Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Equine-assisted activities and therapies are increasing in popularity for treatment of ASD symptoms. This research evaluated effects of a 5-week programme of therapeutic riding on social functioning of children/adolescents (N = 15) with ASD. The effectiveness of the programme was evaluated using the autism spectrum quotient, the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale and the empathising and systemising quotient. Results established that the TR intervention increased empathising and reduced maladaptive behaviours. The findings also indicated that specific adaptive behaviours like socialization and communication were not affected by the intervention. Thus, a complex picture of the effects of this intervention emerges: while TR does not change all of the child’s behaviour, it can improve specific aspects of social functioning and also reduce maladaptive ASD traits.
Autism Society of America. (2009). About autism. http://www.autism-society.org/about-autism/.
Auyeng, B., Wheelwright, S., Allison, C., Atkinson, M., Samarawickrema, N., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2009). The children’s empathy quotient and systemising quotient: Sex differences in typical development and in autism spectrum conditions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(11), 1509–1521. doi: 10.1007/s10803-009-0772-x. CrossRef
Baron-Cohen, S. (2009). Autism: The empathizing–systemising (E–S) theory. The Year in Cognitive Neuroscience, 1156, 68–80. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04467.x.
Baron-Cohen, S., Richler, J., Bisarya, D., Gurunathan, N., & Wheelwright, S. (2003). The systemizing quotient: An investigation of adults with Asperger Syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beetz, A., Kotrschal, K., Uvnas-Moberg, K., & Julius, H. (2011). Basis neurological and psychological mechanisms underlying therapeutic effects of Equine Assisted Activities (EAA/T). HHRF Grant 2011: Public Report.
Borgi, M., Loliva, D., Cerino, S., Chiarotti, F., Venerosi, A., Braminis, M., et al. (2016). Effectiveness of a standarised equine-assisted therapy program for children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 1–9. doi: 10.1007/s10803-015-2530-6. CrossRefPubMed
Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Data and statistics. Retrieved September 8, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/facts.html.
Dingman, A. (2008). Hoof prints: Equine therapy for autistic children. Encounter: Education for Learning and Social Justice, 21(4), 11–13.
Fine, A. H. (2010). Handbook on animal-assisted therapy: Theoretical foundations and guidelines for practise (3rd ed.). London: Elsevier.
Fine, A. H. (2015). Handbook on animal-assisted therapy: Theoretical foundations and guidelines for practise (4th ed.). London: Elsevier.
Gabriels, R. L., Agnew, J. A., Holt, K. D., Shoffner, A., Zhaoxing, P., Ruzzano, S., et al. (2012). Pilot study measuring the effects of therapeutic horseback riding on school-age children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder, 6(2), 578–588. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2011.09.007. CrossRef
Gabriels, R. L., Pan, Z., Dechant, B., Agnew, J. A., Brim, N., & Mesibov, G. (2015). Randomized controlled trial of therapeutic horseback riding in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(7), 541–549. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2015.04.00. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Hallberg, L. (2008). Walking the way of the horse. Exploring the power of the human–horse relationship. Bloomington, NY: iUniverse, Inc.
Hardy, J. C. (2011). Therapeutic riding and its effects on self- esteem (Education Masters). Fisher Digital Publications, Paper 68.
Hawkins, B. L., Ryan, J. B., Cory, L. A., & Donaldson, M. C. (2014). Effects of equine-assisted therapy on gross motor skills of two children with autism spectrum disorder: A single study research study. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 48(2), 135–149.
Holm, B. M., Baird, J. M., Kim, J. Y., Rajora, D. S., Podolinsky, L., Mazefsky, C., et al. (2013). Therapeutic horseback riding outcomes of parent-identified goals for children with autism spectrum disorder: An ABA multiple case design examining dosages and generalization of the home and community. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 937–947. doi: 10.1007/s10803-013-1949-x. CrossRef
Kern, J. K., Fletcher, C. R., Garver, C. R., Mehta, J. A., Grannemann, B. D., Knox, K. R., Richardson, T. A., & Trivedi, M. H. (2011). Prospective trial of equine-assisted activities in autism spectrum disorder. Alternative Therapies, 17(3), 14–20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22164808.
Kersten, G., & Thomas, L. (2005). Equine assisted mental health resource handbook (7th ed.). Santaquin, UT: EAGALA, Inc.
King, N. (2007). Perceived efficacy of therapeutic riding for children with autism. In B. Engel & J. MacKinnon (Eds.), Enhancing human occupation through hippotherapy (pp. 119–126). Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.
McCormick, M., & McCormick, A. (1997). Horse sense and the human heart: What horses can teach us about trust, bonding, creativity and spirituality. Florida: Health Communications.
Nebbe, L. (2003). Animal-assisted activities/therapy as an animal and human welfare project [Electronic version]. Humane Innovations and Alternatives, 8. Retrieved January 13, 2014, from http://www.psyeta.org/hia/vol8/nebbe.html.
Pendry, P., & Roeter, S. (2013). Experimental trial demonstrates positive effects of equine-facilitated learning on child social competence. Human– Animal Interaction, 1(1), 1–19. http://hd.wsu.edu/documents/Publications/HAIB%20Pendry%20&%20Roeter%202013.pdf.
Professional Association of Therapeutic Horsemanship International. (2016). EAAT Definitions. Retrieved January 30, 2016, from http://www.pathintl.org/resources-education/faculty/27-resources/general/193-eaat-definitions.
Schultz, P. N., Remick-Barlow, G. N., & Robbins, L. (2007). Equine-assisted psychotherapy: A mental health promotion/intervention modality for children who have experienced intra-family violence. Health and Social Care in the Community, 15(3), 265–271. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2524.2006.00684.x. CrossRefPubMed
Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Umbarger, G. T. (2007). State of the evidence regarding complementary and alternative medical treatments for autism spectrum disorders. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 42(4), 437–447. http://daddcec.org/Portals/0/CEC/Autism_Disabilities/Research/Publications/Education_Training_Development_Disabilities/2007v42_Journals/ETDD_200712v42n4p437447_State_Evidence_Regarding_Complementary_Alternative_Medical.pdf.
Vandereijcken, W., Hoogduin, C. A. L., & Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (2008). Psychopathology handbook Part 1, Basics. Houten: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.
Volkmar, F. R., Sparrow, S. S., Goudreau, D., Cicchetti, D. V., Paul, R., & Cohen, D. J. (1987). Social deficits in autism: An operational approach using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(2), 156–161. doi: 10.1097/00004583-198703000-00005. CrossRefPubMed
Ward, S. C., Whalon, K., Rusnak, K., Wendell, K., & Paschall, N. (2013). The association between theraptutic horseback riding and the social communication and sensory reactions of children with autism. Journal of Austism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 2190–2198. doi: 10.1007/s10803-013-1773-3. CrossRef
Wheelwright, S., Baron-Cohen, S., Goldenfeld, N., Delaney, J., Fine, D., Smith, R., et al. (2006). Predicting autism spectrum quotient (AQ) from the systemizing quotient-revised (SQ-R) and empathy quotient (EQ). Brain Research, 1079(1), 47–56. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2006.01.012. CrossRefPubMed
- Brief Report: The Effects of Equine-Assisted Activities on the Social Functioning in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Springer US