Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

02-11-2015 | Empirical Research

Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents’ Intentions to Volunteer

Auteurs: Sophia Choukas-Bradley, Matteo Giletta, Geoffrey L. Cohen, Mitchell J. Prinstein

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 12/2015

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other’s prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental “chat room” paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55 % female, 45 % male; M age = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., “e-confederates”), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants’ intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent “public” and “private” experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates’ prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors.
Voetnoten
1
The selection of participants who were in seventh grade at baseline—and the exclusion of those in eighth grade—was necessary, given that the chat room would occur during the start of the following school year. It was crucial for the chat room participants to be enrolled in the same school (and with the same group of grademates) during both the baseline questionnaire data collection and the chat room paradigm phases of the study, and participants who were in eighth grade at baseline had transitioned to high school. Additionally, given the time-intensive nature of the administration of the chat room paradigm, it was not possible to include all three schools; two were selected based on compatible scheduling. Importantly, there were no significant differences in student characteristics across the three schools (with regard to gender, ethnicity, or SES).
 
2
As noted previously, two of the girls’ chat room conditions were combined for the primary analyses. However, a highly similar pattern of results was revealed when examining all three conditions separately. Specifically, a 3 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA was conducted, and a significant time of assessment by condition effect was found, Wilks’ λ = .94; F(4, 324) = 2.45, p = .046; \( \eta_{p}^{2} = .03 \). To better understand this interaction effect, a series of followup univariate ANOVAs and Tukey’s HSD post hoc tests were performed with prosocial behavior at the preexperiment, public chat room, or private chat room assessments as the dependent variable. No differences were observed in prosocial behavior across the three experimental conditions (high-popularity/low-likeability, low-popularity/high-likeability, low-popularity/low-likeability) at pre-experiment or in the private chat room condition. However, marginally significant differences were observed when examining prosocial behavior assessed during the public chat room assessment, (F(2) = 2.85, p = .06, \( \eta_{p}^{2} = .03 \)). Tukey’s HSD post-hoc indicated that during the public chat room assessment, girls in the popular/unliked condition reported (on average) somewhat higher levels of prosocial behavior, as compared to girls in the unpopular/unliked condition (untransformed means: M = 8.33, SD = 0.94 vs. M = 7.76, SD = 1.45; p = .05).
 
3
The main study analyses also were conducted while covarying the participants’ popularity and likeability. For both the boys and girls, the results from the repeated measures ANOVAs remained unchanged, showing a significant interaction effect between the time of assessment and the experimental condition, for boys, Wilks’ λ = .95; F(2, 133) = 3.18, p < .05; \( \eta_{p}^{2} = .05 \), and for girls, Wilks’ λ = .95; F(2, 161) = 4.67, p < .05; \( \eta_{p}^{2} = .06 \).
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Allen, J. P., & Antonishak, J. (2008). Adolescent peer influences: Beyond the dark side. In M. J. Prinstein & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), Understanding peer influence in children and adolescents (pp. 141–160). New York: Guilford Press. Allen, J. P., & Antonishak, J. (2008). Adolescent peer influences: Beyond the dark side. In M. J. Prinstein & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), Understanding peer influence in children and adolescents (pp. 141–160). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Altermatt, E., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2005). The implications of having high-achieving versus low-achieving friends: A longitudinal analysis. Social Development, 14(1), 61–81.CrossRef Altermatt, E., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2005). The implications of having high-achieving versus low-achieving friends: A longitudinal analysis. Social Development, 14(1), 61–81.CrossRef
go back to reference Barry, C., & Wentzel, K. R. (2006). Friend influence on prosocial behavior: The role of motivational factors and friendship characteristics. Developmental Psychology, 42(1), 153–163.CrossRefPubMed Barry, C., & Wentzel, K. R. (2006). Friend influence on prosocial behavior: The role of motivational factors and friendship characteristics. Developmental Psychology, 42(1), 153–163.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brechwald, W. A., & Prinstein, M. J. (2011). Beyond homophily: A decade of advances in understanding peer influence processes. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 166–179.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Brechwald, W. A., & Prinstein, M. J. (2011). Beyond homophily: A decade of advances in understanding peer influence processes. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 166–179.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Choukas-Bradley, S., Giletta, M., Widman, L., Cohen, G. L., & Prinstein, M. J. (2014). Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories: A preliminary study. Developmental Psychology, 50(9), 2221–2227.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Choukas-Bradley, S., Giletta, M., Widman, L., Cohen, G. L., & Prinstein, M. J. (2014). Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories: A preliminary study. Developmental Psychology, 50(9), 2221–2227.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cillessen, A., & Mayeux, L. (2004). From censure to reinforcement: Developmental changes in the association between aggression and social status. Child Development, 75(1), 147–163.CrossRefPubMed Cillessen, A., & Mayeux, L. (2004). From censure to reinforcement: Developmental changes in the association between aggression and social status. Child Development, 75(1), 147–163.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (Rev ed.). New York, NY: Academic Press. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (Rev ed.). New York, NY: Academic Press.
go back to reference Cohen, G. L., & Prinstein, M. J. (2006). Peer contagion of aggression and health-risk behavior among adolescent males: An experimental investigation of effects on public conduct and private attitudes. Child Development, 77, 967–983.CrossRefPubMed Cohen, G. L., & Prinstein, M. J. (2006). Peer contagion of aggression and health-risk behavior among adolescent males: An experimental investigation of effects on public conduct and private attitudes. Child Development, 77, 967–983.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Coie, J., & Dodge, K. (1983). Continuities and changes in children’s social status: A five-year longitudinal study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 29(3), 261–282. Coie, J., & Dodge, K. (1983). Continuities and changes in children’s social status: A five-year longitudinal study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 29(3), 261–282.
go back to reference Crone, E. A., & Dahl, R. E. (2012). Understanding adolescence as a period of social–affective engagement and goal flexibility. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13(9), 636–650.CrossRefPubMed Crone, E. A., & Dahl, R. E. (2012). Understanding adolescence as a period of social–affective engagement and goal flexibility. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13(9), 636–650.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference de Castro, B. O., Thomaes, S., & Reijntjes, A. (2015). Using experimental designs to understand the development of peer relations. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 25(1), 1–13.CrossRef de Castro, B. O., Thomaes, S., & Reijntjes, A. (2015). Using experimental designs to understand the development of peer relations. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 25(1), 1–13.CrossRef
go back to reference Eccles, J., & Gootman, J. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Eccles, J., & Gootman, J. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine.
go back to reference Ellis, W. E., & Zarbatany, L. (2007). Peer group status as a moderator of group influence on children’s deviant, aggressive, and prosocial behavior. Child Development, 78(4), 1240–1254.CrossRefPubMed Ellis, W. E., & Zarbatany, L. (2007). Peer group status as a moderator of group influence on children’s deviant, aggressive, and prosocial behavior. Child Development, 78(4), 1240–1254.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gardner, M., & Steinberg, L. (2005). Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: An experimental study. Developmental Psychology, 41(4), 625–635.CrossRefPubMed Gardner, M., & Steinberg, L. (2005). Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: An experimental study. Developmental Psychology, 41(4), 625–635.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gibbons, F. X., Pomery, E. A., & Gerrard, M. (2008). Cognitive social influence: Moderation, mediation, modification, and… The media. In M. J. Prinstein & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), Understanding peer influence in children and adolescents (pp. 45–71). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Gibbons, F. X., Pomery, E. A., & Gerrard, M. (2008). Cognitive social influence: Moderation, mediation, modification, and… The media. In M. J. Prinstein & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), Understanding peer influence in children and adolescents (pp. 45–71). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Graham, J. W. (2009). Missing data analysis: Making it work in the real world. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 549–576.CrossRefPubMed Graham, J. W. (2009). Missing data analysis: Making it work in the real world. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 549–576.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Jarvis, B. (2004). DirectRT [Computer software]. New York, NY: Empirisoft Corp. Jarvis, B. (2004). DirectRT [Computer software]. New York, NY: Empirisoft Corp.
go back to reference Larson, R. W., & Tran, S. P. (2014). Invited commentary: Positive youth development and human complexity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(6), 1012–1017.CrossRefPubMed Larson, R. W., & Tran, S. P. (2014). Invited commentary: Positive youth development and human complexity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(6), 1012–1017.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Law, B. F., Shek, D. L., & Ma, C. S. (2013). Validation of family, school, and peer influence on volunteerism scale among adolescents. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(4), 458–466.CrossRef Law, B. F., Shek, D. L., & Ma, C. S. (2013). Validation of family, school, and peer influence on volunteerism scale among adolescents. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(4), 458–466.CrossRef
go back to reference Logis, H. A., Rodkin, P. C., Gest, S. D., & Ahn, H. (2013). Popularity as an organizing factor of preadolescent friendship networks: Beyond prosocial and aggressive behavior. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(3), 413–423.CrossRef Logis, H. A., Rodkin, P. C., Gest, S. D., & Ahn, H. (2013). Popularity as an organizing factor of preadolescent friendship networks: Beyond prosocial and aggressive behavior. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(3), 413–423.CrossRef
go back to reference Lynch, A., Lerner, R. M., & Leventhal, T. (2013). Adolescent academic achievement and school engagement: An examination of the role of school-wide peer culture. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(1), 6–19.CrossRefPubMed Lynch, A., Lerner, R. M., & Leventhal, T. (2013). Adolescent academic achievement and school engagement: An examination of the role of school-wide peer culture. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(1), 6–19.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Masten, C. L., Juvonen, J., & Spatzier, A. (2009). Relative importance of parents and peers: Differences in academic and social behaviors at three grade levels spanning late childhood and early adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 29(6), 773–799.CrossRef Masten, C. L., Juvonen, J., & Spatzier, A. (2009). Relative importance of parents and peers: Differences in academic and social behaviors at three grade levels spanning late childhood and early adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 29(6), 773–799.CrossRef
go back to reference Pedlow, C. T., & Carey, M. P. (2004). Developmentally appropriate sexual risk reduction interventions for adolescents: Rationale, review of interventions, and recommendations for research and practice. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 27(3), 172–184.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Pedlow, C. T., & Carey, M. P. (2004). Developmentally appropriate sexual risk reduction interventions for adolescents: Rationale, review of interventions, and recommendations for research and practice. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 27(3), 172–184.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Prinstein, M. J., Brechwald, W. A., & Cohen, G. L. (2011). Susceptibility to peer influence: Using a performance-based measure to identify adolescent males at heightened risk for deviant peer socialization. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1167–1172.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Prinstein, M. J., Brechwald, W. A., & Cohen, G. L. (2011). Susceptibility to peer influence: Using a performance-based measure to identify adolescent males at heightened risk for deviant peer socialization. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1167–1172.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Prinstein, M. J., & Cillessen, A. N. (2003). Forms and functions of adolescent peer aggression associated with high levels of peer status. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Journal of Developmental Psychology, 49(3), 310–342.CrossRef Prinstein, M. J., & Cillessen, A. N. (2003). Forms and functions of adolescent peer aggression associated with high levels of peer status. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Journal of Developmental Psychology, 49(3), 310–342.CrossRef
go back to reference Rancourt, D., Choukas-Bradley, S., Cohen, G. L., & Prinstein, M. J. (2014). An experimental examination of peers’ influence on adolescent girls’ intent to engage in maladaptive weight-related behaviors. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 47(5), 437–447.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed Rancourt, D., Choukas-Bradley, S., Cohen, G. L., & Prinstein, M. J. (2014). An experimental examination of peers’ influence on adolescent girls’ intent to engage in maladaptive weight-related behaviors. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 47(5), 437–447.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W. M., & Laursen, B. (2009). Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W. M., & Laursen, B. (2009). Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Sandstrom, M. J. (2011). The power of popularity: Influence processes in childhood and adolescence. In A. N. Cillessen, D. Schwartz, & L. Mayeux (Eds.), Popularity in the peer system (pp. 219–244). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Sandstrom, M. J. (2011). The power of popularity: Influence processes in childhood and adolescence. In A. N. Cillessen, D. Schwartz, & L. Mayeux (Eds.), Popularity in the peer system (pp. 219–244). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Snijders, T. A. B., van de Bunt, G. G., & Steglich, C. E. G. (2010). Introduction to stochastic actor-based models for network dynamics. Social Networks, 32, 44–60.CrossRef Snijders, T. A. B., van de Bunt, G. G., & Steglich, C. E. G. (2010). Introduction to stochastic actor-based models for network dynamics. Social Networks, 32, 44–60.CrossRef
go back to reference van Goethem, A. J., van Hoof, A., van Aken, M. G., de Castro, B., & Raaijmakers, Q. W. (2014). Socialising adolescent volunteering: How important are parents and friends? Age dependent effects of parents and friends on adolescents’ volunteering behaviours. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35(2), 94–101.CrossRef van Goethem, A. J., van Hoof, A., van Aken, M. G., de Castro, B., & Raaijmakers, Q. W. (2014). Socialising adolescent volunteering: How important are parents and friends? Age dependent effects of parents and friends on adolescents’ volunteering behaviours. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35(2), 94–101.CrossRef
go back to reference van Hoorn, J., van Dijk, E., Meuwese, R., Rieffe, C., & Crone, E. A. (2014). Peer influence on prosocial behavior in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence. doi:10.1111/jora.12173 (Online First). van Hoorn, J., van Dijk, E., Meuwese, R., Rieffe, C., & Crone, E. A. (2014). Peer influence on prosocial behavior in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence. doi:10.​1111/​jora.​12173 (Online First).
go back to reference Weigard, A., Chein, J., Albert, D., Smith, A., & Steinberg, L. (2014). Effects of anonymous peer observation on adolescents’ preference for immediate rewards. Developmental Science, 17(1), 71–78.CrossRefPubMed Weigard, A., Chein, J., Albert, D., Smith, A., & Steinberg, L. (2014). Effects of anonymous peer observation on adolescents’ preference for immediate rewards. Developmental Science, 17(1), 71–78.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wentzel, K. R. (2014). Prosocial behavior and peer relations in adolescence. In L. M. Padilla-Walker & G. Carlo (Eds.), Prosocial development: A multidimensional approach (pp. 178–200). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRef Wentzel, K. R. (2014). Prosocial behavior and peer relations in adolescence. In L. M. Padilla-Walker & G. Carlo (Eds.), Prosocial development: A multidimensional approach (pp. 178–200). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents’ Intentions to Volunteer
Auteurs
Sophia Choukas-Bradley
Matteo Giletta
Geoffrey L. Cohen
Mitchell J. Prinstein
Publicatiedatum
02-11-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 12/2015
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0373-2

Andere artikelen Uitgave 12/2015

Journal of Youth and Adolescence 12/2015 Naar de uitgave