Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Weina Ma and Liyang Sai contributed equally to this work.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
The present study examined the role of executive function in lying for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit children’s self-protective lies and the Hide-and-seek task was used to elicit children’s self-benefiting lies. Results showed that children with ASD told fewer lies in the two deception tasks compared to children with intellectual disability (ID) and typically developing (TD) children. Furthermore, children with ASD’s lying were positively correlated with their working memory, but not with their theory of mind. These findings demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying deception for children with ASD are distinct from that of TD children.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th text revision edn. (pp. 553–557). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition: DSM 5. American Psychiatric Association.
Baron-Cohen, S. (1992). Out of sight or out of mind? Another look at deception in autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33(7), 1141–1155. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1992.tb00934.x.
Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”? Cognition, 21(1), 37–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(85)90022-8.
Bender, J., O’Connor, A. M., & Evans, A. D. (2018). Mirror, mirror on the wall: Increasing young children’s honesty through inducing self-awareness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 167, 414–422. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JECP.2017.12.001.
Bowler, D. M. (1992). “Theory of mind” in Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33(5), 877–893. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1992.tb01962.x.
Carlson, S. M., Moses, L. J., & Hix, H. R. (1998). The role of inhibitory processes in young children’s difficulties with deception and false belief. Child Development, 69(3), 672–691. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06236.x.
Case, R., Kurland, D. M., & Goldberg, J. (1982). Operational efficiency and the growth of short-term memory span. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 33(3), 386–404. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965(82)90054-6.
Diamond, A. (2006). The early development of executive functions. In E. Bialystok & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change (pp. 70–95). New York: Oxford University Press.
Ding, X. P., Heyman, G. D., Fu, G., Zhu, B., & Lee, K. (2017). Young children discover how to deceive in 10 days: A microgenetic study. Developmental Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12566.
Ding, X. P., Wellman, H. M., Wang, Y., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2015). Theory-of-mind training causes honest young children to lie. Psychological Science, 26(11), 1812–1821. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797615604628.
Evans, A. D., & Lee, K. (2013). Emergence of lying in very young children. Developmental Psychology, 49(10), 1958–1963. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031409.
Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the Enigma. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Fu, G., Sai, L., Yuan, F., & Lee, K. (2018). Young children’s self-benefiting lies and their relation to executive functioning and theory of mind. Infant and Child Development, 27(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.2051.
Gallagher, H. L., & Frith, C. D. (2003). Functional imaging of “theory of mind”. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(2), 77–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(02)00025-6.
Garon, N., Smith, I. M., & Bryson, S. E. (2018). Early executive dysfunction in ASD: Simple versus complex skills. Autism Research, 11(2), 318–330. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1893.
Gerstadt, C. L., Hong, Y. J., & Diamond, A. (1994). The relationship between cognition and action: Performance of children 3 1/2–7 years old on a Stroop-like day-night test. Cognition, 53(2), 129–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(94)90068-X.
Happé, F. G. (1994). An advanced test of theory of mind: understanding of story characters’ thoughts and feelings by able autistic, mentally handicapped, and normal children and adults. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(2), 129–154.
Happé, F. G. (1995). The role of age and verbal ability in the theory of mind task performance of subjects with autism. Child Development, 66(3), 843–855. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131954.
Hill, E. L. (2004). Executive dysfunction in autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(1), 26–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2003.11.003.
Jaarsma, P., Gelhaus, P., & Welin, S. (2012). Living the categorical imperative: Autistic perspectives on lying and truth telling-between Kant and care ethics. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 15(3), 271–277. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11019-011-9363-7.
Lee, K. (2013). Little liars: Development of verbal deception in children. Child Development Perspectives, 7(2), 91–96. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12023.
Li, D., Hu, K. D., Chen, G. P., Jin, Y., & Li, M. (1988). A trial measuring report of Combined Raven’s test in Shanghai. Journal of Psychologial Science, 4, 27–31. (in Chinese).
Li, A. S., Kelley, E. A., Evans, A. D., & Lee, K. (2011). Exploring the ability to deceive in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(2), 185–195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-010-1045-4.
Perner, J., & Wimmer, H. (1985). “John thinks that Mary thinks that…” attribution of second-order beliefs by 5- to 10-year-old children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 39(3), 437–471. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965(85)90051-7.
Russell, J., Mauthner, N., Sharpe, S., & Tidswell, T. (1991). The “windows task” as a measure of strategic deception in preschoolers and autistic subjects. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(2), 331–349. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-835X.1991.tb00881.x.
Sang, B., & Liao, X. (1990). The revision of trial norm of Peabody picture vocabulary test revised (PPVT-R). Journal of Psychological Science, 5, 20–25. (in Chinese).
Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., Devellis, R. F., & Daly, K. (1980). Toward objective classification of childhood autism: Childhood autism rating scale (CARS). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10(1), 91–103.
Sodian, B., & Frith, U. (1992). Deception and sabotage in autistic, retarded and normal children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33(3), 591–605. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1992.tb00893.x.
Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2002). Development of lying to conceal a transgression: Children’s control of expressive behaviour during verbal deception. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26(5), 436–444. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250143000373.
Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2008). Social and cognitive correlates of children’s lying behavior. Child Development, 79(4), 866–881. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01164.x.
Talwar, V., Lee, K., Bala, N., & Lindsay, R. C. L. (2002). Children’s conceptual knowledge of lying and its relation to their actual behaviors: Implications for court competence examinations. Law and Human Behavior, 26(4), 395–415. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016379104959.
Talwar, V., Zwaigenbaum, L., Goulden, K. J., Manji, S., Loomes, C., & Rasmussen, C. (2012). Lie-telling behavior in children with autism and its relation to false-belief understanding. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 27(2), 122–129. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088357612441828.
Testa, R., Bennett, P., & Ponsford, J. (2012). Factor analysis of nineteen executive function tests in a healthy adult population. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27(2), 213–224. https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acr112.
Wellman, H. M., & Liu, D. (2004). Scaling of theory-of-mind tasks. Child Development, 75(2), 523–541. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00691.x.
Williams, S., Leduc, K., Crossman, A., & Talwar, V. (2017). Young deceivers: Executive functioning and antisocial lie-telling in preschool aged children. Infant and Child Development, 26(1), e1956. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.1956.
Wimmer, H., & Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children’s understanding of deception. Cognition, 13(1), 103–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(83)90004-5.
Yang, Y., Tian, Y., Fang, J., Lu, H., Wei, K., & Yi, L. (2017). Trust and deception in children with autism spectrum disorders: A social learning perspective. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(3), 615–625. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2983-2.
Yi, L., Fan, Y., Li, J., Huang, D., Wang, X., Tan, W., et al. (2014). Distrust and retaliatory deception in children with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(12), 1741–1755. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2014.09.006.
Zelazo, P. D., & Müller, U. (2002). Executive function in typical and atypical development. In U. Goswami (Ed.), Handbook of childhood cognitive development (pp. 445–469). Oxford: Blackwell.
- Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder’s Lying is Correlated with Their Working Memory But Not Theory of Mind
Xiao Pan Ding
- Springer US
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432