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The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0926-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Understanding parenting risk and protective factors can help clinicians and researchers to develop effective family interventions. To have knowledge of these risk and protective factors, validated assessment tools are required. Validation studies for parenting measures with Indonesian parents are lacking, despite the need for access to parenting interventions among Indonesian families. This study aimed to validate the Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales (PAFAS), a brief parenting and family adjustment measure developed in Australia that has been validated with Panamanian and Chinese parents. A sample of 210 Indonesian parents with children aged 2–12 years old completed the Indonesian version of the PAFAS and Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale (CAPES). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) were used for analyses. CFA resulted a four-factor PAFAS Parenting scale (15 items) and three-factor PAFAS Family adjustment scale (8 items). SEM analyses with PAFAS and CAPES revealed a good fit of the model of relationships between parent, family and child constructs to the data. The internal consistencies of PAFAS were good or acceptable, with the exception of Parental consistency. Overall, PAFAS had satisfactory psychometric properties. It is a promising measure that can potentially be used to study parenting risk and protective factors among Indonesian families. Item improvement and further validation with more diverse samples are suggested.
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- The Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales (PAFAS): an Indonesian Validation Study
- Springer US