Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The goal of this three-wave longitudinal study was to analyze foster parent stress and foster children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a transactional framework. Participants in this study were 237 children in foster care in the Netherlands with, mostly, long placement durations (M = 56.86 months, SD = 49.10 months). We examined concurrent, prospective unidirectional and bidirectional relations between foster children’s behavior and foster parent stress by using cross-lagged structural equation modeling and examined whether the results were stable across different subgroups of foster children. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found no bidirectional relations. There were unidirectional prospective pathways from foster children’s internalizing and externalizing problems to foster parent stress, but no significant prospective pathways from foster parent stress to foster children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. The results were fairly stable across different subgroups of foster children. The lack of bidirectional relations was unexpected given the presence of transactional relations in biological parent-child dyads. Foster parents seem not to influence their foster children when it comes to regulating problem behavior. Therefore, the question is whether foster parents can, in more general terms, help their foster children benefit from their improved home environment.
Abidin, R. R. (1990). Parenting stress index. Charlottesville, VA: Pediatric Psychology Press.
Achenbach, T. M., Becker, A., Döpfner, M., Heiervang, E., Roessner, V., Steinhausen, H. C., & Rothenberger, A. (2008). Multicultural assessment of child and adolescent psychopathology with ASEBA and SDQ instruments: research findings, applications, and future directions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(3), 251–275. CrossRefPubMed
Bentler, P. M. (2004). EQS structural equations modeling software (Version 6.3). Encino, CA: Multivariate Software.
Bornstein, M. H. (2009). Toward a model of culture↔parent↔child transactions. In A. Sameroff (Ed.), The transactional model of development. How children and contexts shape each other (pp. 139–162). Washington: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Brown, J. D., & Bednar, L. M. (2006). Foster parent perceptions of placement breakdown. Children and Youth Services Review, 28(12), 1497–1511. CrossRef
Burns, B. J., Phillips, S. D., Wagner, H. R., Barth, R. P., Kolko, D. J., Campbell, Y., & Landsverk, J. (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youths involved with child welfare: a national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(8), 960–970. CrossRef
Byrne, B. M. (2008). Structural equation modeling with EQS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Second edition New York, NY: Routledge.
Crnic, K., & Low, C. (2002). Everyday stresses and parenting. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting volume 5 practical issues in parenting 242, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Crnic, K. A., Gaze, C., & Hoffman, C. (2005). Cumulative parenting stress across the preschool period: Relations to maternal parenting and child behaviour at age 5. Infant and Child Development, 14(2), 117–132. CrossRef
De Brock, A., Vermulst, A., Gerris, J., & Abidin, R. (1992). NOSI-Nijmeegse Ouderlijke Stress Index, Handleiding experimentele versie [NOSI-Nijmegen Parenting Stress Index, Manual experimental version]. Lisse: Swets en Zeitlinger.
Deater-Deckard, K. (2004). Parenting stress. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. CrossRef
Deater-Deckard, K. (1998). Parenting stress and child adjustment: Some old hypotheses and new questions. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5(3), 314–332.
Dorsey, S., Farmer, E. M., Barth, R. P., Greene, K. M., Reid, J., & Landsverk, J. (2008). Current status and evidence base of training for foster and treatment foster parents. Children and Youth Services Review, 30(12), 1403–1416.
Enders, C. K. (2001). A primer on maximum likelihood algorithms available for use with missing data. Structural Equation Modeling, 8(1), 128–141. CrossRef
Enders, C. K., & Bandalos, D. L. (2001). The relative performance of full information maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models. Structural Equation Modeling, 8(3), 430–457. CrossRef
Farmer, E., Lipscombe, J., & Moyers, S. (2005). Foster carer strain and its impact on parenting and placement outcomes for adolescents. British Journal of Social Work, 35(2), 237–253. CrossRef
Goedhart, A., Treffers, P. D., & Van Widenfelt, B. (2003). Vragen naar psychische problemen bij kinderen en adolescenten. De Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) [Asking questions about the psychological problems of children and adolescent. The Strenghts and Difficulties Questionnaire(SDQ)]. Maandblad Geestelijke Volksgezondheid, 58(11), 1018–1035.
Goemans, A., Van Geel, M., & Vedder, P. (2015). Over three decades of longitudinal research on the development of foster children: a meta-analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect, 42, 121–134. CrossRef
Goemans, A., Van Geel, M., & Vedder, P. (2016). Psychosocial functioning in Dutch foster children: the relationship with child, family, and placement characteristics. Child Abuse & Neglect, 56, 30–43. CrossRef
Goemans, A., Van Geel, M., Vedder, P., & Bradley, R. H. (2016). HOME in the Netherlands validation of the home observation for measurement of the environment inventory. Journal of Family Issues, 37(15), 2118–2137. CrossRef
Goodman, A., Lamping, D. L., & Ploubidis, G. B. (2010). When to use broader internalising and externalising subscales instead of the hypothesised five subscales on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): data from British parents, teachers and children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(8), 1179–1191. CrossRefPubMed
Greeson, J. K., Briggs, E. C., Kisiel, C. L., Layne, C. M., Ake, III, G. S., Ko, S. J., Gerrity, E. T., Steinberg, A. M., Howard, M. L., & Pynoos, R. S. (2011). Complex trauma and mental health in children and adolescents placed in foster care: findings from the national child traumatic stress network. Child Welfare, 90(6), 91–108. PubMed
Hu, L.t., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. CrossRef
Hurlburt, M. S., Chamberlain, P., DeGarmo, D., Zhang, J., & Price, J. M. (2010). Advancing prediction of foster placement disruption using brief behavioral screening. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34(12), 917–926. CrossRef
Johnson, P. R., Yoken, C., & Voss, R. (1995). Family foster care placement: the child’s perspective. Child Welfare, 74(5), 959.
Jones, G., & Morrissette, P. J. (1999). Foster parent stress. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 33(1), 13–27.
Keijsers, L., Branje, S., Hawk, S. T., Schwartz, S. J., Frijns, T., Koot, H. M., van Lier, P., & Meeus, W. (2012). Forbidden friends as forbidden fruit: Parental supervision of friendships, contact with deviant peers, and adolescent delinquency. Child Development, 83(2), 651–666. PubMed
Kelley, S. J., Whitley, D. M., & Campos, P. E. (2011). Behavior problems in children raised by grandmothers: the role of caregiver distress, family resources, and the home environment. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(11), 2138–2145. CrossRef
Little, R. J. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83(404), 1198–1202. CrossRef
Maaskant, A. M., Van Rooij, F. B., & Hermanns, J. M. (2014). Mental health and associated risk factors of Dutch school aged foster children placed in long-term foster care. Children and Youth Services Review, 44, 207–216. CrossRef
Maaskant, A. M., Van Rooij, F. B., Overbeek, G. J., Oort, F. J., & Hermanns, J. M. (2016). Parent training in foster families with children with behavior problems: follow-up results from a randomized controlled trial. Children and Youth Services Review, 70, 84–94. CrossRef
Maccoby, E. E. (1992). The role of parents in the socialization of children: an historical overview. Developmental Psychology, 28(6), 1006–1017. CrossRef
McAuley, C., & Trew, K. (2000). Children’s adjustment over time in foster care: cross-informant agreement, stability and placement disruption. British Journal of Social Work, 30(1), 91–107. CrossRef
Muris, P., Meesters, C., Van den Berg, F. (2008). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 12(1), 1–8. CrossRef
Murray, L., Tarren‐Sweeney, M., & France, K. (2011). Foster carer perceptions of support and training in the context of high burden of care. Child & Family Social Work, 16(2), 149–158. CrossRef
Newton, R. R., Litrownik, A. J., & Landsverk, J. A. (2000). Children and youth in foster care: Disentangling the relationship between problem behaviors and number of placements. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(10), 1363–1374.
Oosterman, M., Schuengel, C., Slot, N. W., Bullens, R. A., & Doreleijers, T. A. (2007). Disruptions in foster care: a review and meta-analysis. Children and Youth Services Review, 29(1), 53–76. CrossRef
Pleegzorg Nederland (2015). Factsheet Pleegzorg 2015. https://www.pleegzorg.nl/media/uploads/pers_pagina/2015_factsheet_pleegzorg_def.pdf.
Rodger, S., Cummings, A., & Leschied, A. W. (2006). Who is caring for our most vulnerable children? The motivation to foster in child welfare. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30(10), 1129–1142. CrossRef
Sameroff, A. (2009). The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2001). A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika, 66(4), 507–514. CrossRef
Stanger, C., & Lewis, M. (1993). Agreement among parents, teachers, and children on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22(1), 107–116. CrossRef
Statistics Netherlands. (2013). Educational level of the labor force. Retreived from: http://statline.cbs.nl/StatWeb/publication/?VW=T&DM=SLNL&PA=71822NED&D1=0&D2=a&D3=a&D4=0-1,4&D5=a&D6=0&D7=2,l&HD=130926-1540&HDR=T,G3,G5,G6,G1&STB=G2,G4.
Timmer, S. G., Urquiza, A. J., & Zebell, N. (2006). Challenging foster caregiver–maltreated child relationships: the effectiveness of parent–child interaction therapy. Children and Youth Services Review, 28(1), 1–19. CrossRef
Van Widenfelt, B. M., Goedhart, A. W., Treffers, P. D., & Goodman, R. (2003). Dutch version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 12(6), 281–289. CrossRef
Vanderfaeillie, J., Van Holen, F., Trogh, L., & Andries, C. (2012). The impact of foster children’s behavioural problems on Flemish foster mothers’ parenting behaviour. Child & Family Social Work, 17(1), 34–42. CrossRef
Vig, S., Chinitz, S., & Shulman, L. (2005). Young children in foster care: Multiple vulnerabilities and complex service needs. Infants & Young Children, 18(2), 147–160.
Weems, C. F., Saltzman, K. M., Reiss, A. L., & Carrion, V. G. (2003). A prospective test of the association between hyperarousal and emotional numbing in youth with a history of traumatic stress. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32(1), 166–171.
Wilson, K. R., Hansen, D. J., & Li, M. (2011). The traumatic stress response in child maltreatment and resultant neuropsychological effects. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16(2), 87–97.
Yuan, K. H., & Bentler, P. M. (2000). Three likelihood‐based methods for mean and covariance structure analysis with nonnormal missing data. In M. Becker & M. Sobel (Eds.), Sociological methodology 30, (165–200). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
- Foster children’s behavioral development and foster parent stress: testing a transactional model
Mitch van Geel
- Springer US