Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth experience elevated levels of depressive symptoms compared to heterosexual youth. This study examined how differences in depressive symptoms between heterosexual and LGB youth developed from late childhood to early adulthood. The association between sexual orientation and depressive symptoms was estimated from age 11 to 22 using data from the TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey, a longitudinal Dutch cohort study. Of the 1738 respondents (54.8 % girls) that provided information on sexual orientation, 151 self-identified as LGB. In line with the Minority Stress Framework, it was tested whether self-reported peer victimization and parental rejection mediated the association between sexual orientation and depressive symptoms. Results indicated that LB girls and bisexuals were at increased risk of depressive symptoms already at age 11. The difference increased over time and was related to pubertal development in girls and bisexual individuals. Furthermore, self-reported peer victimization (for both boys and girls), as well as parental rejection (for girls/bisexuals), mediated the association between sexual orientation and depressive symptoms. The authors conclude that already in late childhood, associations between sexual orientation and depressive symptoms are found, partly due to minority stress mechanisms.
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 30 kb)10964_2015_403_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Achenbach, T., & Rescorla, L. (2001). ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth and Families.
Achenbach, T., & Rescorla, L. (2003). Manual for the ASEBA adult forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research center for children, youth and families.
Acock, A. (2013). Discovering structural equation modeling using Stata. College Station, TX: Stata Press.
Bouris, A., Guilamo-Ramos, V., Pickard, A., Shiu, C., Loosier, P. S., Dittus, P., et al. (2010). A systematic review of parental influences on the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth: Time for a new public health research and practice agenda. The Journal of Primary Prevention,31(5–6), 273–309. CrossRefPubMed
Browne, M., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Carr, C. L. (2006). Bisexuality as a category in social research: Lessons from women’s gendered narratives. Journal of Bisexuality,6(4), 27–47. CrossRef
Carr, C. L. (2011). Women’s bisexuality as a category in social research, revisited. Journal of Bisexuality,11(4), 550–559. CrossRef
D’Augelli, A. R., Pilkington, N. W., & Hershberger, S. L. (2002). Incidence and mental health impact of sexual orientation victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths in high school. School Psychology Quarterly,17(2), 148–167. CrossRef
Deković, M., ten Have, M., Vollebergh, W. A. M., Pels, T., Oosterwegel, A., Wissink, I. B., et al. (2006). The cross-cultural equivalence of parental rearing measure: EMBU-C. European Journal of Psychological Assessment,22(2), 85–91. CrossRef
Dorn, L. D., Dahl, R. E., Woodward, H. R., & Biro, F. (2006). Defining the boundaries of early adolescence: A user’s guide to assessing pubertal status and pubertal timing in research with adolescents. Applied Developmental Science,10(1), 30–56. CrossRef
Enders, C., & Bandalos, D. (2001). The relative performance of full information maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models. Structural Equation Modeling,8(3), 430–457. CrossRef
Friedman, C., & Leaper, C. (2010). Sexual-minority college women’s experiences with discrimination: Relations with identity and collective action. Psychology of Women Quarterly,34(2), 152–164. CrossRef
Girgus, J. S., & Yang, K. (2015). Gender and depression. Current Opinion in Psychology,4, 53–60. CrossRef
Ho, D., Imai, K., King, G., & Stuart, E. (2007). Matching as nonparametric preprocessing for reducing model dependence in parametric causal inference. Political Analysis,15(3), 199–236. CrossRef
Institute of Medicine (Ed.). (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Kite, M. E., & Whitley, B. E. (2003). Sex differences in attitudes toward homosexual persons, behaviors, and civil rights: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,22(4), 336–353. CrossRef
Kuyper, L. (2006). Seksualiteit en seksuele gezondheid bij homo-en biseksuelen. In F. Bakker & I. Vanwesenbeeck (Eds.), Seksuele gezondheid in Nederland 2006 (pp. 167–188). Delft: Eburon.
Kuyper, L. (2015). Jongeren en seksuele oriëntatie. Ervaringen van en opvattingen over homoseksuele, biseksuele en heteroseksuele jongeren. Den Haag: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.
Lewis, N. M. (2009). Mental health in sexual minorities: Recent indicators, trends, and their relationships to place in North America and Europe. Health & Place,15(4), 1029–1045. CrossRef
Lubbers, M., Jaspers, E., & Ultee, W. (2009). Primary and secondary socialization impacts on support for same-sex marriage after legalization in the Netherlands. Journal of Family Issues,30(12), 1714–1745. CrossRef
Maguen, S., Floyd, F. J., Bakeman, R., & Armistead, L. (2002). Developmental milestones and disclosure of sexual orientation among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,23(2), 219–233. CrossRef
Markus, M., Lindhout, I., Boer, F., Hoogendijk, T., & Arrindell, W. (2003). Factors of perceived parental rearing styles: The EMBU-C examined in a sample of Dutch primary school children. Personality and Individual Differences,34(3), 503–520. CrossRef
McClintock, M., & Herdt, G. (1996). Rethinking puberty: The development of sexual attraction. Current Directions in Psychological Science,5(6), 178–183. CrossRef
Morgan, S., & Harding, D. (2006). Matching estimators of causal effects prospects and pitfalls in theory and practice. Sociological Methods & Research,35(1), 3–60. CrossRef
Mosher, W., Chandra, A., & Jones, J. (2005). Sexual behavior and selected health measures: Men and women 15–44 years of age, United States, 2002. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.
Muthén, B. O., & Curran, P. J. (1997). General longitudinal modeling of individual differences in experimental designs: A latent variable framework for analysis and power estimation. Psychological Methods,2(4), 371–402. CrossRef
Pramaggiore, M. (2002). Extracts from epistemologies of the fence. In M. Storr (Ed.), Bisexuality: A critical reader (pp. 144–149). New York: Routledge.
Rust, P. C. (2000). Bisexuality in the United States: A social science reader. New York: Columbia University Press.
Rust, P. C. (2002). Bisexuality: The state of the union. Annual Review of Sex Research,13(1), 180–240. PubMed
Saewyc, E. M. (2011). Research on adolescent sexual orientation: Development, health disparities, stigma, and resilience. Journal of Research on Adolescence,21(1), 256–272. CrossRef
Savin-Williams, R. C. (2006). Who’s Gay? Does It Matter? Current Directions in Psychological Science,15(1), 40–44. CrossRef
StataCorp LP. (2013). Stata: Release 13. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.
Takács, J., & Szalma, I. (2013). How to measure homophobia in an international comparison. Družboslovne Razprave,73, 11–42.
Van Beusekom, G., Baams, L., Bos, H. M. W., Overbeek, G., & Sandfort, T. G. M. (2016). Gender nonconformity, homophobic peer victimization, and mental health: How same-sex attraction and biological sex matter. Journal of Sex Research, 53(1), 1–11.
Van den Akker, H., Van der Ploeg, R., & Scheepers, P. (2013). Disapproval of homosexuality: Comparative research on individual and national determinants of disapproval of homosexuality in 20 European countries. Journal of Public Opinion Research,25(1), 1185–1198.
Weinberg, M., Williams, C., & Pryor, D. (1994). Dual attraction: Understanding bisexuality. New York: Oxford University Press.
Williams, T., Connolly, J., Pepler, D., & Craig, W. (2005). Peer victimization, social support, and psychosocial adjustment of sexual minority adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,34(5), 471–482. CrossRef
- Disparities in Depressive Symptoms Between Heterosexual and Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth in a Dutch Cohort: The TRAILS Study
Chaïm la Roi
Jan Kornelis Dijkstra
Albertine J. Oldehinkel
- Springer US