Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 10/2019

26-05-2019 | Original Paper

Children’s and Parents’ Perceptions of Vulnerability as Weakness: Associations with Children’s Well-Being

Auteurs: Jessica L. Borelli, Patricia A. Smiley, Gerin Gaskin, Phoebe T. Pham, Meghan Kussman, Ben Shahar

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 10/2019

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Objectives

The importance of vulnerability expression for well-being is a prominent theme in contemporary psychology, but empirical support for this claim is lacking, including evidence for the belief that males are less open to states of vulnerability than females, and that people who are more judgmental of vulnerability experience difficulties in emotion regulation, and psychological well-being. Robust theoretical perspectives (attachment theory, emotion socialization) hold that children’s views regarding vulnerability originate within the parent-child relationship; here we empirically examine parents’ and children’s views regarding vulnerability.

Methods

We explored school-aged children’s (8 to 12 years) and their parents’ (N = 121) meta-emotional distress regarding vulnerability, as well as their perceptions of experiencing vulnerability as weak or strong, and their affective and behavioral reactions to vulnerability. We also compared perceptions of physical versus emotional vulnerability.

Results

There were few gender differences in perceptions of vulnerability; however, children and parents evaluated physical vulnerability more favorably than emotional vulnerability. While meta-emotional distress to vulnerability was not consistently associated with emotion dysregulation or psychopathology, perceiving vulnerability as weak and as a reason to distance oneself, to not like the experiencer (children) or to discourage such expression (parents), were robustly associated with depressive symptoms and rejection sensitivity.

Conclusions

Building relationships in which expressions of vulnerability—especially emotional vulnerability (states of fear and sadness)—are accepted and perceived as a means of building emotional resilience comports with attachment theory and with emotion- and attachment-based therapy principles.
Literatuur
go back to reference Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M., Waters, E., Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: observations in the strange situation and at home. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M., Waters, E., Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: observations in the strange situation and at home. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
go back to reference Borelli, J. L. (2019). The vulnerability vignettes: A method for probing children’s responses. Unpublished manuscript. Borelli, J. L. (2019). The vulnerability vignettes: A method for probing children’s responses. Unpublished manuscript.
go back to reference Boulanger, J. L., Hayes, S. C., Pistorello, J. (2010). Experiential avoidance as a functional contextual concept. In A. Kring & D. Sloan (Eds), Emotion regulation and psychopathology. New York: Guilford. Boulanger, J. L., Hayes, S. C., Pistorello, J. (2010). Experiential avoidance as a functional contextual concept. In A. Kring & D. Sloan (Eds), Emotion regulation and psychopathology. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: 2. Separation: anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: 2. Separation: anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books.
go back to reference Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: 3. Loss: sadness and depression. New York: Basic Books. Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: 3. Loss: sadness and depression. New York: Basic Books.
go back to reference Brody, L. R., & Hall, J. A. (2008). Gender and emotion in context. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones & L. F. Barrett (Eds), Handbook of emotions (pp. 395–408). New York, NY, USA: The Guilford Press. Brody, L. R., & Hall, J. A. (2008). Gender and emotion in context. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones & L. F. Barrett (Eds), Handbook of emotions (pp. 395–408). New York, NY, USA: The Guilford Press.
go back to reference Brown, B. (2012). Daring greatly: how the courage to be vulnerable transforms the way we live, love, parent, and lead. London, UK: Penguin. Brown, B. (2012). Daring greatly: how the courage to be vulnerable transforms the way we live, love, parent, and lead. London, UK: Penguin.
go back to reference Brown, B. (2015). Rising strong: how the ability to reset transforms the way we live, love, parent, and lead. New York, NY: Random House. Brown, B. (2015). Rising strong: how the ability to reset transforms the way we live, love, parent, and lead. New York, NY: Random House.
go back to reference Diamond, G., Diamond, G., Levy, S. (2014). Attachment-based family therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Diamond, G., Diamond, G., Levy, S. (2014). Attachment-based family therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
go back to reference Elliott, R., & Shahar, B. (2019) Emotion-focused therapy for social anxiety. In L. S. Greenberg, & R. N. Goldman (Eds), Clinical handbook of emotion-focused therapy (pp. 337–360). Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association. CrossRef Elliott, R., & Shahar, B. (2019) Emotion-focused therapy for social anxiety. In L. S. Greenberg, & R. N. Goldman (Eds), Clinical handbook of emotion-focused therapy (pp. 337–360). Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
go back to reference Gadow, K. D., & Sprafkin, J. (2009). The symptom inventories: an annotated bibliography. Stony Brook, NY: Checkmate Plus. Gadow, K. D., & Sprafkin, J. (2009). The symptom inventories: an annotated bibliography. Stony Brook, NY: Checkmate Plus.
go back to reference Gilbert, P. (1998). Shame and humiliation in the treatment of complex cases. In N. Tarrier, A. Wells, G. Haddock (Eds), Treating complex cases: The cognitive behavioural therapy approach. (pp. 241–271). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons. Gilbert, P. (1998). Shame and humiliation in the treatment of complex cases. In N. Tarrier, A. Wells, G. Haddock (Eds), Treating complex cases: The cognitive behavioural therapy approach. (pp. 241–271). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.
go back to reference Greenberg, L. S. (2015). Emotion-focused therapy: coaching clients to work through their feelings. 2nd edition (pp. 69–91). Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association. CrossRef Greenberg, L. S. (2015). Emotion-focused therapy: coaching clients to work through their feelings. 2nd edition (pp. 69–91). Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
go back to reference Greenberg, L. S., & Goldman, R. N. (2008). Emotion-focused couples therapy: the dynamics of emotion, love, and power. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef Greenberg, L. S., & Goldman, R. N. (2008). Emotion-focused couples therapy: the dynamics of emotion, love, and power. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
go back to reference Greenberg, L. S., & Iwakabe, S. (2011). Emotion-focused therapy and shame. In R. L. Dearing & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Shame in the therapy hour (pp. 69–90). Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association. CrossRef Greenberg, L. S., & Iwakabe, S. (2011). Emotion-focused therapy and shame. In R. L. Dearing & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Shame in the therapy hour (pp. 69–90). Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
go back to reference Greenberg, L. S., & Johnson, S. M. (1988). Emotionally focused therapy for couples. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Greenberg, L. S., & Johnson, S. M. (1988). Emotionally focused therapy for couples. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Greenberg, L. S., & Paivio, S. C. (1997). Working with emotions in psychotherapy. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press. Greenberg, L. S., & Paivio, S. C. (1997). Working with emotions in psychotherapy. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Hastings, P. D., Klimes-Dougan, B., Kendziora, K. T., Brand, A., Zahn-Waxler, C. (2014). Regulating sadness and fear from outside and within: mothers’ emotion socialization and adolescents’ parasympathetic regulation predict the development of internalizing difficulties. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 1369–1384. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1017/​S095457941400108​4. CrossRef Hastings, P. D., Klimes-Dougan, B., Kendziora, K. T., Brand, A., Zahn-Waxler, C. (2014). Regulating sadness and fear from outside and within: mothers’ emotion socialization and adolescents’ parasympathetic regulation predict the development of internalizing difficulties. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 1369–1384. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1017/​S095457941400108​4. CrossRef
go back to reference Johnson, S. M. (2004). The practice of emotionally focused couples therapy. New York, NY: Brunner Routledge. Johnson, S. M. (2004). The practice of emotionally focused couples therapy. New York, NY: Brunner Routledge.
go back to reference Kovacs, M. (1992). Children’s depression inventory manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Kovacs, M. (1992). Children’s depression inventory manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Landa, A., Peterson, B. S., & Fallon, B. A. (2012). Somatoform pain: a developmental theory and translational research review. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74, 717–727. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Landa, A., Peterson, B. S., & Fallon, B. A. (2012). Somatoform pain: a developmental theory and translational research review. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74, 717–727. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Schneider, W., Eschman, A., Zuccolotto, A. (2002). E-prime user’s guide. Pittsburgh: Psychology Software Tools Inc. Schneider, W., Eschman, A., Zuccolotto, A. (2002). E-prime user’s guide. Pittsburgh: Psychology Software Tools Inc.
go back to reference Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1995). The development of an emotion regulation assessment battery: Reliability and validity among at-risk grade-school children. Indianapolis, IN. Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1995). The development of an emotion regulation assessment battery: Reliability and validity among at-risk grade-school children. Indianapolis, IN.
Metagegevens
Titel
Children’s and Parents’ Perceptions of Vulnerability as Weakness: Associations with Children’s Well-Being
Auteurs
Jessica L. Borelli
Patricia A. Smiley
Gerin Gaskin
Phoebe T. Pham
Meghan Kussman
Ben Shahar
Publicatiedatum
26-05-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 10/2019
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01453-1

Andere artikelen Uitgave 10/2019

Journal of Child and Family Studies 10/2019 Naar de uitgave