Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
It has been proposed that sudden insight into the solutions of problems can enhance long-term memory for those solutions. However, the nature of insight has been operationalized differently across studies. Here, we examined two main aspects of insight problem-solving—the generation of a solution and the subjective “aha!” experience—and experimentally evaluated their respective relationships to long-term memory formation (encoding). Our results suggest that generation (generated solution vs. presented solution) and the “aha!” experience (“aha!” vs. no “aha!”) are independently related to learning from insight, as well as to the emotional response towards understanding the solution during encoding. Moreover, we analyzed the relationship between generation and the “aha!” experience and two different kinds of later memory tests, direct (intentional) and indirect (incidental). Here, we found that the generation effect was larger for indirect testing, reflecting more automatic retrieval processes, while the relationship with the occurrence of an “aha!” experience was somewhat larger for direct testing. Our results suggest that both the generation of a solution and the subjective experience of “aha!” indicate processes that benefit long-term memory formation, though differently. This beneficial effect is possibly due to the intrinsic reward associated with sudden comprehension and the detection of schema-consistency, i.e., that novel information can be easily integrated into existing knowledge.
Bühler, K. (1907). Tatsachen und Probleme zu einer Psychologie der Denkvorgänge. I: Über Gedanken. In Archiv für die Gesamte Psychologie 9.
Cloninger, C. R. (1999). The temperament and character inventory–revised. St Louis: Center for Psychobiology of Personality, Washington University.
Danek, A. H., Fraps, T., von Müller, A., Grothe, B., & Öllinger, M. (2014). It’s a kind of magic—what self-reports can reveal about the phenomenology of insight problem solving. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(December), 1–11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01408.
Loyens, S. M. M., Kirschner, P. A., & Paas, F. (2012). Problem-based learning. In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, T. Urdan, A. G. Bus, S. Major, & H. L. Swanson (Eds.), APA Educational Psychology Handbook: Vol. 3. Application to learning and teaching (Vol. 2). Washington: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/13275-000.
Mayer, R. E. (1995). The search for insight: Grappling with gestalt psychology’s unanswered questions. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.), The nature of insight (pp. 3–32). Cambridge: MIT Press.
Ohlsson, S. (1992). Information-processing explanations of insight and related phenomena. In M. Keane & K. Gilhooley (Eds.), Advances in the psychology of thinking (pp. 1–44). London: Harvester-Wheatsheaf.
Otmakhova, N., Duzel, E., Deutch, A. Y., & Lisman, J. (2013). The hippocampal-VTA loop: the role of novelty and motivation in controlling the entry of information into long-term memory. In G. Baldassarre & M. Mirolli (Eds.), Intrinsically Motivated Learning in Natural and Artificial Systems (pp. 235–254). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-32375-1.
Richardson-Klavehn, A. (2010). Priming, automatic recollection, and control of retrieval toward an integrative retrieval architecture. In J. H. Mace (Ed.), The act of remembering: Toward an understanding of how we recall the past (pp. 111–179). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. CrossRef
Schott, B. H., Henson, R. N., Richardson-Klavehn, A., Becker, C., Thoma, V., Heinze, H.-J., & Düzel, E. (2005). Redefining implicit and explicit memory: The functional neuroanatomy of priming, remembering, and control of retrieval. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(4), 1257–1262. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0409070102. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Slamecka, N. J., & Graf, P. (1978). The generation effect: Delineation of a phenomenon. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory, 4(6), 592–604. doi: 10.1037//0278-73126.96.36.1992.
Tse, D., Langston, R. F., Kakeyama, M., Bethus, I., Spooner, P. A, Wood, E. R., et al. (2007). Schemas and memory consolidation. Science, 316(5821), 76–82. doi: 10.1126/science.1135935.
Van Kesteren, M. T. R., Beul, S. F., Takashima, A., Henson, R. N., Ruiter, D. J., & Fernández, G. (2013). Differential roles for medial prefrontal and medial temporal cortices in schema-dependent encoding: From congruent to incongruent. Neuropsychologia, 51(12), 2352–2359. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.05.027. PubMedCrossRef
Vollmers, B. (2014). Intentionalität und Perspektivität—Überlegungen zu einer integrativen kognitiv-phänomenologischen Lerntheorie aus Subjektperspektive. bwp@ Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik—online, 26, 1–13.
Yonelinas, A. P., Otten, L. J., Shaw, K. N., & Rugg, M. D. (2005). Separating the brain regions involved in recollection and familiarity in recognition memory. The Journal of neuroscience: The official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 25(11), 3002–3008. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5295-04.2005. CrossRef
- Generation and the subjective feeling of “aha!” are independently related to learning from insight
Jasmin M. Kizilirmak
Joana Galvao Gomes da Silva
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg