Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Depression becomes more prevalent as individuals progress from childhood to adulthood. Thus, empirically supported and popular cognitive vulnerability theories to explain depression in adulthood have begun to be tested in younger age groups, particularly adolescence, a time of significant cognitive development. Beck’s cognitive theory and the response style theory are well known, empirically supported theories of depression. The current, two-wave longitudinal study (N = 462; mean age = 16.01 years; SD = 0.69; 63.9 % female) tested various proposed integrative models of Beck’s cognitive theory and the response style theory, as well as the original theories themselves, to determine if and how these cognitive vulnerabilities begin to intertwine in adolescence. Of the integrative models tested—all with structural equation modeling in AMOS 21—the best-fitting integrative model was a moderation model wherein schemata influenced rumination, and rumination then influenced other cognitive variables in Beck’s model. Findings revealed that this integrated model fit the data better than the response style theory and explained 1.2 % more variance in depressive symptoms. Additionally, multigroup analyses comparing the fit of the best-fitting integrated model across adolescents with clinical and subclinical depressive symptoms revealed that the model was not stable between these two subsamples. However, of the hypotheses relevant to the integrative model, only 1 of the 18 associations was significantly different between the clinical and subclinical samples. Regardless, the integrated model was not superior to the more parsimonious model from Beck’s cognitive theory. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Abela, J. R. Z., & Skitch, S. A. (2007). Dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, and hassles: Cognitive vulnerability to depression in children of affectively ill parents. Behaviour Therapy and Research, 45, 1127–1140. CrossRef
Abramson, L. Y., Alloy, L. B., Hankin, B. L., Haeffel, G. J., MacCoon, D., & Gibb, B. E. (2002). Cognitive vulnerability-stress models of depression in a self-regulatory and psychological context. In I. H. Gotlib & C. L. Hammen (Eds.), Handbook of depression and its treatment (pp. 268–294). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 358–372.
Arbuckle, J. L. (1999). Amos user’s guide. Chicago, IL: SmallWaters.
Barnard, A., & Pössel, P. (2013). Comparing different sequential mediational interpretations of Beck’s depression model in adolescents (submitted).
Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
Garber, J. (2000). Development and depression. In A. J. Sameroff, M. Lewis, & S. M. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 467–490). New York: Plenum. CrossRef
Gotlib, I. H., & Neubauer, D. L. (2000). Information-processing approaches to the study of cognitive biases in depression. In S. L. Johnson, A. M. Hayes, T. M. Field, N. Schneiderman, & P. M. McCabe (Eds.), Stress, coping, and depression (pp. 117–143). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Grant, K. E., Lyons, A. L., Finkelstein, J. S., Conway, K. M., Reynolds, L. K., O’Koon, J. H., et al. (2004). Gender differences in rates of depressive symptoms among low-income, urban, African American youth: A test of two mediational hypotheses. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 523–533. CrossRef
Hankin, B. L. (2009). Development of sex differences in depressive and co-occurring anxious symptoms during adolescence: Descriptive trajectories and potential explanations in a multiwave prospective study. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38, 460–472. CrossRef
Hankin, B. L., Lakdawalla, Z., Carter, I. L., Abela, J. R., & Adams, P. (2007). Are neuroticism, cognitive vulnerabilities and self-esteem overlapping or distinct risks for depression? Evidence from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26, 29–63. CrossRef
Hankin, B. L., Wetter, E., Cheely, C., & Oppenheimer, C. W. (2008). Beck’s cognitive theory of depression in adolescence: Specific prediction of depressive symptoms and reciprocal influences in a multi-wave prospective study. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1, 313–332. doi: 10.1521/ijct.2008.1.4.313. CrossRef
Hollon, S. D., DeRubeis, R. J., & Evans, M. D. (1996). Cognitive therapy in the treatment and prevention of depression. In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Frontiers of cognitive therapy. Guilford: New York, NY.
Kaslow, N. J., Adamson, L. B., & Collins, M. H. (2000). A developmental psychopathology perspective on the cognitive components of child and adolescent depression. In A. J. Sameroff, M. Lewis, & S. M. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 491–510). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. CrossRef
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principals and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.
Leitenberg, H., Yost, L., & Carroll-Wilson, M. (1986). Negative cognitive errors in children: Questionnaire development, normative data, and comparisons between children with and without self-reported symptoms of depression, low self-esteem and evaluation anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 528–536. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.54.4.528. PubMedCrossRef
Marttunen, M., Haarasilta, L., Aalto-Setälä, T., & Pelkonen, M. (2003). Adolescent major depression: Course, comorbidity, and treatment. Psychiatria Fennica, 34, 33–49.
Miller, B., & Taylor, J. (2012). Racial and socioeconomic status differences in depressive symptoms among Black and White youth: An examination of the mediating effects of family structure, stress, and support. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 426–437. doi: 10.1007/s10964-011-9672-4. PubMedCrossRef
Roberts, R. E., Andrews, J. A., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Hops, H. (1990). Assessment of depression in adolescents using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Psychological Assessment, 2, 122–128. CrossRef
Robinson, M. S., & Alloy, L. B. (2003). Negative cognitive styles and stress-reactive rumination interact to predict depression: A prospective study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 275–292. CrossRef
Steiger, J. H. & Lind, J. M. (1980). Statistically based tests for the number of common factors. Paper presented at the Psychometrika Society meeting, Iowa City, IA.
Ullman, J. B. (1996). Structural equation modeling. In B. Tabachnick & L. Fidell (Eds.), Using multivariate statistics (3rd ed., pp. 709–812). New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Weissman, A. N., & Beck, A. T. (1978). Development and validation of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale ( DAS). Paper presented at the 12th annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Chicago, IL.
- Integrating Beck’s Cognitive Model and the Response Style Theory in an Adolescent Sample
Stephanie Winkeljohn Black
- Springer US