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04-01-2021 | ORIGINAL PAPER | Uitgave 5/2021

Mindfulness 5/2021

The Development of Mindfulness in Young Adults: the Relationship of Personality, Reinforcement Sensitivity, and Mindfulness

Tijdschrift:
Mindfulness > Uitgave 5/2021
Auteurs:
Johannes A. Karl, Ronald Fischer, Paul E. Jose
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Supplementary Information

The online version contains supplementary material available at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s12671-020-01576-3.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Abstract

Objectives

We report a pre-registered longitudinal study of emerging adults which examined the links between facets of mindfulness with Big Five and reinforcement sensitivity personality traits with the aim of exploring possible origins of individual differences in trait mindfulness.

Methods

We investigated the relationship between personality, reinforcement sensitivity (including Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioral Approach System (BAS)), and mindfulness in a sample of 227 undergraduate students across 8 months, using a random-intercept cross-lagged panel model.

Results

Mindfulness, in general, exhibited stronger longitudinal effects on personality than the other way around. We found reciprocal effects between reinforcement sensitivity and mindfulness facets: higher BAS-Goal-Drive Persistence positively predicted increased Acting with Awareness over time (B = 0.369 [.044, .693], p = .026) and higher Acting with Awareness predicted an increase in BAS-Goal-Drive Persistence (B = .173 [.041, .305], p = .010). Higher Non-Reacting Mindfulness predicted a reduction of BIS over time (B = − .132 [− .247, − .017], p = .025), with individuals with more skills to stay calm in emotional situations decreasing their reported levels of anxiety and emotional lability. Additionally, we found that higher Non-Judging mindfulness facets predicted an increase in Conscientiousness (B = .147 [.014, .280], p = .031). Finally, higher levels of Describing Mindfulness predicted an increase in Neuroticism over time (B = .200 [.034, .366], p = .018).

Conclusions

Overall, our research findings indicate that mindfulness and personality share developmental trajectories over a 4-month period, suggesting avenues for possible personality development via Mindfulness interventions.

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