Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Parents and children with high negative emotionality may be more likely to provide and receive non-supportive contingencies, respectively. However, no study has examined child and parent negative emotionality in the same study and explored whether the link between child and parent negative emotionality may exist in part because of parental emotion socialization. The present study was designed to explore the link between the negative emotionality of mothers and their adolescent children and the potential mechanisms for this similarity. Maternal emotion socialization was explored as a mediator between maternal and adolescent negative emotionality, and between maternal negative emotionality and adolescent internalizing symptoms. Participants were mothers (M age = 30.47) with their children at two time points: preschool (Time 1; M age = 4.55 years old) and adolescence (Time 2; M = 13.73), with 81 boys and 94 girls. Negative emotionality was measured using a questionnaire, with mothers reporting for herself and her child. Maternal emotion socialization was measured by mothers’ self-report of their contingencies to their adolescent child’s negative emotions: 1) Punish; 2) magnify; 3) ignore; 4) override; and 5) support. The results revealed that the maternal punishing of the adolescent’s negative emotions was a mediator between concurrent mother negative emotionality and adolescent negative emotionality, such that higher mother negative emotionality was associated with more punishing, and more punishing was associated with higher adolescent negative emotionality, controlling for previous levels of maternal and child negative emotionality. Furthermore, being supportive of a child’s negative emotions was negatively associated with concurrent levels of adolescent internalizing symptoms, while magnifying a child’s emotions held a marginal positive association, controlling for previous levels of internalizing symptoms. The results highlight the importance of considering maternal emotion socialization strategies, even into adolescence, for a more comprehensive understanding of children’s emotional well-being. The findings have implications for developing and implementing emotion-based parenting interventions.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the child behavior checklist/ 4–18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.
Anthony, J. L., Lonigan, C. J., Hooe, E. S., & Phillips, B. M. (2002). An affect-based, hierarchical model of temperament and its relations with internalizing symptomatology. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 480–490. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3104_7. PubMedCrossRef
Arellano, B., Gramszlo, C., & Woodruff-Borden, J. (2018). Parental reactions to children’s negative affect: the moderating role of parental GAD. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 53, 22–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2017.10.006. PubMedCrossRef
Bould, H., Joinson, C., Sterne, J., & Araya, R. (2013). The emotionality activity sociability temperament survey: factor analysis and temporal stability in a longitudinal cohort. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(5), 628–633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.11.010. CrossRef
Brenner, E. M., & Salovey, P. (1997). Emotion regulation during childhood: developmental, interpersonal, and individual considerations. In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 168–192). New York, NY: Basic Books.
Buck, R. (1984). The communication of emotion. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Buckholdt, K. E., Parra, G. R., & Jobe-Shields, L. (2014). Intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation through parental invalidation of emotions: Implications for adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Journal of Child and family Studies, 23(2), 324–332. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9768-4. PubMedCrossRef
Buss, A. H., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Buss, A. H., & Plomin, R. (1986). The EAS approach to temperament. In R. Plomin & J. Dunn (Eds.), The study of temperament: Changes, continuities, and challenges (pp. 67–79). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Davenport, E., Yap, M. B., Simmons, J. G., Sheeber, L. B., & Allen, N. B. (2011). Maternal and adolescent temperament as predictors of maternal affective behavior during mother–adolescent interactions. Journal of Adolescence, 34(5), 829–839. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.02.003. PubMedCrossRef
Dougherty, L. R., Bufferd, S. J., Carlson, G. A., Dyson, M., Olino, T. M., Durbin, C. E., & Klein, D. N. (2011). Preschoolers’ observed temperament and psychiatric disorders assessed with a parent diagnostic interview. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(2), 295–306. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.546046. CrossRef
Dunsmore, J. C., Booker, J. A., Ollendick, T. H., & Greene, R. W. (2016). Emotion socialization in the context of risk and psychopathology: Maternal emotion coaching predicts better treatment outcomes for emotionally labile children with oppositional defiant disorder. Social Development, 25(1), 8–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12109. PubMedCrossRef
Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1994). Mothers’ reactions to children’s negative emotions: relations to children’s temperament and anger behavior. Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 40, 138–156.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Guthrie, I. K., Murphy, B. C., & Reiser, M. (1999). Parental reactions to children’s negative emotions: Longitudinal relations to quality of children’s social functioning. Child Development, 70, 513–534.https://0-doi-org.mercury.concordia.ca/10.1111/1467-8624.00037. PubMedCrossRef
Enns, L. N., Barrieau, L. E., Stack, D. M., Serbin, L. A., Ledingham, J. E., & Schwartzman, A. E. (2015). Verbal and nonverbal communication in at-risk mother-child dyads: implications for relationship quality and developing positive social behaviors in middle-childhood. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 13(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2015.1049153. CrossRef
Gartstein, M. A., & Fagot, B. I. (2003). Parental depression, parenting and family adjustment, and child effortful control: explaining externalizing behaviors for preschool children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24(2), 143–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(03)00043-1. CrossRef
Graham, J. W. (2009). Missing data analysis: making it work in the real world. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 549–576. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085530. PubMedCrossRef
Hastings, P. D., Klimes-Dougan, B., Kendziora, K. T., Brand, A., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2014). Regulating sadness and fear from outside and within: mothers’ emotion socialization and adolescents’ parasympathetic regulation predict the development of internalizing difficulties. Development and Psychopathology, 26(4 Pt 2), 1369–1384. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579414001084. PubMedCrossRef
Hughes, E. K., & Gullone, E. (2010). Parent emotion socialisation practices and their associations with personality and emotion regulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(7), 694–699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.05.042. CrossRef
Hooper, E. G., Wu, Q., Ku, S., Gerhardt, M., & Feng, X. (2018). Maternal emotion socialization and child outcomes among African Americans and European Americans. Journal of Child &Family Studies, 27(6), 1870–1880. CrossRef
Hurrell, K. E., Hudson, J. L., & Schniering, C. A. (2015). Parental reactions to children’s negative emotions: relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 29, 72–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.10.008. PubMedCrossRef
Kim, K. J., Conger, R. D., Lorenz, F. O., & Elder, Jr., G. H. (2001). Parent–adolescent reciprocity in negative affect and its relation to early adult social development. Developmental Psychology, 37(6), 775–790. https://doi.org/10.1037//0012-16220.127.116.115. PubMedCrossRef
Klein, D. N., Dyson, M. W., Kujawa, A. J., & Kotov, R. (2012). Temperament and internalizing disorders. In M. Zentner & R. L. Shiner (Eds.), Handbook of temperament (pp. 541–561). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Klimes-Dougan, B., Brand, A. E., Zahn-Waxler, C., Usher, B., Hastings, P. D., Kendziora, K., & Garside, R. B. (2007). Parental emotion socialization in adolescence: Differences in sex, age and problem status. Social Development, 16(2), 326–342. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00387.x. CrossRef
Kopala-Sibley, D. C., Danzig, A. P., Kotov, R., Bromet, E. J., Carlson, G. A., & Olino, T. M., et al. (2016). Negative emotionality and its facets moderate the effects of exposure to hurricane sandy on children’s postdisaster depression and anxiety symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(4), 471–481. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000152. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Kovacs, M., & Lopez-Duran, N. (2010). Prodromal symptoms and atypical affectivity as predictors of major depression in juveniles: implications for prevention. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 472–496. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02230.x. PubMedCrossRef
Krause, E. D., Mendelson, T., & Lynch, T. R. (2003). Childhood emotional invalidation and adult psychological distress: the mediating role of emotional inhibition. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(2), 199–213. 10.1016/S0145-2134(02)00536-7. CrossRef
Laurent, H., & Powers, S. (2007). Emotion regulation in emerging adult couples: Temperament, attachment, and HPA response to conflict. Biological Psychology, 76, 61–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.06.002. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Lengua, L. J., & Kovacs, E. A. (2005). Bidirectional associations between temperament and parenting and the prediction of adjustment problems in middle childhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26(1), 21–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2004.10.001. CrossRef
Leung, D. W., & Slep, A. M. S. (2006). Predicting inept discipline: the role of parental depressive symptoms, anger, and attributions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(3), 524–534. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.74.3.524. PubMedCrossRef
Magai, C. (1996). Emotions as a Child: Adult Version. Brooklyn, NY: Long Island University.
Martin, J. P., Stack, D. M., Serbin, L. A., Ledingham, J., & Schwartzman, A. E. (2012). Social problem solving in high-risk mother–child dyads: an intergenerational study. Social Development, 21(1), 47–67. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00600.x. CrossRef
Moed, A., Gershoff, E. T., Eisenberg, N., Hofer, C., Losoya, S., Spinrad, T. L., & Liew, J. (2015). Parent–adolescent conflict as sequences of reciprocal negative emotion: links with conflict resolution and adolescents’ behavior problems. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(8), 1607–1622. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-014-0209-5. PubMedCrossRef
Muthén, B. O., & Muthén, L. K. (2010). Mplus (Version 6.00) [Computer software]. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.
Muthén, B. O., & Muthén, L. K. (2017). Mplus (Version 7.3) [Computer software]. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Neppl, T. K., Donnellan, M. B., Scaramella, L. V., Widaman, K. F., Spilman, S. K., Ontai, L. L., & Conger, R. D. (2010). Differential stability of temperament and personality from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Journal of Research in Personality, 44(3), 386–396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2010.04.004. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Rothbart, M. K. (2011). Becoming who we are: temperament and personality in development. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament. In W. Damon, R. Lerner & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development. 6th edn. (pp. 99–166). New York, NY: Wiley.
Schwartz, O., Sheeber, L., Dudgeon, P., & Allen, N. (2012). Emotion socialization within the family environment and adolescent depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(6), 447–453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.05.002. PubMedCrossRef
Schwartzman, A. E., Ledingham, J. E., & Serbin, L. A. (1985). Identification of children at risk for adult schizophrenia: A longitudinal study. Applied Psychology, 34(3), 363–379. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1985.tb01333.x. CrossRef
Serbin, L. A., Cooperman, J. M., Peters, P. L., Lehoux, P. M., Stack, D. M., & Schwartzman, A. E. (1998). Intergenerational transfer of psychosocial risk in women with childhood histories of aggression, withdrawal, or aggression and withdrawal. Developmental Psychology, 34(6), 1246–1262. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1686. PubMedCrossRef
Shaw, D., Keenan, K., Vondra, J. I., Delliquadri, E., & Giovannelli, J. (1998). Antecedents of preschool children’s internalizing problems: A longitudinal study of low-income families. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1760–1767. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199712000-00025. CrossRef
Shenk, C. E., & Fruzzetti, A. E. (2011). The impact of validating and invalidating responses on emotional reactivity. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30(2), 163–183. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2011.30.2.163. CrossRef
Shortt, J. W., Katz, L. F., Allen, N. B., Leve, C., Davis, B., & Sheeber, L. B. (2016). Emotion socialization in the context of risk and psychopathology: mother and father socialization of anger and sadness in adolescents with depressive disorder. Social Development, 25(1), 27–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12138. PubMedCrossRef
Silk, J. S., Shaw, D. S., Prout, J. T., O’Rourke, F., Lane, T. J., & Kovacs, M. (2011). Socialization of emotion and offspring internalizing symptoms in mothers with childhood-onset depression. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32(3), 127–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2011.02.001. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Spence, R., Owens, M., & Goodyer, I. (2013). The longitudinal psychometric properties of the EAS temperament survey in adolescence. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95(6), 633–639. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2013.819513. PubMedCrossRef
Stack, D. M., Serbin, L. A., Mantis, I., & Kingdon, D. (2015). Breaking the cycle of adversity in vulnerable children and families: a thirty-five year study of at-risk lower income families. International Journal for Family Research and Policy, 1(1), 31–56.
Tingley, D., Yamamoto, T., Hirose, K., Keele, L., & Imai, K. (2014). Mediation: R package for casual mediation analysis. Journal of Statistical Software, 59(5), 1–38. CrossRef
Tomkins, S. S. (1963). Affect, imagery, consciousness: Vol. 2. Negative affects. New York, NY: Springer.
Tomkins, S. S. (1991). Affect, imagery, consciousness: Vol. 3. Anger and fear. New York, NY: Springer.
Treiman, D. J. (1977). Occupational prestige in comparative perspective. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Wenzlaff, R. M., & Eisenberg, A. R. (1998). Parental restrictiveness of negative emotions: sowing the seeds of thought suppression. Psychological Inquiry, 9(4), 310–313. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli0904_15. CrossRef
Woodruff-Borden, J., Morrow, C., Bourland, S., & Cambron, S. (2002). The behavior of anxious parents: examining mechanisms of transmission of anxiety from parent to child. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(3), 364–374. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3103_08. PubMedCrossRef
Yap, M., Allen, N., & Sheeber, L. (2007). Using an emotion regulation framework to understand the role of temperament and family processes in risk for adolescent depressive disorders. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10(2), 180–196. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-006-0014-0. PubMedCrossRef
Zeman, J., Cassano, M., & Adrian, M. C. (2013). Socialization influences on children’s and adolescents’ emotional self-regulation processes: a developmental psychopathology perspective. In K. C. Barrett, N. A. Fox, G. A. Morgan, D. J. Fidler & L. A. Daunhauer (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulatory processes in development: New directions and international perspectives (pp. 79–106). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
- Maternal Emotion Socialization Mediates the Relationship between Maternal and Adolescent Negative Emotionality
Dale M. Stack
Daniel J. Dickson
Lisa A. Serbin
- Springer US