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Central to Mindfulness-Based Intervention (MBI) protocols are formal and informal mindfulness practice, both within and between weekly sessions. It is presumed that mindfulness practices foster increases in mindfulness, which in turn affect treatment outcomes. The current study assessed whether frequency and duration of between-session mindfulness practice predicted mindfulness as measured by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in a clinical sample of adults following Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (N = 103). In the original trial, significantly greater changes in primary substance abuse outcomes were observed in the MBRP group. In the current study, it was hypothesized that type (formal versus informal), frequency (days/week), and duration (minutes) of practice would predict post-course FFMQ scores. However, no significant relationships were found between practice and either the total or subscale FFMQ scores. Results from the current study suggest that either mindfulness is not affected by mindfulness practices or that the FFMQ may need adaptation for specific clinical samples. Results suggest more objective indices of meditation practice, such as frequency and duration of practice, may be indicated in assessing how mindfulness practice relates to changes in mindfulness and to clinical outcomes, particularly in samples in which mindfulness measures have not been validated. Further investigation is needed to determine best methods of assessment to identify mechanisms of MBIs in different clinical populations.
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- Mindfulness Practice and Its Relationship to the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire
Jacob A. Manuel
Vanessa C. Somohano
- Springer US