Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 3/2018

14-10-2017 | Empirical Research

The Influence of Peers During Adolescence: Does Homophobic Name Calling by Peers Change Gender Identity?

Auteurs: Dawn DeLay, Carol Lynn Martin, Rachel E. Cook, Laura D. Hanish

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 3/2018

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Adolescents actively evaluate their identities during adolescence, and one of the most salient and central identities for youth concerns their gender identity. Experiences with peers may inform gender identity. Unfortunately, many youth experience homophobic name calling, a form of peer victimization, and it is unknown whether youth internalize these peer messages and how these messages might influence gender identity. The goal of the present study was to assess the role of homophobic name calling on changes over the course of an academic year in adolescents’ gender identity. Specifically, this study extends the literature using a new conceptualization and measure of gender identity that involves assessing how similar adolescents feel to both their own- and other-gender peers and, by employing longitudinal social network analyses, provides a rigorous analytic assessment of the impact of homophobic name calling on changes in these two dimensions of gender identity. Symbolic interaction perspectives—the “looking glass self”—suggest that peer feedback is incorporated into the self-concept. The current study tests this hypothesis by determining if adolescents respond to homophobic name calling by revising their self-view, specifically, how the self is viewed in relation to both gender groups. Participants were 299 6th grade students (53% female). Participants reported peer relationships, experiences of homophobic name calling, and gender identity (i.e., similarity to own- and other-gender peers). Longitudinal social network analyses revealed that homophobic name calling early in the school year predicted changes in gender identity over time. The results support the “looking glass self” hypothesis: experiencing homophobic name calling predicted identifying significantly less with own-gender peers and marginally more with other-gender peers over the course of an academic year. The effects held after controlling for participant characteristics (e.g., gender), social network features (e.g., norms), and peer experiences (e.g., friend influence, general victimization). Homophobic name calling emerged as a form of peer influence that changed early adolescent gender identity, such that adolescents in this study appear to have internalized the messages they received from peers and incorporated these messages into their personal views of their own gender identity.
Literatuur
go back to reference Cooley, C. H. (1902). Human nature and the social order. New York: Scribner’s. Cooley, C. H. (1902). Human nature and the social order. New York: Scribner’s.
go back to reference Ehrensaft, D. (2016). The gender creative child: Pathways for nurturing and supporting children who live outside gender boxes. New York: The Experiment. Ehrensaft, D. (2016). The gender creative child: Pathways for nurturing and supporting children who live outside gender boxes. New York: The Experiment.
go back to reference Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis (No. 7). New York: WW Norton & Company. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis (No. 7). New York: WW Norton & Company.
go back to reference Langlois, J. H., & Downs, A. C. (1980). Mothers, fathers, and peers as socialization agents of sex-typed play behaviors in young children. Child Development, 51, 1237–1247. Langlois, J. H., & Downs, A. C. (1980). Mothers, fathers, and peers as socialization agents of sex-typed play behaviors in young children. Child Development, 51, 1237–1247.
go back to reference Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W. M., & Laursen, B. (Eds.) (2011). Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups. New York: Guilford Press. Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W. M., & Laursen, B. (Eds.) (2011). Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Björkqvist, K., Österman, K., & Kaukiainen, A. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status within the group. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 1–15. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​(sici)1098-2337(1996)22:1<1::aid-ab1>3.0.co;2-t. CrossRef Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Björkqvist, K., Österman, K., & Kaukiainen, A. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status within the group. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 1–15. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​(sici)1098-2337(1996)22:1<1::aid-ab1>3.0.co;2-t. CrossRef
go back to reference Tropp, L. R., & Wright, S. C. (2001). Ingroup identification as the inclusion of ingroup in the self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 585–600. Tropp, L. R., & Wright, S. C. (2001). Ingroup identification as the inclusion of ingroup in the self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 585–600.
go back to reference Vitaro, F., Boivin, M., & Bukowski, W. M. (2009). The role of friendship in child and adolescent psychosocial development. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 568–585). New York: Guilford. Vitaro, F., Boivin, M., & Bukowski, W. M. (2009). The role of friendship in child and adolescent psychosocial development. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 568–585). New York: Guilford.
Metagegevens
Titel
The Influence of Peers During Adolescence: Does Homophobic Name Calling by Peers Change Gender Identity?
Auteurs
Dawn DeLay
Carol Lynn Martin
Rachel E. Cook
Laura D. Hanish
Publicatiedatum
14-10-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 3/2018
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0749-6