Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Native American youth are at an elevated risk of violent victimization. And because of their vulnerable position in society, they may also be at risk of experiencing a host of adverse consequences as a result of being victimized. Accordingly, using a subsample of 558 Native American youth and two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (49.8 % female; 12–19 years at Wave I; 19–26 years at Wave III), we examined the effects of violent victimization during adolescence on a range of outcomes in early adulthood (poor health, depressive symptoms, suicidality, financial hardship, violent and property offending, alcohol problems, hard drug use, and marijuana use). We also assessed whether youth’s attachments to family and to school moderate the effects of victimization on these outcomes. The results showed that adolescent victimization is linked to a small number of outcomes—poor health, depressive symptoms, and violent offending—and that the protective effects of social attachments are not widespread. Specifically, family attachments moderated the effects of victimization on poor health and depressive symptoms, and school attachments moderated the effects of victimization on property offending. These findings suggest that the consequences of victimization and the protective effects of social attachments may differ for Native American youth, and that further quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to understand these patterns.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Aceves, M. J., & Cookston, J. T. (2007). Violent victimization, aggression, and parent-adolescent relations: Quality parenting as a buffer for violently victimized youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 635–647. CrossRef
Adams, D. W. (1995). Education for extinction: American Indians and the boarding school experience, 1875-1928. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press.
Agnew, R. (2006). Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury.
Akins, S., Lanfear, C., Cline, S., & Mosher, C. (2013). Patterns and correlates of adult American Indian substance use. Journal of Drug Issues, 43, 497–516. CrossRef
Bachman, R., Zaykowski, H., Lanier, C., Poteyeva, M., & Kallmyer, R. (2010). Estimating the magnitude of rape and sexual assault against American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 43, 199–222. CrossRef
Beals, J., Belcourt-Dittloff, A., Garroutte, E. M., Croy, C., Jervis, L. L., Whitesell, N. R., Mitchell, C. M., & Manson, S. M., The AI-SUPERPFP Team. (2012). Trauma and conditional risk of posttraumatic stress disorder in two American Indian reservation communities. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48, 895–905. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Beals, J., Novins, D. K., Whitesell, N. R., Spicer, P., Mitchell, C. M., & Manson, S. M. (2005). Prevalence of mental disorders and utilization of mental health services in two American Indian reservation populations: Mental health disparities in a national context. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1723–1732. PubMedCrossRef
Bearman, P. S., Moody, J., & Stovel, K. (2004). Chains of affection: The structure of adolescent romantic and sexual networks. American Journal of Sociology, 110, 44–91. CrossRef
Burt, C. H., Sweeten, G., & Simons, R. L. (2014). Self‐control through emerging adulthood: Instability, multidimensionality, and criminological significance. Criminology, 52, 450–487. CrossRef
Carlin, J. B., Galati, J. C., & Royston, P. (2008). A new framework for managing and analyzing multiply imputed data in stata. Stata Journal, 8, 49–67.
Carmines, E. G., & Zellner, R. A. (1979). Reliability and validity assessment. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. CrossRef
Catalano, R. F., Fagan, A. A., Gavin, L. E., Greenberg, M. T., Irwin, C. E., Ross, D. A., & Shek, D. T. L. (2012). Worldwide application of prevention science in adolescent health. The Lancet, 28, 1653–1664. CrossRef
Chen, P., & Chantala, K. (2014). Guidelines for analyzing Add Health data. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/documentation/guides/wt-guidelines.pdf.
Cummings, A. D. P. (1999). “Lions and tigers and bears, oh my or Redskins and Braves and Indians, oh why”: Ruminations on McBride v. Utah State Tax Commission, political correctness and the reasonable person. California Western Law Review, 36, 11–38.
Duran, E., & Duran, B. (1995). Native American postcolonial psychology. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Eccles, J. S., & Roeser, R. W. (2011). Schools as developmental contexts during adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 225–241. CrossRef
Faris, R., & Felmlee, D. (2014). Casualties of social combat: School networks of peer victimization and their consequences. American Sociological Review, 79, 228–257. CrossRef
Gilliard, J. L., & Moore, R. A. (2007). An investigation of how culture shapes curriculum, in early care and education programs on a Native American Indian reservation. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34, 251–258. CrossRef
Green, D. L., & Diaz, N. (2008). Gender differences in coping with victimization. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 8, 195–203. CrossRef
Green, D. L., & Roberts, A. R. (2008). Helping victims of violent crime: Assessment, treatment, and evidence-based practice. New York: Springer.
Harris, K. M. (2009). The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), Waves I & II, 1994–1996; Wave III, 2001–2002; Wave IV, 2007–2009 [machine-readable data file and documentation]. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. doi: 10.3886/ICPSR27021.v9.
Harris, K.M. (2013). The Add Health Study: Design and accomplishments. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/documentation/guides/DesignPaperWIIV.pdf.
Haynie, D. L. (2001). Delinquent peers revisited: Does network structure matter? American Journal of Sociology, 106, 1013–1057. CrossRef
Hays, R. (1997). Editorializing “The Indian Problem”: New York Times on Native America 1860-1900. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Heme, M. A., Bartholomew, M. L., & Weahkee, R. L. (2014). Suicide mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1999-2009. American Journal of Public Health, 104, S336–S342. CrossRef
Holt-Lunstad, J., & Uchino, B. N. (2015). Social support and health. In K. Glanz, B. Rimer, K. Viswanath (Eds.), Health behavior: Theory, research, and practice. 5th edn. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Kawabata, Y., Tseng, W., & Crick, N. R. (2014). Mechanisms and processes of relational and physical victimization, depressive symptoms, and children’s relational-interdependent self-construals: Implications for peer relationships and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 619–534. PubMedCrossRef
Kilpatrick, D. G., Saunders, B. E., & Smith, D. W. (2003). Youth victimization: Prevalence and implications, research in brief. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
Kuhl, D. C., Warner, D. F., & Wilczak, A. (2012). Adolescent violent victimization and precocious union formation. Criminology, 50, 1089–1127. CrossRef
Letendre, J. (2007). “Sugar and spice but not always nice”: Gender socialization and its impact on development and maintenance of aggression in adolescent girls. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 24, 353–368. CrossRef
Libby, H. P. (2004). Measuring student relationships to school: Attachment, bonding, connectedness, and engagement. Journal of School Health, 74, 274–283. CrossRef
McCarthy, G. (2015). Mentoring American Indian students in an urban high school. Journal of American Indian Education, 54, 98–112.
McGloin, J. M., & Shermer, L. O. N. (2009). Self-control and deviant peer network structure. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 46, 35–72. CrossRef
McKinley, B., Brayboy, J., & Maaka, M. J. (2015). K-12 achievement for indigenous students. Journal of American Indian Education, 54, 63–98.
Miller, R. J. (2008). Native America, discovered and conquered: Thomas Jefferson, Lewis and Clark, and manifest destiny.Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Patterson, D. A. S. W., Perkins, J., Van Zile-Tamsen, C., & Butler-Barnes, S. (In press). Impact of violence and relationship abuse on grades of American Indian/Alaska Native undergraduate college students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. doi: 10.1177/0886260516639255.
Perry, S. W. (2004). American Indians and crime. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Pratt, T. C., Turanovic, J. J., Fox, K. A., & Wright, K. A. (2014). Self-control and victimization: A meta-analysis. Criminology, 52, 87–116. CrossRef
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. CrossRef
Rosay, A. B. (2016). Violence against American Indian and Alaska Native women and men: 2010 findings from the National intimate partner and sexual violence survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
Roth, R. (2009). American homicide. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sarche, M. C., & Whitesell, N. R. (2012). Child development research in North American Native communities—Looking back and moving forward: Introduction. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 42–48. CrossRef
Schier, L., Botvin, G., Diaz, T., & Ifill-Williams, M. (1997). Ethnic identity as a moderator of psychosocial risk and adolescent alcohol and marijuana use: Concurrent and longitudinal analyses. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 6, 21–47. CrossRef
Schreck, C. J., Stewart, E. A., & Osgood, D. W. (2008). A reappraisal of the overlap of violent offenders and victims. Criminology, 46, 871–906. CrossRef
Shorey, R. C., Rhatigan, D. L., Fite, P. J., & Stuart, G. L. (2011). Dating violence victimization and alcohol problems: An examination of the stress-buffering hypothesis. Partner Abuse, 2, 31–45. CrossRef
Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2001). Adolescent development. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 2, 55–87. CrossRef
Sweeten, G. (2012). Scaling criminal offending. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 28, 533–557. CrossRef
Teasdale, B., & Silver, E. (2009). Neighborhoods and self-control: Toward an expanded view of socialization. Social Problems, 56, 205–222. CrossRef
Thompson, R. S. Y., & Leadbeater, B. J. (2012). Peer victimization and internalizing symptoms from adolescence into young adulthood: Building strength through emotional support. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23, 290–303. CrossRef
Tighe, S. (2014). “Of course we are crazy”: Discrimination of Native American Indians through criminal justice. Justice Policy Journal, 11, 1–38.
Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (2000). Full report of the prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
Truman, J. L., & Langton, L. (2014). Criminal victimization, 2013. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Truman, J. L., & Langton, L. (2015). Criminal victimization, 2014. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Turanovic, J. J., & Pratt, T. C. (2013). The consequences of maladaptive coping: Integrating general strain and self-control theories to specify a causal pathway between victimization and offending. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 29, 321–345. CrossRef
Turanovic, J. J., & Pratt, T. C. (2014). “Can’t stop, won’t stop”: Self-control, risky lifestyles, and repeat victimization. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 30, 29–56. CrossRef
Turanovic, J. J., Reisig, M. D., & Pratt, T. C. (2015). Risky lifestyles, low self-control, and violent victimization across gendered pathways to crime. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 31, 183–206. CrossRef
Wahab, S., & Olson, L. (2004). Intimate partner violence and sexual assault in Native American communities. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 5, 353–366. CrossRef
Winfree, L. T., Griffiths, C. T., & Sellers, C. S. (1989). Social learning theory, drug use, and American Indian youths: A cross-cultural test. Justice Quarterly, 6, 395–417. CrossRef
Wright, K. A., Turanovic, J. J., O’Neal, E. N., Morse, S. J., & Booth, E. T. (In press). The cycle of violence revisited: Childhood victimization, resilience, and future violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. doi: 10.1177/0886260516651090.
Yeung, R. S., & Leadbeater, B. J. (2010). Adults make a difference: The protective effects of parent and teacher emotional support on emotional and behavioral problems among peer victimized adolescents. Journal of Community Psychology, 38, 80–98. CrossRef
Zimmerman, G. M., & Messner, S. F. (2011). Neighborhood context and nonlinear peer effects on adolescent violent crime. Criminology, 49, 873–903. CrossRef
- Consequences of Violent Victimization for Native American Youth in Early Adulthood
Jillian J. Turanovic
Travis C. Pratt
- Springer US