Women are more likely than men to forego care—including preventive care. Understanding which factors influence women’s preventive care use has the potential to improve health. This study focuses on the largely understudied areas of psychological barriers (depression) and neighborhood factors (support and stressors) that may be associated with women’s preventive care use through secondary analysis of the Chicago Community Adult Health Study. Across models, 30–40% of the variance in preventive care adherence was explained by the neighborhood. Depressive symptoms were not associated with preventive care use when neighborhood factors were included. However, stratified models showed that associations varied by race/ethnicity. Previous research has tended to focus on individual determinants of care, but this study suggests that barriers to care are far more complex. Efforts aimed at improving care utilization need to be multipronged and interventions need to take an individual’s demographics, mental health, and context into account.