Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants MH43899, MH16880, HD10333, DA11015, DA13956, AA015336, and HD50346. Earlier versions of this paper were presented at the meeting of the Behavior Genetics Association on July 2, 2005 in Los Angeles, CA and the meeting of the World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics on October 17, 2005 in Boston, MA. We thank the participants who contributed their time to this project and the research assistants at the Institute for Behavioral Genetics for careful work in data collection, coding, and management.
Several studies suggest that a two-factor model positing internalizing and externalizing factors explains the interrelationships among psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether the covariation between internalizing and externalizing disorders is due to common genetic or environmental influences. We examined whether a model positing two latent factors, internalizing and externalizing, explained the interrelationships among six psychiatric disorders (major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder) in adolescents, and whether there are common genetic and environmental influences on internalizing and externalizing latent factors. Multivariate behavior genetic analyses of data from 1162 twin pairs and 426 siblings ascertained from the general population via the Colorado Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence (CADD) were conducted. We found support for a model positing two latent factors (internalizing and externalizing). These factors were moderately heritable and influenced by significant common genetic and nonshared environmental influences. These findings suggest that co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in adolescents results from both genetic and environmental influences.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the child behavior checklist/4-18 and 1991 profile. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington: American Psychiatric Association.
Dick, D. M., Viken, R. J., Kaprio, J., Pulkkinen, L., & Rose, R. J. (2005). Understanding the covariation among childhood externalizing symptoms: genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 219–229. CrossRefPubMed
Eaves, L. J., Silberg, J. L., Meyer, J. M., Maes, H. H., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., et al. (1997). Genetics and developmental psychopathology: 2. The main effects of genes and environment on behavioral problems in the Virginia twin study of adolescent behavioral development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 965–980. CrossRefPubMed
Hewitt, J. K., Silberg, J. L., Rutter, M., Simonoff, E., Meyer, J. M., Maes, H., et al. (1997). Genetics and developmental psychopathology: 1. Phenotypic assessment in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 943–963. CrossRefPubMed
Hicks, B. M., Blonigen, D. M., Kramer, M. D., Krueger, R. F., Patrick, C. J., Iacono, W. G., et al. (2007). Gender differences and developmental change in externalizing disorders from late adolescence to early adulthood: a longitudinal twin study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 433–447. CrossRefPubMed
Hudziak, J. J., Achenbach, T. M., Althoff, R. R., & Pine, D. S. (2007). A dimensional approach to developmental psychopathology. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 16(S1)I, S16–S23.
Jaffee, S. R., & Price, T. S. (2007). Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, 12, 432–442. PubMed
Krueger, R. F., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. G. (2001). The higher-order structure of common DSM mental disorders: internalization, externalization, and their connections to personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1245–1259. CrossRef
Lahey, B. B., & Waldman, I. D. (2003). A developmental propensity model of the origins of conduct problems during childhood and adolescence. In B. B. Lahey, T. E. Moffitt, & A. Caspi (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp. 76–117). New York: The Guilford.
Muris, P., & Ollendick, T. H. (2005). The role of temperament in the etiology of child psychopathology. Clinical and Child Family Psychology Review, 8, 271–288. CrossRef
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2004). Mplus user’s guide (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.
Nadder, T. S., Rutter, M., Silberg, J. L., Maes, H. H., & Eaves, L. J. (2002). Genetic effects on the variation and covariation of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional-defiant disorder/conduct disorder (Odd/CD) symptomatologies across informant and occasion of measurement. Psychological Medicine, 32, 39–53. CrossRefPubMed
Neale, M. C., Boker, S. M., Xie, G., & Maes, H. H. (2002). Mx: Statistical modeling (6th ed.). Richmond: Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University.
Nigg, J. T. (2006). Temperament and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 395–422. CrossRef
Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., & McClearn, G. E. (1990). Behavioral genetics: A primer (2nd ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
Plomin, R., Asbury, K., Dip, P. G., & Dunn, J. (2001). Why are children in the same family so different? Nonshared environment a decade later. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 225–233.
Puig-Antich, J. (1982). Major depression and conduct disorder in prepuberty. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 21, 118–128. CrossRef
Rhea, S. A., Gross, A. A., Haberstick, B. C., & Corley, R. P. (2006). Colorado twin registry. Twin Resesearch and Human Genetics, 9, 941–949. CrossRef
Sakai, J. T., Young, S. E., Stallings, M. C., Timberlake, D., Smolen, A., Stetler, G. L., et al. (2006). Case-control and within-family tests for an association between conduct disorder and 5HTTLPR. American Journal of Medical Genetics B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 141B, 825–832. CrossRef
Schwab-Stone, M. E., Shaffer, D., Dulcan, M. K., Jensen, P. S., Fisher, P., Bird, H. R., et al. (1996). Criterion validity of the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3 (DISC 2.3). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(7), 878–888. CrossRefPubMed
Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Dulcan, M. K., Davies, M., Piacentini, J., Schwab-Stone, M. E., et al. (1996). The NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3 (DISC-2.3): Description, acceptability, prevalence rates, and performance in the MECA Study. Methods for the epidemiology of child and adolescent mental disorders study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 865–877. CrossRefPubMed
Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C. P., Dulcan, M. K., & Schwab-Stone, M. E. (2000). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 28–38. CrossRefPubMed
Silverman, W. K., & Ollendick, T. H. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of anxiety and its disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Clincal Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(3), 380–411. CrossRef
Stallings, M. C., Hewitt, J., Lessem, J. M., Young, S. E., Corley, R., Mikulich, S. K., et al. (2001). Modeling the familial transmission of alcohol dependence symptom counts in clinical and control family pedigrees [Abstract]. Behavior Genetics, 31, 470.
Waldman, I. D., Rhee, S. H., & Levy, F. (2001). Causes of overlap among symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. In F. Levy & D. A. Hay (Eds.), Attention, genes, and ADHD (pp. 115–138). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Young, S. E., Stallings, M. C., Corley, R. P., Krauter, K. S., & Hewitt, J. K. (2000). Genetic and environmental influences on behavioral disinhibition. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 96B, 684–695. CrossRef
- Structure and Etiology of Co-occurring Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders in Adolescents
Victoria E. Cosgrove
Soo H. Rhee
Heather L. Gelhorn
Robin C. Corley
Marissa A. Ehringer
Susan E. Young
John K. Hewitt
- Springer US