Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 8/2017

04-05-2017 | Brief Report

Brief Report: Intuitive and Reflective Reasoning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Auteurs: Mark Brosnan, Chris Ashwin, Marcus Lewton

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 8/2017

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Dual Process Theory has recently been applied to Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to suggest that reasoning by people with ASD and people with higher levels of ASD-like traits can be characterised by reduced intuitive and greater reflective processing. 26 adolescents and adults with ASD and 22 adolescent and adult controls completed an assessment of ASD-like traits, the cognitive reflections test (CRT) to measure intuitive and reflective reasoning and an index of general cognitive ability. The ASD group produced less intuitive responses, and the degree of ASD-like traits showed a negative correlation with intuitive responses and positive correlation with reflective responses on the CRT. Together, these results are consistent with ASD being associated with reduced intuitive reasoning and greater deductive reasoning.
Literatuur
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th edn.). Washington, DC: APA. CrossRef American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th edn.). Washington, DC: APA. CrossRef
go back to reference Ashwin, C., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., O’Riordan, M., & Bullmore, E. T. (2007). Differential activation of the amygdala and the ‘social brain’ during fearful face-processing in Asperger Syndrome. Neuropsychologia, 45, 2–14. CrossRefPubMed Ashwin, C., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., O’Riordan, M., & Bullmore, E. T. (2007). Differential activation of the amygdala and the ‘social brain’ during fearful face-processing in Asperger Syndrome. Neuropsychologia, 45, 2–14. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (2006). The hyper-systemizing, assortative mating theory of autism. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 30, 865–872. CrossRefPubMed Baron-Cohen, S. (2006). The hyper-systemizing, assortative mating theory of autism. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 30, 865–872. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (2009). Autism: The empathizing–systemizing (E-S) theory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1156, 68–80. CrossRefPubMed Baron-Cohen, S. (2009). Autism: The empathizing–systemizing (E-S) theory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1156, 68–80. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Ashwin, E., Ashwin, C., Tavassoli, T., & Chakrabarti, B. (2009). Talent in autism: hyper-systemizing, hyper-attention to detail and sensory hypersensitivity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364, 1377–1383. CrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Ashwin, E., Ashwin, C., Tavassoli, T., & Chakrabarti, B. (2009). Talent in autism: hyper-systemizing, hyper-attention to detail and sensory hypersensitivity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364, 1377–1383. CrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”? Cognition, 21, 37–46. CrossRefPubMed Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”? Cognition, 21, 37–46. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 5–17. CrossRefPubMed Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 5–17. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bowler, D. M., Gaigg, S. B., & Gardiner, J. M. (2008). Effects of related and unrelated context on recall and recognition by adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychologia, 46, 993–999. CrossRefPubMed Bowler, D. M., Gaigg, S. B., & Gardiner, J. M. (2008). Effects of related and unrelated context on recall and recognition by adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychologia, 46, 993–999. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bowler, D. M., Matthews, N. J., & Gardiner, J. M. (1997). Asperger’s syndrome and memory: Similarity to autism but not amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 35, 65–70. CrossRefPubMed Bowler, D. M., Matthews, N. J., & Gardiner, J. M. (1997). Asperger’s syndrome and memory: Similarity to autism but not amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 35, 65–70. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brosnan, M., Chapman, E., & Ashwin, C. (2014). Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder show a circumspect reasoning bias rather than ‘jumping-to-conclusions’. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 513–520. CrossRefPubMed Brosnan, M., Chapman, E., & Ashwin, C. (2014). Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder show a circumspect reasoning bias rather than ‘jumping-to-conclusions’. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 513–520. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brosnan, M., Hollinworth, M., Antoniadou, K., & Lewton, M. (2014). Is Empathizing intuitive and systemizing deliberative? Personality and Individual Differences, 66, 39–43. CrossRef Brosnan, M., Hollinworth, M., Antoniadou, K., & Lewton, M. (2014). Is Empathizing intuitive and systemizing deliberative? Personality and Individual Differences, 66, 39–43. CrossRef
go back to reference Brosnan, M., Johnson, H., Grawmeyer, B., Chapman, E., & Benton, L. (2015b). Emotion recognition in animated compared to human stimuli in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 1785–1796. CrossRefPubMed Brosnan, M., Johnson, H., Grawmeyer, B., Chapman, E., & Benton, L. (2015b). Emotion recognition in animated compared to human stimuli in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 1785–1796. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brosnan, M., Lewton, M., & Ashwin, C. (2016). Reasoning on the autism spectrum: A dual process theory account. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 46, 2115–2125. CrossRef Brosnan, M., Lewton, M., & Ashwin, C. (2016). Reasoning on the autism spectrum: A dual process theory account. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 46, 2115–2125. CrossRef
go back to reference Campitelli, G. J., & Gerrans, P. (2014). Does the cognitive reflection test measure cognitive reflection? A mathematical modeling approach. Memory & Cognition, 42, 434–447. CrossRef Campitelli, G. J., & Gerrans, P. (2014). Does the cognitive reflection test measure cognitive reflection? A mathematical modeling approach. Memory & Cognition, 42, 434–447. CrossRef
go back to reference Chiesi, F., Ciancaleoni, M., Galli, S., & Primi, C. (2012). Using the advanced progressive matrices (Set I) to assess fluid ability in a short time frame: An item response theory–based analysis. Psychological Assessment, 24, 892–900. CrossRefPubMed Chiesi, F., Ciancaleoni, M., Galli, S., & Primi, C. (2012). Using the advanced progressive matrices (Set I) to assess fluid ability in a short time frame: An item response theory–based analysis. Psychological Assessment, 24, 892–900. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Chiesi, F., Primi, C., & Morsanyi, K. (2011). Developmental changes in probabilistic reasoning: The role of cognitive capacity, instructions, thinking styles, and relevant knowledge. Thinking & Reasoning, 17, 315–350. CrossRef Chiesi, F., Primi, C., & Morsanyi, K. (2011). Developmental changes in probabilistic reasoning: The role of cognitive capacity, instructions, thinking styles, and relevant knowledge. Thinking & Reasoning, 17, 315–350. CrossRef
go back to reference Ciancaleoni, M., Primi, C., & Chiesi, F. (2010). Exploring the possibility to use Set I of advanced progressive matrices as a short form of standard progressive matrices. Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, TPM, 17, 91–98. Ciancaleoni, M., Primi, C., & Chiesi, F. (2010). Exploring the possibility to use Set I of advanced progressive matrices as a short form of standard progressive matrices. Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, TPM, 17, 91–98.
go back to reference Clark, T. F., Winkielman, P., & McIntosh, D. N. (2008). Autism and the extraction of emotion from briefly presented facial expressions: Stumbling at the first step of empathy. Emotion (Washington, DC), 8, 803–809. CrossRef Clark, T. F., Winkielman, P., & McIntosh, D. N. (2008). Autism and the extraction of emotion from briefly presented facial expressions: Stumbling at the first step of empathy. Emotion (Washington, DC), 8, 803–809. CrossRef
go back to reference De Martino, B., Harrison, N. A., Knafo, S., Bird, G., & Dolan, R. J. (2008). Explaining enhanced logical consistency during decision making in autism. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 10746–10750. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral De Martino, B., Harrison, N. A., Knafo, S., Bird, G., & Dolan, R. J. (2008). Explaining enhanced logical consistency during decision making in autism. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 10746–10750. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Donati, M. A., Panno, A., Chiesi, F., & Primi, C. (2014). A mediation model to explain decision making under conditions of risk among adolescents: The role of fluid intelligence and probabilistic reasoning. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 36, 588–595. CrossRefPubMed Donati, M. A., Panno, A., Chiesi, F., & Primi, C. (2014). A mediation model to explain decision making under conditions of risk among adolescents: The role of fluid intelligence and probabilistic reasoning. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 36, 588–595. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Evans, J.S.B. (2011). Dual-process theories of reasoning: Contemporary issues and developmental applications. Developmental Review, 31, 86–102. CrossRef Evans, J.S.B. (2011). Dual-process theories of reasoning: Contemporary issues and developmental applications. Developmental Review, 31, 86–102. CrossRef
go back to reference Evans, J.S.B., Barston, J. L., & Pollard, P. (1983). On the conflict between logic and belief in syllogistic reasoning. Memory & Cognition, 11, 295–306. CrossRef Evans, J.S.B., Barston, J. L., & Pollard, P. (1983). On the conflict between logic and belief in syllogistic reasoning. Memory & Cognition, 11, 295–306. CrossRef
go back to reference Evans, J.S.B., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Dual-process theories of higher cognition advancing the debate. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 223–241. CrossRefPubMed Evans, J.S.B., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Dual-process theories of higher cognition advancing the debate. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 223–241. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Farran, E. K., & Brosnan, M. J. (2011). Perceptual grouping abilities in individuals with autism spectrum disorder; exploring patterns of ability in relation to grouping type and levels of development. Autism Research, 4, 283–292. CrossRefPubMed Farran, E. K., & Brosnan, M. J. (2011). Perceptual grouping abilities in individuals with autism spectrum disorder; exploring patterns of ability in relation to grouping type and levels of development. Autism Research, 4, 283–292. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Frankish, K., & Evans, J.S.B. (2009). The duality of mind: An historical perspective. In J. St. B. T. Evans & K. Frankish (Eds.), In two minds: Dual processes and beyond (pp. 1–30). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Frankish, K., & Evans, J.S.B. (2009). The duality of mind: An historical perspective. In J. St. B. T. Evans & K. Frankish (Eds.), In two minds: Dual processes and beyond (pp. 1–30). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Frederick, S. (2005). Cognitive reflection and decision making. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25–42. CrossRef Frederick, S. (2005). Cognitive reflection and decision making. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25–42. CrossRef
go back to reference Fugard, A. J., Stewart, M. E., & Stenning, K. (2011). Visual/verbal-analytic reasoning bias as a function of self-reported autistic-like traits: A study of typically developing individuals solving Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 15, 327–340. CrossRef Fugard, A. J., Stewart, M. E., & Stenning, K. (2011). Visual/verbal-analytic reasoning bias as a function of self-reported autistic-like traits: A study of typically developing individuals solving Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 15, 327–340. CrossRef
go back to reference Golan, O., Ashwin, E., Granader, Y., McClintock, S., Day, K., Leggett, V., et al. (2010). Enhancing emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum conditions: An intervention using animated vehicles with real emotional faces. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 269–279. CrossRefPubMed Golan, O., Ashwin, E., Granader, Y., McClintock, S., Day, K., Leggett, V., et al. (2010). Enhancing emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum conditions: An intervention using animated vehicles with real emotional faces. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 269–279. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Golan, O., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2006). Systemizing empathy: Teaching adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism to recognize complex emotions using interactive multimedia. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 591–617. CrossRefPubMed Golan, O., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2006). Systemizing empathy: Teaching adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism to recognize complex emotions using interactive multimedia. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 591–617. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Irvin, R. A., & Stansbury, J. (2004). Citizen participation in decision making: Is it worth the effort? Public Administration Review, 64, 55–65. CrossRef Irvin, R. A., & Stansbury, J. (2004). Citizen participation in decision making: Is it worth the effort? Public Administration Review, 64, 55–65. CrossRef
go back to reference Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. London: Penguin. Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. London: Penguin.
go back to reference Keren, G., & Schul, Y. (2009). Two is not always better than one a critical evaluation of two-system theories. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 533–550. CrossRefPubMed Keren, G., & Schul, Y. (2009). Two is not always better than one a critical evaluation of two-system theories. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 533–550. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. R. (1997). Asperger’s syndrome. In D. J. Cohen & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (pp. 93–122). London: Wiley. Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. R. (1997). Asperger’s syndrome. In D. J. Cohen & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (pp. 93–122). London: Wiley.
go back to reference Kruglanski, A. W., & Gigerenzer, G. (2011). Intuitive and deliberate judgments are based on common principles. Psychological Review, 118, 97. CrossRefPubMed Kruglanski, A. W., & Gigerenzer, G. (2011). Intuitive and deliberate judgments are based on common principles. Psychological Review, 118, 97. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Luke, L., Clare, I. C. H., Ring, H., Redley, M., & Watson, P. (2012). Decision-making difficulties experienced by adults with autism spectrum conditions. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 16, 612–621. CrossRef Luke, L., Clare, I. C. H., Ring, H., Redley, M., & Watson, P. (2012). Decision-making difficulties experienced by adults with autism spectrum conditions. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 16, 612–621. CrossRef
go back to reference Morsanyi, K., Handley, S. J., & Evans, J.S.B.T. (2010). Decontextualised minds: Adolescents with autism are less susceptible to the conjunction fallacy than typically developing adolescents. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1378–1388. CrossRefPubMed Morsanyi, K., Handley, S. J., & Evans, J.S.B.T. (2010). Decontextualised minds: Adolescents with autism are less susceptible to the conjunction fallacy than typically developing adolescents. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1378–1388. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Morsanyi, K., Primi, C., Handley, S. J., Chiesi, F., & Galli, S. (2012). Are systemizing and autistic traits related to talent and interest in mathematics and engineering? Testing some of the central claims of the empathizing–systemizing theory. British Journal of Psychology, 103, 472–496. CrossRefPubMed Morsanyi, K., Primi, C., Handley, S. J., Chiesi, F., & Galli, S. (2012). Are systemizing and autistic traits related to talent and interest in mathematics and engineering? Testing some of the central claims of the empathizing–systemizing theory. British Journal of Psychology, 103, 472–496. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mottron, L., Dawson, M., Soulières, I., Hubert, B., & Burack, J. (2006). Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: An update, and eight principles of autistic perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 27–43. CrossRefPubMed Mottron, L., Dawson, M., Soulières, I., Hubert, B., & Burack, J. (2006). Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: An update, and eight principles of autistic perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 27–43. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Parra, M. A., Cubelli, R., Bellamy, K. J., Abrahams, S., Avila, C. L., Castro-Jaramillo, L. D., & Della Sala, S. (2016). Gist-based illusions within and across stimulus modalities in autism spectrum disorder. Memory (Hove, England), 24, 295–305. CrossRef Parra, M. A., Cubelli, R., Bellamy, K. J., Abrahams, S., Avila, C. L., Castro-Jaramillo, L. D., & Della Sala, S. (2016). Gist-based illusions within and across stimulus modalities in autism spectrum disorder. Memory (Hove, England), 24, 295–305. CrossRef
go back to reference Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J. A., Koehler, D. J., & Fugelsang, J. A. (2016). Is the cognitive reflection test a measure of both reflection and intuition? Behavior Research Methods, 48, 341–348. CrossRefPubMed Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J. A., Koehler, D. J., & Fugelsang, J. A. (2016). Is the cognitive reflection test a measure of both reflection and intuition? Behavior Research Methods, 48, 341–348. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Primi, C., Morsanyi, K., Chiesi, F., Donati, M. A., & Hamilton, J. (2015). The development and testing of a new version of the cognitive reflection test applying item response theory (IRT). Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. Online. doi: 10.​1002/​bdm.​1883. Primi, C., Morsanyi, K., Chiesi, F., Donati, M. A., & Hamilton, J. (2015). The development and testing of a new version of the cognitive reflection test applying item response theory (IRT). Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. Online. doi: 10.​1002/​bdm.​1883.
go back to reference Rand, D. G., Greene, J. D., & Nowak, M. A. (2012). Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature, 489, 427–430. CrossRefPubMed Rand, D. G., Greene, J. D., & Nowak, M. A. (2012). Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature, 489, 427–430. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rand, D. G., Peysakhovich, A., Kraft-Todd, G. T., Newman, G. E., Wurzbacher, O., Nowak, M. A., & Green, J. D. (2014) Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation. Nature Communications. doi: 10.​1038/​ncomms4677. PubMedCentral Rand, D. G., Peysakhovich, A., Kraft-Todd, G. T., Newman, G. E., Wurzbacher, O., Nowak, M. A., & Green, J. D. (2014) Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation. Nature Communications. doi: 10.​1038/​ncomms4677. PubMedCentral
go back to reference Rand, D.G. (2016) Cooperation, fast and slow: Meta-analytic evidence for a theory of social heuristics and self-interested deliberation. Psychological Science. doi: 10.​1038/​srep27219 (online first). PubMed Rand, D.G. (2016) Cooperation, fast and slow: Meta-analytic evidence for a theory of social heuristics and self-interested deliberation. Psychological Science. doi: 10.​1038/​srep27219 (online first). PubMed
go back to reference Raven, J.C. (1962). Advanced progressive matrices. Sets I and II. London: H.K. Lewis. Raven, J.C. (1962). Advanced progressive matrices. Sets I and II. London: H.K. Lewis.
go back to reference Rutherford, M. D., & McIntosh, D. N. (2007). Rules versus prototype matching: Strategies of perception of emotional facial expressions in the autism spectrum. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 187–196. CrossRefPubMed Rutherford, M. D., & McIntosh, D. N. (2007). Rules versus prototype matching: Strategies of perception of emotional facial expressions in the autism spectrum. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 187–196. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). The social communication questionnaire. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). The social communication questionnaire. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Ruzich, E., Allison, C., Smith, P., Watson, P., Auyeung, B., Ring, H., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2015). Measuring autistic traits in the general population: A systematic review of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a nonclinical population sample of 6,900 typical adult males and females. Molecular Autism, 6, 1. CrossRef Ruzich, E., Allison, C., Smith, P., Watson, P., Auyeung, B., Ring, H., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2015). Measuring autistic traits in the general population: A systematic review of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a nonclinical population sample of 6,900 typical adult males and females. Molecular Autism, 6, 1. CrossRef
go back to reference Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1983). An islet of ability in autistic children: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 613–620. CrossRefPubMed Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1983). An islet of ability in autistic children: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 613–620. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1993). Why do autistic individuals show superior performance on the block design task? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1351–1364. CrossRefPubMed Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1993). Why do autistic individuals show superior performance on the block design task? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1351–1364. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Shah, P., Catmur, C., & Bird, G. (2016). Emotional decision-making in autism spectrum disorder: The roles of interoception and alexithymia. Molecular Autism: Brain, Cognition and Behavior, 67, 43. doi: 10.​1186/​s13229-016-0104-x. CrossRef Shah, P., Catmur, C., & Bird, G. (2016). Emotional decision-making in autism spectrum disorder: The roles of interoception and alexithymia. Molecular Autism: Brain, Cognition and Behavior, 67, 43. doi: 10.​1186/​s13229-016-0104-x. CrossRef
go back to reference Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2000). Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 645–665. CrossRefPubMed Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2000). Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 645–665. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2008). On the relative independence of thinking biases and cognitive ability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 672–695. CrossRefPubMed Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (2008). On the relative independence of thinking biases and cognitive ability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 672–695. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2011). The cognitive reflection test as a predictor of performance on heuristics and biases tasks. Memory & Cognition, 39, 1275–1289. CrossRef Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2011). The cognitive reflection test as a predictor of performance on heuristics and biases tasks. Memory & Cognition, 39, 1275–1289. CrossRef
go back to reference Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211, 453–458. CrossRefPubMed Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211, 453–458. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Vanmarcke, S., Mullin, C., Van der Hallen, R., Evers, K., Noens, I., Steyaert, J., & Wagemans, J. (2016a). In the eye of the beholder: Rapid visual perception of real-life scenes by young adults with and without ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 2635–2652. CrossRefPubMed Vanmarcke, S., Mullin, C., Van der Hallen, R., Evers, K., Noens, I., Steyaert, J., & Wagemans, J. (2016a). In the eye of the beholder: Rapid visual perception of real-life scenes by young adults with and without ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 2635–2652. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Vanmarcke, S., Van Der Hallen, R., Evers, K., Noens, I., Steyaert, J., & Wagemans, J. (2016b). Ultra-rapid categorization of meaningful real-life scenes in adults with and without ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 450–466. CrossRefPubMed Vanmarcke, S., Van Der Hallen, R., Evers, K., Noens, I., Steyaert, J., & Wagemans, J. (2016b). Ultra-rapid categorization of meaningful real-life scenes in adults with and without ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 450–466. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Vanmarcke, S., & Wagemans, J. (2016). Individual differences in spatial frequency processing in scene perception: The influence of autism-related traits. Visual Cognition, 24, 115–131. CrossRef Vanmarcke, S., & Wagemans, J. (2016). Individual differences in spatial frequency processing in scene perception: The influence of autism-related traits. Visual Cognition, 24, 115–131. CrossRef
go back to reference Walsh, J. A., Vida, M. D., & Rutherford, M. D. (2014). Strategies for perceiving facial expressions in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 1018–1026. CrossRefPubMed Walsh, J. A., Vida, M. D., & Rutherford, M. D. (2014). Strategies for perceiving facial expressions in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 1018–1026. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Waschl, N. A., Nettelbeck, T., Jackson, S. A., & Burns, N. R. (2015) Dimensionality of the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices: Sex differences and visuospatial ability. Personality and Individual Differences, 100, 157–166. CrossRef Waschl, N. A., Nettelbeck, T., Jackson, S. A., & Burns, N. R. (2015) Dimensionality of the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices: Sex differences and visuospatial ability. Personality and Individual Differences, 100, 157–166. CrossRef
go back to reference Wingenbach, T. S., Ashwin, C., & Brosnan, M. (2017). Diminished sensitivity and specificity at recognising facial emotional expressions of varying intensity underlie emotion-specific recognition deficits in autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 34, 52–61. CrossRef Wingenbach, T. S., Ashwin, C., & Brosnan, M. (2017). Diminished sensitivity and specificity at recognising facial emotional expressions of varying intensity underlie emotion-specific recognition deficits in autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 34, 52–61. CrossRef
go back to reference Woodbury-Smith, M. R., Robinson, J., Wheelwright, S., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2005) Screening adults for Asperger syndrome using the AQ: A preliminary study of its diagnostic validity in clinical practice. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 331–335. CrossRefPubMed Woodbury-Smith, M. R., Robinson, J., Wheelwright, S., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2005) Screening adults for Asperger syndrome using the AQ: A preliminary study of its diagnostic validity in clinical practice. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 331–335. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference World Health Organisation (1992). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10). Geneva: WHO. World Health Organisation (1992). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10). Geneva: WHO.
Metagegevens
Titel
Brief Report: Intuitive and Reflective Reasoning in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Auteurs
Mark Brosnan
Chris Ashwin
Marcus Lewton
Publicatiedatum
04-05-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 8/2017
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3131-3