Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Positive Action is a school-based program that aims to decrease problem behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use) and increase positive behaviors (e.g., school engagement, academic achievement). Although a number of studies have shown that Positive Action successfully achieves these goals, few studies have evaluated the program’s effectiveness in rural schools. Given that rural youth are at an increased risk for risky behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use), this is a critical gap in the existing Positive Action research base. The current study assesses the impact of Positive Action on change rates of self-esteem, school hassles, aggression, and internalizing symptoms in a group (N = 1246, 52 % female) of ethnically/racially diverse (27 % White, 23 % African American, 12 % mixed race/other, 8 % Latino, 30 % as American Indian) middle school youth (age range 9–20) located in two violent, low-income rural counties in North Carolina. One county engaged in Positive Action over the 3-year study window while the other county did not. Following multiple imputation and propensity score analysis, 4 two-level hierarchical linear models were run using each of the outcome measures as dependent variables. The results indicate that the program generates statistically significant beneficial effects for youth from the intervention county on self-esteem scores and school hassles scores. Although the program generates beneficial effects for intervention youth on the change in aggression scores, the finding is not statistically significant. The finding on the change in internalizing scores shows a non-significant detrimental effect: the youth from the comparison county have lower internalizing scores than those from the intervention county. Implications are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth & Families.
Allison, P. D. (2002). Missing data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Barnett, T., Clements-Nolle, K., Lensch, T., Frankenberger, D., Larson, S., & Yang, W. (2015). Non-medical prescription drug use in a representative sample of high school students: A need for prevention in rural settings. American Public Health Association. Retrevied from https://apha-confexcom.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/apha/143am/webprogram/Paper335314.html
Bavarian, N., Lewis, K. M., DuBois, D. L., Acock, A., Vuchinich, S., Silverthorn, N., & Flay, B. R. (2013). Using social-emotional and character development to improve academic outcomes: A matched-pair cluster-randomized controlled trial in low-income, urban schools. Journal of School Health,83, 771–779. doi: 10.1111/josh.12093. CrossRefPubMed
Beets, M. W., Ray, B. R., Vuchinich, S., Snyder, F. J., Acock, A., Li, K. K., & Durlak, J. (2009). Use of social and character development program to prevent substance use, violent behaviors, and sexual activity among elementary-school students in Hawaii. American Journal of Public Health,99, 1438–1445. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2008.142919. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development. (2012). Program criteria. Retrieved from http://www.blueprintsprograms.com/programCriteria.php
Bowen, G. L., & Richman, J. M. (2008). The School Success Profile. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.
Bowen, G. L., Rose, R. A., & Bowen, N. K. (2005). The reliability and validity of the school success profile. Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). Local area unemployment statistics map. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/lau/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). 1995–2013 Middle school youth risk behavior survey data. http://nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline/
Cohen, J., McCabe, L., Michelli, N. M., & Pickeral, T. (2009). School climate: Research, policy, practice, and teacher education. Teachers College Record, 111, 180–213. Retrieved from http://www.tcrecord.org
Deal, T. E., & Peterson, K. D. (2009). Shaping School Cutlture: Pitfalls, Paradoxes, and Promises. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Derdikman-Eiron, R., Indredavik, M. S., Bratberg, G. H., Taraldsen, G., Bakken, I. J., & Colton, M. (2011). Gender differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem, and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with symptoms of anxiety and depression: Findings from the Nord-Trøndelag health study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology,52, 261–267. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2010.00859.x. CrossRefPubMed
DuBois, D. L., Flay, B. R., & Fagen, M. C. (2009). Self-esteem enhancement theory: An emerging framework for promoting health across the life-span. In R. J. DiClemente, M. C. Kegler, & R. A. Crosby (Eds.), Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research (2nd ed., pp. 97–130). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York, NY: Norton.
Finley, C. & Stewart, A. (2013). Working with rural teens: Adolescent reproductive health in rural America. The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. Third Annual Teen Pregnancy Prevention Grantee Conference. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/oah-initiatives/teen_pregnancy/training/Assests/adolescent_reproductive_ruralam.pdf
Geertz, C. (1973). The Interpretation of Culture. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Gil, A. G., Vega, W. A., & Dimas, J. M. (1994). Acculturative stress and personal adjustment among Hispanic adolescent joys. Journal of Community Psychology,22, 43–54. doi: 10.1002/1520-6629(199401)22:1<43::AID-JCOP2290220106>3.0.CO;2-T. CrossRef
Greene, W. H. (2003). Econometric analysis (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Guo, S., & Fraser, W. M. (2015). Propensity score analysis: Statistical methods and applications (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Huitsing, G., Veenstra, R., Sainio, M., & Salmivalli, C. (2012). “It must be me” or “It could be them?” The impact of the social network position of bullies and victims on victims’ adjustment. Social Networks,34, 279–386. doi: 10.1016/j.socnet.2010.07.002.
Lewis, K. M., Schure, M. B., Bavarian, N., DuBois, D. L., Day, J., Ji, P., & Flay, B. R. (2013b). Problem behavior and urban, low-income youth: A randomized controlled trial of Positive Action in Chicago. American Journal of Preventative Medicine,44, 622–630. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2013.01.030. CrossRef
Li, K. K., Washburn, I., DuBois, D. L., Vuchinich, S., Ji, P., Brechling, V., & Flay, B. R. (2011). Effects of the Positive Action programme on problem behaviors in elementary school students: A match-pair randomised control trial in Chicago. Psychology and Health,26(2), 187–204. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2011.531574. CrossRefPubMed
Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association,285, 2094–2110. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.16.2094. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
National Institute of Justice. (2015), n.d.). Program profile: Positive Action. Retrieved from http://www.crimesolutions.gov/ProgramDetails.aspx?ID=113
National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices. (2014). Minimum requirements. Retrieved from http://www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/ReviewSubmission.aspx
NC State Center for Health Statistics. (2015). North Carolina statewide and county trends in key health indicators. Retrieved from http://www.schs.state.nc.us/data/keyindicators/
Positive Action (2015) n.d.) Positive Action overview. Retrieved from https://www.positiveaction.net/
Provasnik, S., Ramani, A. K., Coleman, M. M., Gilbertson, L., Herring, W., & Xie, Q. (2007). Status of education in rural America (NCES 2007-040). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Robers, S., Kemp, J., & Truman, J. (2013). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2012 (NCES 2013-036/NCJ241446). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013036.pdf
Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1985). Constructing a control group using multivariate matched sampling methods that incorporate the propensity score. American Statistician,39, 33–38. doi: 10.2307/2683903.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rubin, D. B. (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. New York, NY: J. Wiley & Sons. CrossRef
Smokowski, P. R., Guo, S., Cotter, K. L., Evans, C. B. R., & Rose, R. A. (2015). in press). Multi-level risk factors and developmental assets associated with aggressive behavior in disadvantaged adolescents: Modeling longitudinal trajectories from the rural adaptation project. Aggressive Behavior.
Smokowski, P. R., Guo, S., Rose, R., Evans, C. B., Cotter, K. L., & Bacallao, M. (2014). Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: Modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project. Development and Psychopathology,26, 1495–1513. doi: 10.1017/S0954579414001163. CrossRefPubMed
Snyder, F. J., Acock, A. C., Vuchinich, S., Beets, M. W., Washburn, I., & Flay, B. R. (2013). Preventing negative behaviors among elementary-school students through enhancing students’ social-emotional and character development. American Journal of Health Promotion,28(1), 50–58. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.120419-QUAN-207.2. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
Snyder, F., Flay, B., Vuchinich, S., Acock, A., Washburn, I., Beets, M., & Li, K. K. (2010). Impact of a social-emotional and character development program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcome: A matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness,3, 26–55. doi: 10.1080/19345740903353436. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014). Results from the 2013 national survey on drug use and health: summary of national findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014.
U.S Census Bureau. (2015). State and county quick facts. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html
U.S. Department of Education. (2007). What works clearing house. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/interventionreport.aspx?sid=380
U.S. Department of Education. (2009). Save, disciplined, and drug- free schools. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/exemplary01/report_pg9.html
U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime. (2001). Rural victim assistance: A victim/witness guide for rural prosecutors (NCJ No. 211106). Retrieved from http://www.ovc.gov/publications/infores/rural_victim_assistance/pfv.html
Washburn, I. J., Acock, A., Vuchinich, S., Snyder, F., Li, K. K., Ji, P., & Flay, B. R. (2011). Effects of a social-emotional and character development program on the trajectory of behaviors associated with social-emotional and character development: Findings from three randomized trials. Prevention Science,12, 314–323. doi: 10.1007/s11121-011-0230-9. CrossRefPubMed
- A Longitudinal Evaluation of the Positive Action Program in a Low-Income, Racially Diverse, Rural County: Effects on Self-Esteem, School Hassles, Aggression, and Internalizing Symptoms
Paul R. Smokowski
Caroline B. R. Evans
Katie L. Cotter
- Springer US