Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The current study extended previous research on self-compassion and health behaviours by examining the associations of self-compassion to bedtime procrastination, an important sleep-related behaviour. We hypothesized that lower negative affect and adaptive emotion regulation would explain the proposed links between self-compassion and less bedtime procrastination. Two cross-sectional online studies were conducted. Study 1 included 134 healthy individuals from the community (mean age 30.22, 77.4% female). Study 2 included 646 individuals from the community (mean age 30.74, 68.9% female) who were screened for the absence of clinical insomnia. Participants in both studies completed measures of self-compassion, positive and negative affect and bedtime procrastination. Participants in study 2 also completed a measure of cognitive reappraisal. Multiple mediation analysis in study 1 revealed the expected indirect effects of self-compassion on less bedtime procrastination through lower negative affect [b = − .09, 95% CI = (− .20, − .02), but not higher positive affect. Path analysis in study 2 replicated these findings and further demonstrated that cognitive reappraisal explained the lower negative affect linked to self-compassion [b = − .011; 95% CI = (− .025; − .003)]. The direct effect of self-compassion on less bedtime procrastination remained significant. Our novel findings provide preliminary evidence that self-compassionate people are less likely to engage in bedtime procrastination, due in part to their use of healthy emotion regulation strategies that downregulate negative mood.
Adams, C. E., & Leary, M. R. (2007). Promoting self-compassionate attitudes toward eating among restrictive and guilty eaters. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 26(10), 1120–1144. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2007.26.10.1120. CrossRef
Allen, A. B., & Leary, M. R. (2010). Self-compassion, stress, and coping. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4(2), 107–118. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2009.00246.x. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Arbuckle, J. L. (1996). Full information estimation in the presence of incomplete data. In G. A. Marcoulides & R. E. Schumacker (Eds.), Advanced structural equation modeling: Issues and techniques (Vol. 243–277). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates..
Arch, J. J., Brown, K. W., Dean, D. J., Landy, L. N., Brown, K. D., & Laudenslager, M. L. (2014). Self-compassion training modulates alpha-amylase, heart rate variability, and subjective responses to social evaluative threat in women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 42(0), 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.12.018. CrossRef
Bastien, C. H., Vallières, A., & Morin, C. M. (2001). Validation of the insomnia severity index as an outcome measure for insomnia research. Sleep Medicine, 2(4), 297–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1389-9457(00)00065-4. CrossRefPubMed
Biber, D. D., & Ellis, R. (2017). The effect of self-compassion on the self-regulation of health behaviors: a systematic review. Journal of Health Psychology, 1359105317713361. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105317713361.
Blouin-Hudon, E.-M. C., & Pychyl, T. A. (2015). Experiencing the temporally extended self: initial support for the role of affective states, vivid mental imagery, and future self-continuity in the prediction of academic procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 50–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.003. CrossRef
Blunt, A., & Pychyl, T. A. (2005). Project systems of procrastinators: a personal project-analytic and action control perspective. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(8), 1771–1780. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2004.11.019. CrossRef
Breines, J. G., Thoma, M. V., Gianferante, D., Hanlin, L., Chen, X., & Rohleder, N. (2014). Self-compassion as a predictor of interleukin-6 response to acute psychosocial stress. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 37(0), 109–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2013.11.006. CrossRefPubMed
Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F. r., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193–213. CrossRef
Campion, M., & Glover, L. (2017). A qualitative exploration of responses to self-compassion in a non-clinical sample. Health & Social Care in the Community, 25, 1100-1108. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12408
Crawford, J. R., & Henry, J. D. (2004). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43(3), 245–265. https://doi.org/10.1348/0144665031752934. CrossRefPubMed
Diedrich, A., Hofmann, S. G., Cuijpers, P., & Berking, M. (2016). Self-compassion enhances the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy in individuals with major depressive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 82, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.04.003. CrossRef
Dowd, A. J., & Jung, M. E. (2017). Self-compassion directly and indirectly predicts dietary adherence and quality of life among adults with celiac disease. Appetite. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.023.
Dunne, S., Sheffield, D., & Chilcot, J. (2016). Brief report: self-compassion, physical health and the mediating role of health-promoting behaviours. Journal of Health Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105316643377.
Eckert, M., Ebert, D. D., Lehr, D., Sieland, B., & Berking, M. (2016). Overcome procrastination: enhancing emotion regulation skills reduce procrastination. Learning and Individual Differences, 52, 10–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2016.10.001. CrossRef
Flett, G. L., Stainton, M., Hewitt, P., Sherry, S., & Lay, C. (2012). Procrastination automatic thoughts as a personality construct: an analysis of the procrastinatory cognitions inventory. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 4, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-012-0150-z.
Giguère, B., Sirois, F. M., & Vaswani, M. (2016). Delaying things and feeling bad about it? A norm-based approach to procrastination. In Procrastination, health, and well-being (pp. 189–212). San Diego: Academic Press. CrossRef
Gross, J. J. (1998). Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 224–237. CrossRef
Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1998. CrossRef
Hayes, A. F. (2013). An introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Howell, A. J., Digdon, N. L., & Buro, K. (2010). Mindfulness predicts sleep-related self-regulation and well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(4), 419–424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.11.009. CrossRef
Hudson, N. W., Lucas, R. E., & Donnellan, M. B. (2016). Day-to-day affect is surprisingly stable: a 2-year longitudinal study of well-being. Social Psychological and Personality Science. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550616662129.
Irwin, M. R., Olmstead, R., & Carroll, J. E. (2016). Sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and inflammation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and experimental sleep deprivation. Biological Psychiatry, 80(1), 40–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.05.014. CrossRef
Kelly, A. C., Zuroff, D. C., Foa, C. L., & Gilbert, P. (2010). Who benefits from training in self-compassionate self-regulation? A study of smoking reduction. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 29(7), 727–755. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2010.29.7.727. CrossRef
Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practices of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.
Kroese, F. M., De Ridder, D. T. D., Evers, C., & Adriaanse, M. A. (2014a). Bedtime procrastination: introducing a new area of procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology, 5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00611.
Kroese, F. M., Evers, C., Adriaanse, M. A., & de Ridder, D. T. D. (2014b). Bedtime procrastination: a self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population. Journal of Health Psychology, 21, 853-862. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105314540014.
Kroese, F. M., Nauts, S., Kamphorst, B. A., Anderson, J. H., & de Ridder, D. T. D. (2016). Bedtime procrastination: a behavioral perspective on sleep insufficiency. In F. M. Sirois & T. A. Pychyl (Eds.), Procrastination, health, and well-being (pp. 93–119). San Diego: Academic Press. CrossRef
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(1), 99–128. CrossRef
Montero-Marín, J., Gaete, J., Demarzo, M., Rodero, B., Lopez, L. C. S., & García-Campayo, J. (2016). Self-criticism: a measure of uncompassionate behaviors toward the self, based on the negative components of the self-compassion scale. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1281. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01281. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Morin, C. M., Belleville, G., Bélanger, L., & Ivers, H. (2011). The insomnia severity index: psychometric indicators to detect insomnia cases and evaluate treatment response. Sleep, 34(5), 601–608. CrossRef
Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2013). Mplus user’s guide. Los Angeles: Muthen & Muthen.
Myrick, J. G. (2015). Emotion regulation, procrastination, and watching cat videos online: who watches internet cats, why, and to what effect? Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 168–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.06.001. CrossRef
Nauts, S., & Kroese, F. M. (2017). Self-control in sleep behavior. In D. T. D. de Ridder, M. A. Adriaanse, & K. Fujita (Eds.), Handbook of self-control in health and well-being. New York: Routledge.
Nauts, S., Kamphorst, B. A., Stut, W., de Ridder, D. T. D., & Anderson, J. H. (Forthcoming). The reasons people give for going to bed late: a qualitative study of the varieties of bedtime procrastination.
Neff, K. D., & Pommier, E. (2013). The relationship between self-compassion and other-focused concern among college undergraduates, community adults, and practicing meditators. Self and Identity, 12(2), 160–176. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2011.649546. CrossRef
Neff, K. D., Tóth-Király, I., Yarnell, L. M., Arimitsu, K., Castilho, P., Ghorbani, N., ... Mantzios, M. (2018). Examining the factor structure of the self-compassion scale in 20 samples with bifactor ESEM: support for use of a total score and six subscale scores. Psychological Assessment. (in press).
Palmer, C. A., & Alfano, C. A. (2017). Sleep and emotion regulation: an organizing, integrative review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 31(Supplement C), 6–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2015.12.006. CrossRefPubMed
Preacher, K. J., & Kelley, K. (2011). Effect size measures for mediation models: quantitative strategies for communicating indirect effects. Psychological Methods, 16, 93–115. CrossRef
Pressman, S. D., & Cohen, S. (2005). Does positive affect influence health? Psychological Bulletin, 131(6), 925–971. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.6.925. CrossRefPubMed
Pychyl, T. A., & Sirois, F. M. (2016). Procrastination, emotion regulation and well-being. In F. M. Sirois & T. Pychyl (Eds.), Procrastination, health, and well-being: (pp. 163–188). San Diego: Academic Press.
Reinecke, L. (2009). Games and recovery. Journal of Media Psychology, 21(3), 126–142. https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-1188.8.131.52. CrossRef
Schoenefeld, S. J., & Webb, J. B. (2013). Self-compassion and intuitive eating in college women: examining the contributions of distress tolerance and body image acceptance and action. Eating Behaviors, 14(4), 493–496. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2013.09.001. CrossRefPubMed
Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., & Simonsohn, U. (2011). False-positive psychology. Psychological Science, 22(11), 1359–1366.
Sirois, F. M. (2014). Procrastination and stress: exploring the role of self-compassion. Self and Identity, 13(2), 128–145. CrossRef
Sirois, F. M. (2015b). Perfectionism and health behaviors: a self-regulation resource perspective. In F. M. Sirois & D. S. Molnar (Eds.), Perfectionism, health and well-being (pp. 45–68). Cham: Springer.
Sirois, F. M. (2015c). A self-regulation resource model of procrastination and health behaviors. Paper presented at the 9th Biennial Procrastination Research Conference, Bielefeld.
Sirois, F. M. (2015d). A self-regulation resource model of self-compassion and health behavior intentions in emerging adults. Preventive Medicine Reports, 2, 218–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.03.006. CrossRef
Sirois, F. M. (2017). Procrastination as vulnerability for poor health: a temporal-affective self-regulation resource perspective. Paper presented at the University of Zurich Department of Psychology Seminar Series, Zurich.
Sirois, F. M., & Hirsch, J. K. (2015). Big five traits, affect balance and health behaviors: a self-regulation resource perspective. Personality and Individual Differences, 87, 59–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.07.031. CrossRef
Sirois, F. M., & Hirsch, J. K. (2018). Self-compassion and adherence in five medical samples: the role of stress. Mindfulness. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-0945-9.
Sirois, F. M., & Kitner, R. (2015). Less adaptive or more maladaptive? A meta-analytic investigation of procrastination and coping. European Journal of Personality, 29, 433–444. CrossRef
Sirois, F. M., Melia-Gordon, M. L., & Pychyl, T. A. (2003). “I’ll look after my health, later”: an investigation of procrastination and health. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(5), 1167–1184. CrossRef
Sirois, F. M., Molnar, D. S., & Hirsch, J. K. (2015b). Self-compassion, stress, and coping in the context of chronic illness. Self and Identity, 14,334-347. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2014.996249.
Strine, T. W., & Chapman, D. P. (2005). Associations of frequent sleep insufficiency with health-related quality of life and health behaviors. Sleep Medicine, 6(1), 23–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2004.06.003. CrossRef
Svendsen, J. L., Osnes, B., Binder, P.-E., Dundas, I., Visted, E., Nordby, H., et al. (2016). Trait self-compassion reflects emotional flexibility through an association with high vagally mediated heart rate variability. Mindfulness, 7(5), 1103–1113. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-016-0549-1. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Terry, M. L., & Leary, M. R. (2011). Self-compassion, self-regulation, and health. Self and Identity, 10(3), 352–362. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2011.558404. CrossRef
Tice, D. M., Baumeister, R. F., Shmueli, D., & Muraven, M. (2007). Restoring the self: positive affect helps improve self-regulation following ego depletion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(3), 379–384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2006.05.007. CrossRef
Wagner, D. D., & Heatherton, T. F. (2015). Self-regulation and its failure: the seven deadly threats to self-regulation. In M. Mikulincer, P. R. Shaver, E. Borgida, & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), APA handbook of personality and social psychology, volume 1: Attitudes and social cognition (pp. 805–842). Washington: American Psychological Association.. CrossRef
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063. CrossRefPubMed
Wood, A. M., Joseph, S., Lloyd, J., & Atkins, S. (2009). Gratitude influences sleep through the mechanism of pre-sleep cognitions. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 66(1), 43–48. CrossRef
- Self-Compassion and Bedtime Procrastination: an Emotion Regulation Perspective
Fuschia M. Sirois
Danielle S. Molnar
- Springer US