernweise (Arbeiten der Fachrichtung Psychologie Nr. 100). [Organisation and facilities of organisation of verbs and nouns after semantic or modality-specific encoding.] Saarbrücken, Germany: Universität des Saarlandes.
go back to reference Zimmer, H. D., Helstrup, T., & Engelkamp, J. (2000). Pop-out into memory: A retrieval mechanism that is enhanced with the recall of subject-performed tasks . Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 26, 658–670. CrossRef Zimmer, H. D., Helstrup, T., & Engelkamp, J. (2000). Pop-out into memory: A retrieval mechanism that is enhanced with the recall of subject-performed tasks . Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 26, 658–670. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Memory for actions: Item and relational information in categorized lists
Auteurs
Johannes Engelkamp
Kerstin H. Seiler
Hubert D. Zimmer
Publicatiedatum
01-12-2004
Uitgeverij
Springer-Verlag
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 1-2/2004
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-003-0160-7