Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The death of a loved one, particularly a parent, has been identified as not only the most common, but also the most distressing form of adversity youth may experience in their lifetime. Surviving caregivers’ communication with their children may play a critical role in shaping bereaved children’s psychological functioning. However, few studies have examined the specific content (e.g., word usage) of caregivers’ verbal communication as a predictor of psychological functioning in bereaved youth. In a sample of 39 parentally-bereaved children and their surviving caregivers, we investigated whether the frequency of caregivers’ use of positive emotion words (e.g., “love”, “happy”, “hope”) during a reminiscing task about the deceased was associated with children’s psychological functioning and coping. In a cross-sectional analysis, we specifically examined whether these associations were moderated by the amount of time passed since children lost their parents. The Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count Program (LIWC) was used to code and evaluate the percentage of positive emotion words caregivers used during the discussion. When caregivers used more positive emotion words, children were less likely to experience depression, anxiety, and avoidant coping. Those associations were present for children who had experienced parental loss at least 105 days prior to the study.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Angold, A., Costello, E. J., Messer, S. C., Pickles, A., Winder, F., & Silver, D. (1995). The development of a short questionnaire for use in epidemiological studies of depression in children and adolescents. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 5, 237–249.
Ayers, T., Sandler, I., & Twohey, J. (1998). Conceptualization and measurement of coping in children and adolescents. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, 20, 243–301.
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the beck depression inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 77–100. CrossRef
Black, D., & Urbanowia, M. A. (1984). Bereaved children-family interaction. In J. E. Stevenson (Ed.), Recent Research in Developmental Psychopathology. New York, NY: Pergamon Press.
Bonanno, G. A., & Kaltman, S. (2001). The varieties of grief experience. Clinical Psychological Review, 21, 705–734. CrossRef
Brenner, E. M., & Salovey, P. (1997). Emotional regulation during childhood: Developmental, interpersonal, and individual considerations. In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 168–195). New York, NY: Harper Collins.
Bryant, F. B., Smart, C. M., & King, S. P. (2005). Using the past to enhance the present: Boosting happiness through positive reminiscence. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6, 227–260. CrossRef
Castle, J., & Phillips, W. L. (2003). Grief rituals: Aspects that facilitate adjustment to bereavement. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 8, 41–71. CrossRef
Cohen, J. A., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Dawson, J. F. (2014). Moderation in management research: What, why, when, and how. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29, 1–19. CrossRef
de Groot, M., Neeleman, J., van der Meer, K., & Burger, H. (2010). The effectiveness of family-based cognitive-behavior grief therapy to prevent complicated grief in relatives of suicide victims: The mediating role of suicide ideation. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 40, 425–437. CrossRef
Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical transactions of the royal society B: Biological sciences, 359, 1367–1378. CrossRef
Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. (1994). Emotional contagion. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [White paper]. Retrieved from http://www.afhayes.com/public/process2012.pdf.
Hazzard, A., Christensen, A., & Margolin, G. (1983). Children’s perceptions of parental behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Clinical Psychology, 11, 49–60. CrossRef
Howell, K. H., Barrett-Becker, E. P., Burnside, A. N., Wamser-Nanney, R., Layne, C. M., & Kaplow, J. B. (2016). Children facing parental cancer versus parental death: The buffering effects of positive parenting and emotional expression. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 152–164. CrossRef
Johnson, P. O., & Neyman, J. (1936). Tests of certain linear hypotheses and their applications to some educational problems. Statistical Research Memoirs, 1, 57–93.
Kaplow, J. B., Layne, C. M., & Pynoos, R. (2014a). Parental grief facilitation: How parents can help their bereaved children during the holidays. Traumatic Stress Points. http://www.istss.org/education-research/traumatic-stresspoints/2014-december/parental-grief-facilitation-how-parents-can-help-t.aspx.
Kaplow, J. B., Layne, C. M., & Pynoos, R. (2014b). Persistent complex bereavement disorder as a call to action: Using a proposed DSM-5 diagnosis to advance the field of childhood grief. Traumatic Stress Points. http://sherwood-istss.informz.net/sherwood-istss/archives/archive_3773102.html.
Kaplow, J. B., Shapiro, D. N., Wardecker, B. M., Howell, K. H., Abelson, J. L., Worthman, C. M., & Prossin, A. R. (2013). Psychological and environmental correlates of HPA-axis functioning in parentally bereaved children: Preliminary findings. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 233–240. CrossRefPubMed
Klass, D., Silverman, P., & Nickman, S. (1996). Continuing bonds: New understandings of grief. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
Kuebli, J., Butler, S., & Fivush, R. (1995). Mother-child talk about past emotions: Relations of maternal language and child gender over time. Cognition and Emotion, 9, 265–283. CrossRef
Lester, D. (2012). Bereavement after suicide: A study of memorials on the internet. Omega (Westport), 65, 189–194. CrossRef
Maas, C. J. M., & Hox, J. J. (2005). Sufficient sample sizes for multilevel modeling. Methodology, 1, 86–92. CrossRef
Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher, INC.
Ong, A. D., Bergeman, C. S., & Bisconti, T. L. (2004). The role of daily positive emotions during conjugal bereavement. The Journals of Gerontology, 59, 168–176. CrossRef
Pennebaker, J. W., Booth, R. J., & Francis, M. E. (2007). Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count: LIWC [Computer software]. Austin, TX: LIWC.net.
Pennebaker, J. W., Boyd, R. L., Jordan, K., & Blackburn, K. (2015). The development and psychometric properties of liwc2015. Austin, TX: University of Texas at Austin.
Pennebaker, J. W., Francis, M. E., & Booth, R. J. (2001). Linguistic inquiry and word count (LIWC). Mahwah, NJ: Erlaum.
Rude, S. S., Gortner, E.-M., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2004). Language use of depressed and depression-vulnerable college students. Cognition and Emotion, 18, 1121–1133. CrossRef
Saltzman, W., Layne, C. M., Pynoos, R. S., Olafson, E., Kaplow, J. B., & Boat, B. (2017). Trauma and Grief Component Therapy for Adolescents: A Modular Approach to Treating Traumatized and Bereaved Youth. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Saltzman, W. R., Steinberg, A. M., Layne, C. M., Aisenberg, E., & Pynoos, R. (2001). A developmental approach to school-based treatment of adolescents exposed to trauma and traumatic loss. Journal of Child and Adolescent Group Therapy, 11, 43–56. CrossRef
Sandler, I. N., Ayers, T. S., Wolchik, S. A., Tein, J., Kwok, O., Haine, R. A., & Griffin, W. A. (2003). The family bereavement program: Efficacy evaluation of a theory-based prevention program for parentally bereaved children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 587–600. CrossRef
Snijders, T. A. (2005). Power and sample size in multilevel modeling. In B. S. Everitt & D. C. Howell (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science (Vol. 3, pp. 1570–1573). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
Tausczik, Y. R., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2010). The psychological meaning of words: LIWC and computerized text analysis methods. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 29, 24–54. CrossRef
Treger, S., Sprecher, S., & Erber, R. (2013). Laughing and liking: Exploring the interpersonal effects of humor use in initial social interactions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 532–543.
Tweed, R. G., & Tweed, C. J. (2011). Positive emotion following spousal bereavement: Desireable or pathological? Journal of Positive Psychology, 6, 131–141. CrossRef
UNICEF. (2013). Child info: Monitoring the situation of children and women. http://www.childinfo.org/hiv_aids_orphanestimates.php.
- Caregivers’ Positive Emotional Expression and Children’s Psychological Functioning after Parental Loss
Britney M. Wardecker
Julie B. Kaplow
Christopher M. Layne
Robin S. Edelstein
- Springer US