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24-06-2019 | Original Article

Manipulating the depth of processing reveals the relevance of second eye fixations for recollection but not familiarity

Auteurs: Charlotte Schwedes, Demian Scherer, Dirk Wentura

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 8/2020

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Abstract

It is well known that memory affects eye movements. However, the role of individual eye fixations for recognition memory processes has hardly been investigated. Recent findings show that second fixations are especially relevant for recollection, a process associated with the retrieval of context information, but less for recognition based solely on item familiarity. The aim of the present study was to overcome limitations of a previous study (Schwedes and Wentura in Memory, 2019. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1080/​09658211.​2019.​1567789) and to provide further evidence that second fixations are especially relevant for recollection-based recognition. Whereas recollection- and familiarity-based recognition was an unconstrained quasi-experimental variable in a previous study, here we manipulated the depth of stimulus processing in the encoding phase to experimentally manipulate the probability of subsequent item recollection. In the old/new recognition memory test, presentation of test probes was terminated after one or two stimulus fixations. “Old” responses in the recognition test were followed by a remember/know/guess procedure to assess recollection-based versus familiarity-based recognition. We found the expected depth of processing effect, with better recognition and more recollection-based responses after deep encoding. This effect, however, was significantly larger if two fixations instead of just one were allowed. There were no corresponding effects for familiarity-based recognition. Thus, a second fixation seems to play an important role only for recollection-based recognition.
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Voetnoten
1
Note that this interaction test is equivalent to a paired samples t test (with t = squareroot(F)) that compares the dependent variable “deep advantage” (i.e., the difference between Pr for deeply encoded items minus Pr for shallowly encoded items) for one and two fixations; this t test, however, allows for adequate one-tailed testing, t(30) = 2.03, p = .026 (one-tailed), dZ = .36.
 
2
The correlation between total duration and number of fixations was r = .56. That is, the degree of collinearity is not so extreme that it would preclude this analysis from the outset.
 
3
We thank the anonymous Reviewer 2 for his hint to this alternative interpretation.
 
4
This model resulted in a singular fit. Therefore, we reduced the number of variance–covariance parameters by running a random intercept model. The results were essentially the same (t = 1.21, p = .226).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Manipulating the depth of processing reveals the relevance of second eye fixations for recollection but not familiarity
Auteurs
Charlotte Schwedes
Demian Scherer
Dirk Wentura
Publicatiedatum
24-06-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 8/2020
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-019-01218-x

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