Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent psychosocial outcomes were predicted by community violence differently for male and female children and based on their experiences of conflict at home. For male children, being in a high conflict family as a child exacerbated the negative effects of community violence such that internalizing problems (depression and anxiety) and risk-taking behaviors increased as community violence increased, while being in a low conflict family protected the child against the negative impacts of the community. For female adolescents, there were no moderating effects of family conflict on the relationship between community violence and externalizing problems. Moderating effects for internalizing problems demonstrated that being in low conflict families did not serve as protection against community violence for girls as was demonstrated for boys. These findings demonstrate the long-term effects of community violence on child development, highlighting the importance of gender and family context in the development of internalizing and externalizing problems.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1983). Manual for the child behavior checklist and revised child behavior profile. Burlington, VT: Queen City Printers.
Acock, A. C. (2005). Working with missing values. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 1012–1028. CrossRef
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park: Sage.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Bates, J. E. (1983). Information on the infant characteristics questionnaire. Available from John E. Bates. Bloomington, Indiana: Department of Psychology, Indiana University.
Bayley, N. (1993). The Bayley scales of infant development—II. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.
Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55, 83–96.
Brener, N. D., Collins, J. L., Kann, L., Warren, C. W., & Williams, B. I. (1995). Reliability of the youth risk behavior survey questionnaire. American Journal of Epidemiology, 141(6), 575–580. PubMed
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Klebanov, P. K., & Sealand, N. (1993). Do communities influence child and adolescent development? The American Journal of Sociology, 99, 353–395. CrossRef
Buehler, C., Anthony, C., Krishnakumar, A., Stone, G., Gerard, J., & Pemberton, S. (1997). Interparental conflict and youth problem behaviors: a meta-analysis. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 6, 233–247. CrossRef
Clark, C., Ryan, L., Kawachi, I., Canner, M. J., Berkman, L., & Wright, R. J. (2008). Witnessing community violence in residential communities: a mental health hazard for urban women. Journal of Urban Health, 5, 22–38. CrossRef
Cummings, E. M., Davies, P., & Simpson, K. (1994). Marital conflict, gender, and children's appraisal and coping efficacy as mediators of child adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 8, 141–149.
Enders, C. K. (2001a). A primer on maximum likelihood algorithms available for use with missing data. Structural Equation Modeling, 8, 128–141. CrossRef
Fitzgerald, H. E., McKelvey, L. M., Schiffman, R. F., & Montanez, M. (2006). Impact of exposure to paternal antisocial behavior and community violence on low-income families and their children. Parenting: Science and Practice, 6(2&3), 243–258.
Gorman-Smith, D., Tolan, P. H., & Henry, D. B. (2000). A developmental-ecological model of the relation of family functioning to patterns of delinquency. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 16(2), 169–198. CrossRef
Infant Health and Development Program. (1990). Enhancing the outcomes of low birthweight, premature infants: a multisite randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263, 3035–3042. CrossRef
Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (2006). LISREL 8.80 for windows [Computer software]. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International, Inc.
Klebanov, P. K., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Duncan, G. J. (1994). Does neighborhood and family poverty affect mothers’ parenting, mental health, and social support? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 441–455. CrossRef
Kolbe, L. J., Kann, L., & Collins, J. L. (1993). Overview of the youth risk behavior surveillance system. Public Health Report, 108(supp 1), 2–10.
Landgraf, J. M., Abetz, L. N., & Ware, J. E. (1996). The CHQ User’s Manual. Boston: HealthAct.
Liaw, F. R., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1994). Cumulative familial risks and low-birthweight children’s cognitive and behavioral development. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23(4), 360–372. CrossRef
Lindahl, K. M. (1998). Family process variables and children’s disruptive behavior problems. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(3), 420–436. CrossRef
Martinez, J. E., & Richters, P. (1993). The NIMH community violence project: II. Children’s distress symptoms associated with violence exposure. Psychiatry, 56, 22–35. PubMed
Miller, L. S., Wasserman, G. A., Neugebauer, R., Gorman-Smith, D., & Kamboukos, D. (1999). Witnessed community violence and antisocial behavior in high-risk, urban boys. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 28(1), 2–11. CrossRef
Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Rutter, M., & Silva, P. A. (2001). Sex differences in antisocial behavior: Conduct disorder, delinquency, and violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study. Cambridge University Press.
Moos, R. (1974). Preliminary manual for family environment scale, work environment scale and group environment scale. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2001). Gender differences in depression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 173–176. CrossRef
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2000). Safe from the start: Taking action on children exposed to violence (NCJ Publication No. 182789). Washington, DC.
Patterson, J. M. (2002). Integrating family resilience and family stress theory. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 349–360. CrossRef
Plybon, L., & Kliewer, W. (2001). Community types and externalizing behavior in urban school-age children: tests of direct, mediated, and moderated effects. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 10, 419–437. CrossRef
Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2006). Computational tools for probing interaction effects in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31, 437–448. CrossRef
Salvia, J., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (1995). Assessment (6th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Stevens, A. H. (1999). Climbing out of poverty, falling back in: measuring the persistence of poverty over multiple spells. The Journal of Human Resources, 34(3), 557–588. CrossRef
Weschsler, D. (1991). W echsler intelligence scale for children (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX.
Whitaker, A. H., Feldman, J. F., Lorenz, J. M., Shen, S., McNicholas, F., Nieto, M., et al. (2006). Motor and cognitive outcomes in nondisabled low-birth-weight adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160, 1040–1046. CrossRef
Widaman, F. K. (2006). Missing data: what to do with or without them. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 71(3), 42–64.
Zalot, A. A., Jones, D. J., Forehand, R., & Brody, G. (2007). Self-regulation, aggression, and conduct problems among low-income, African American youth from single mother homes: the moderating roles of perceived community context and child gender. The Journal of Black Psychology, 33, 239–259. CrossRef
Zill, N., & Peterson, J. (1986). Behavior problems index. Washington: Child Trends.
- Growing Up in Violent Communities: Do Family Conflict and Gender Moderate Impacts on Adolescents’ Psychosocial Development?
Lorraine M. McKelvey
Robert H. Bradley
Patrick H. Casey
Nicola A. Conners-Burrow
Kathleen W. Barrett
- Springer US