Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

16-09-2022 | Original Paper

Slower Processing Speed in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-analytic Investigation of Time-Based Tasks

Auteurs: Nicole M. Zapparrata, Patricia J. Brooks, Teresa M. Ober

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 12/2023

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition affecting information processing across domains. The current meta-analysis investigated whether slower processing speed is associated with the ASD neurocognitive profile and whether findings hold across different time-based tasks and stimuli (social vs. nonsocial; linguistic vs. nonlinguistic). Mean RTs of ASD and age-matched neurotypical comparison groups (N = 893 ASD, 1063 neurotypical; mean age ASD group = 17 years) were compared across simple RT, choice RT, and interference control tasks (44 studies, 106 effects) using robust variance estimation meta-analysis. Simple RT tasks required participants to respond to individual stimuli, whereas choice RT tasks required forced-choice responses to two or more stimuli. Interference control tasks required a decision in the context of a distractor or priming stimulus; in an effort to minimize inhibitory demands, we extracted RTs only from baseline and congruent conditions of such tasks. All tasks required nonverbal (motor) responses. The overall effect-size estimate indicated significantly longer mean RTs in ASD groups (g = .35, 95% CI = .16; .54) than comparison groups. Task type moderated effects, with larger estimates drawn from simple RT tasks than interference control tasks. However, across all three task types, ASD groups exhibited significantly longer mean RTs than comparison groups. Stimulus type and age did not moderate effects. Generalized slowing may be a domain-general characteristic of ASD with potential consequences for social, language, and motor development. Assessing processing speed may inform development of interventions to support autistic individuals and their diverse cognitive profiles.
Voetnoten
1
According to Kapp et al. (2013), self-advocating autistic individuals prefer identity-first language (autistic individuals) over person-first language (individuals with autism spectrum disorder). Therefore, we use identity-first language in this paper. However, we recognize that person-first language over identity-first language may be a personal choice. Many scientists use person-first language in their reports, some of which are cited here. Though there is no consensus on terminology, respecting the individuals in question and their personal choices in how they describe themselves is of paramount importance (Lei et al., 2021).
 
2
The exact terms and syntax used in the initial PubMed and ERIC Proquest searches were: (((Autism) OR (Asperger) OR (ASD)) AND ((reaction time) OR (response time) OR (RT) OR (interference control))). In response to a reviewer’s suggestion, an additional search was done in PubMed using the following terms and syntax: (Autism OR Asperger OR ASD) AND (attention* AND ((congruent AND incongruent) OR ((“neutral cue” OR uncued) AND (“valid cue” OR “validly cued”)) OR distractor)) NOT ((reaction time) OR (response time) OR RT OR (interference control)).
 
Literatuur
go back to reference American Educational Research Association (2014) American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. Standards for educational and psychological testing. American Educational Research Association. American Educational Research Association (2014) American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. Standards for educational and psychological testing. American Educational Research Association.
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed., pp. 591–643). American Psychiatric Association.CrossRef American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed., pp. 591–643). American Psychiatric Association.CrossRef
go back to reference *Antão, J. Y. F. L., Abreu, L. C., Barbosa, R. T. A., Crocetta, T. B., Guarnieri, R., Massetti, T., Antunes, T. P. C., Tonks, J., & Monteiro, C. B. M. (2020). Use of augmented reality with a motion-controlled game utilizing alphabet letters and numbers to improve reaction time skills for people with autism spectrum disorder. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 23(1), 16–22. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2019.0103CrossRefPubMed *Antão, J. Y. F. L., Abreu, L. C., Barbosa, R. T. A., Crocetta, T. B., Guarnieri, R., Massetti, T., Antunes, T. P. C., Tonks, J., & Monteiro, C. B. M. (2020). Use of augmented reality with a motion-controlled game utilizing alphabet letters and numbers to improve reaction time skills for people with autism spectrum disorder. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 23(1), 16–22. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1089/​cyber.​2019.​0103CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Ashwin, E., Ashwin, C., Tavassoli, T., & Chakrabarti, B. (2009). Talent in autism: Hyper-systemizing, hyper-attention to detail and sensory hypersensitivity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1522), 1377–1383. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0337CrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Ashwin, E., Ashwin, C., Tavassoli, T., & Chakrabarti, B. (2009). Talent in autism: Hyper-systemizing, hyper-attention to detail and sensory hypersensitivity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1522), 1377–1383. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1098/​rstb.​2008.​0337CrossRef
go back to reference *Goldberg, M. C., Mostow, A. J., Vecera, S. P., Larson, J. C., Mostofsky, S. H., Mahone, E. M., & Denckla, M. B. (2008). Evidence for impairments in using static line drawings of eye gaze cues to orient visual-spatial attention in children with high functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 38, 1405–1413. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0506-xCrossRef *Goldberg, M. C., Mostow, A. J., Vecera, S. P., Larson, J. C., Mostofsky, S. H., Mahone, E. M., & Denckla, M. B. (2008). Evidence for impairments in using static line drawings of eye gaze cues to orient visual-spatial attention in children with high functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 38, 1405–1413. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10803-007-0506-xCrossRef
go back to reference Higgins, J. P., Deeks, J. J., & Altman, D. G. (2008). Special topics in statistics. In J. P. Higgins & S. Green (Eds.), Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions (pp. 481–529). Wiley.CrossRef Higgins, J. P., Deeks, J. J., & Altman, D. G. (2008). Special topics in statistics. In J. P. Higgins & S. Green (Eds.), Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions (pp. 481–529). Wiley.CrossRef
go back to reference Hogan-Brown, A. L., Hoedemaker, R. S., Gordon, P. C., & Losh, M. (2014). Eye-voice span during rapid automatized naming: Evidence of reduced automaticity in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and their siblings. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 6(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1866-1955-6-33CrossRef Hogan-Brown, A. L., Hoedemaker, R. S., Gordon, P. C., & Losh, M. (2014). Eye-voice span during rapid automatized naming: Evidence of reduced automaticity in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and their siblings. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 6(1), 1–11. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​1866-1955-6-33CrossRef
go back to reference Homer, B. D., & Plass, J. L. (2021). Using multiple data streams in executive function training games to optimize outcomes for neurodiverse populations. In X. Fang (Ed.), HCI in Games: Experience design and game mechanics (pp. 281–292). NY: Springer Cham.CrossRef Homer, B. D., & Plass, J. L. (2021). Using multiple data streams in executive function training games to optimize outcomes for neurodiverse populations. In X. Fang (Ed.), HCI in Games: Experience design and game mechanics (pp. 281–292). NY: Springer Cham.CrossRef
go back to reference Kapp, S. (2019). How social deficit models exacerbate the medical model: Autism as case in point. Autism Policy & Practice, 2(1), 3–28. Kapp, S. (2019). How social deficit models exacerbate the medical model: Autism as case in point. Autism Policy & Practice, 2(1), 3–28.
go back to reference Mead, L. A., Mayer, A. R., Bobholz, J. A., Woodley, S. J., Cunningham, J. M., Hammeke, T. A., & Rao, S. M. (2002). Neural basis of the Stroop interference task: Response competition or selective attention? Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8(6), 735–742.CrossRefPubMed Mead, L. A., Mayer, A. R., Bobholz, J. A., Woodley, S. J., Cunningham, J. M., Hammeke, T. A., & Rao, S. M. (2002). Neural basis of the Stroop interference task: Response competition or selective attention? Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8(6), 735–742.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference *Molidaze, V., Brodski-Guerniero, A., Schuetz, M., Siemann, J., Lyzhko, E., Schlitt, S., Kitzerow, J., Langer, A., Kaiser, J., Naumer, M. J., Wibral, M., Chan, J., Freitag, C. M., & Siniatchkin, M. (2020). Significance of beta-band oscillations in autism spectrum disorders during motor response inhibition tasks: A MEG study. Brain Topography, 33(3), 355–374. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10548-020-00765-6CrossRef *Molidaze, V., Brodski-Guerniero, A., Schuetz, M., Siemann, J., Lyzhko, E., Schlitt, S., Kitzerow, J., Langer, A., Kaiser, J., Naumer, M. J., Wibral, M., Chan, J., Freitag, C. M., & Siniatchkin, M. (2020). Significance of beta-band oscillations in autism spectrum disorders during motor response inhibition tasks: A MEG study. Brain Topography, 33(3), 355–374. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10548-020-00765-6CrossRef
go back to reference Oliveras-Rentas, R. E., Kenworthy, L., Roberson, R. B., Martin, A., & Wallace, G. L. (2012). WISC-IV profile in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: Impaired processing speed is associated with increased autism communication symptoms and decreased adaptive communication abilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(5), 655–664. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1289-7CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Oliveras-Rentas, R. E., Kenworthy, L., Roberson, R. B., Martin, A., & Wallace, G. L. (2012). WISC-IV profile in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: Impaired processing speed is associated with increased autism communication symptoms and decreased adaptive communication abilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(5), 655–664. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10803-011-1289-7CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference *Ozonoff, S., & Strayer, D. L. (1997). Inhibitory function in nonretarded children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27(1), 59–77.CrossRefPubMed *Ozonoff, S., & Strayer, D. L. (1997). Inhibitory function in nonretarded children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27(1), 59–77.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Sánchez-Cubillo, I., Periáñez, J. A., Adrover-Roig, D., Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. M., Ríos-Lago, M., Tirapu, J., & Barceló, F. (2009). Construct validity of the trail making test: Role of task-switching, working memory, inhibition/interference control, and visuomotor abilities. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(3), 438–450. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617709090626CrossRefPubMed Sánchez-Cubillo, I., Periáñez, J. A., Adrover-Roig, D., Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. M., Ríos-Lago, M., Tirapu, J., & Barceló, F. (2009). Construct validity of the trail making test: Role of task-switching, working memory, inhibition/interference control, and visuomotor abilities. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(3), 438–450. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1017/​S135561770909062​6CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference *Shi, L., Zhou, H., Shen, Y., Wang, Y., Fang, Y., He, Y., Ou, J., Luo, X., Cheung, E. F. C., & Chan, R. C. K. (2020). Differential profiles of response inhibition deficit between male children with autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Autism Research, 13(4), 591–602. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.2231CrossRefPubMed *Shi, L., Zhou, H., Shen, Y., Wang, Y., Fang, Y., He, Y., Ou, J., Luo, X., Cheung, E. F. C., & Chan, R. C. K. (2020). Differential profiles of response inhibition deficit between male children with autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Autism Research, 13(4), 591–602. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​aur.​2231CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(8), 921–929. https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e318179964fCrossRef Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(8), 921–929. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1097/​CHI.​0b013e318179964f​CrossRef
go back to reference Tanner-Smith, E. E., & Tipton, E. (2014). Robust variance estimation with dependent effect sizes: Practical considerations including a software tutorial in Stata and SPSS. Research Synthesis Methods, 5(1), 13–30.CrossRefPubMed Tanner-Smith, E. E., & Tipton, E. (2014). Robust variance estimation with dependent effect sizes: Practical considerations including a software tutorial in Stata and SPSS. Research Synthesis Methods, 5(1), 13–30.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Viechtbauer, W. (2010). Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. Journal of Statistical Software, 36(3), 1–48.CrossRef Viechtbauer, W. (2010). Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. Journal of Statistical Software, 36(3), 1–48.CrossRef
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (1991). The Wechsler intelligence scale for children (3rd ed.). The Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D. (1991). The Wechsler intelligence scale for children (3rd ed.). The Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler adult intelligence scale-III (WAIS-III). The Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler adult intelligence scale-III (WAIS-III). The Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Zapparrata, N. M., Brooks, P. J., & Ober, T. M. (2022a). Is developmental language disorder associated with slower processing speed across domains? In Y. Gong & F. Kpogo (Eds.), Proceedings of the 46th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 931–945). Cascadilla Press. http://www.lingref.com/bucld/46/BUCLD46-70.pdf Zapparrata, N. M., Brooks, P. J., & Ober, T. M. (2022a). Is developmental language disorder associated with slower processing speed across domains? In Y. Gong & F. Kpogo (Eds.), Proceedings of the 46th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 931–945). Cascadilla Press. http://​www.​lingref.​com/​bucld/​46/​BUCLD46-70.​pdf
Metagegevens
Titel
Slower Processing Speed in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-analytic Investigation of Time-Based Tasks
Auteurs
Nicole M. Zapparrata
Patricia J. Brooks
Teresa M. Ober
Publicatiedatum
16-09-2022
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 12/2023
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-022-05736-3

Andere artikelen Uitgave 12/2023

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 12/2023 Naar de uitgave

S:I: .Developmental Approach and Targeted Treatment of Sensory Alterations

Sensory Phenotypes in Autism: Making a Case for the Inclusion of Sensory Integration Functions

S:I: .Developmental Approach and Targeted Treatment of Sensory Alterations

Assessing Trial-to-Trial Variability in Auditory ERPs in Autism and Schizophrenia