Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Young adulthood represents a developmental period with disproportionately heightened risk of losing a job. Young adult unemployment has been linked to increased mental health problems, at least in the short term. However, their possible long-term impacts, often referred as “scarring effects,” have been understudied, possibly underestimating the magnitude of mental health burden that young adult unemployment generates. This longitudinal study examined whether duration of unemployment during young adulthood is associated with later mental health disorders, after accounting for mental and behavioral health problems in childhood. Furthermore, the current study investigated whether childhood neighborhood characteristics affect this association and if so, in what specific functional ways. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of developmental outcomes in a community sample in Seattle. Data collection began in 1985 when study participants were elementary students and involved yearly assessments in childhood and adolescence (ages 10–16) and then biennial or triennial assessments (ages 18–39; N = 677 at age 39; 47% European American, 26% African American, 22% Asian American, and 5% Native American; 49% female). The current study findings suggest that duration of unemployment across young adulthood increased mental health problems at age 39, regardless of gender. Childhood neighborhood characteristics, particularly their positive aspect, exerted independent impacts on adult mental health problems beyond unemployment experiences across young adulthood. The current findings indicate a needed shift in service profiles for unemployed young adults—a comprehensive approach that not only facilitates reemployment but also addresses mental health needs to help them to cope with job loss. Further, the present study findings suggest that childhood neighborhoods, particularly positive features such as positive neighborhood involvement, may represent concrete and malleable prevention targets that can curb mental health problems early in life.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). CBCL 4-18: YSR and TRF Profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Press.
Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1983). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Press.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th edn.). Washington, DC: Author.
Bradshaw, C, Rebok, G, Zablotsky, B, Laflair, L, Mendelson, T., & Eaton, W. (2012). Models of stress and adapting to risk: a life course, developmental perspective. In: In W. Eaton (Ed.) Public mental health. (pp. 269–302). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005). Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In R. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: 1. Theoretical models of human development. 5th ed. (pp. 992–1028). New York, NY: Wiley.
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Newman, D. L., & Silva, P. A. (1996a). Behavioral observations at age 3 years predict adult psychiatric disorders: longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 1033–1039. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830110071009. CrossRef
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Thornton, A., Freedman, D., Amell, J. W., Harrington, H., & Silva, P. A. (1996b). The life history calendar: a research and clinical assessment method for collecting retrospective event-history data. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 6, 101–114. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1234-988x(199607)6:2<101::aid-mpr156>3.3.co;2-e. CrossRef
Catalano, R., Goldman-Mellor, S., Saxton, K., Margerison-Zilko, C., Subbaraman, M., LeWinn, K., & Anderson, E. (2011). The health effects of economic decline. Annual Review of Public Health, 32, 431–450. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031210-101146. CrossRef
Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (2015). Behavioral health trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 15-4927, NSDUH Series H-50). https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-FRR1-2014/NSDUH-FRR1-2014.pdf
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (2009). The past achievements and future promises of developmental psychopathology: the coming of age of a discipline. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 16–25. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01979.x. CrossRef
Currie, J. (2009). Healthy, wealthy, and wise: socioeconomic status, poor health in childhood, and human capital development. Journal of Economic Literature, 47, 87–122. CrossRef
Daly, M., & Delaney, L. (2013). The scarring effect of unemployment throughout adulthood on psychological distress at age 50: estimates controlling for early adulthood distress and childhood psychological factors. Social Science & Medicine, 80, 19–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.12.008. CrossRef
Del Giudice, M., Ellis, B. J., & Shirtcliff, E. A. (2011). The adaptive calibration model of stress responsivity. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1562–1592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.11.007. CrossRef
Dooley, D., & Prause, J. (2004). The social costs of underemployment.. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Echeverria, S., Diez-Roux, A. V., Shea, S., Borrell, L. N., & Jackson, S. (2008). Associations of neighborhood problems and neighborhood social cohesion with mental health and health behaviors: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Health and Place, 14, 853–865. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.01.004. CrossRef
Edwards, K. A., & Hertel-Fernandez, A. (2010). The kids aren’t alright: a labor market analysis of young workers. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.
Elder, Jr., G. H. (1994). Time, human agency, and social change: perspectives on the life course. Social Psychology Quarterly, 57, 4–15. CrossRef
Ellis, B. J., & Boyce, W. T. (2008). Biological sensitivity to context. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 183–187. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00571.x. CrossRef
Erdem, Ö., Van Lenthe, F. J., Prins, R. G., Voorham, T. A., & Burdorf, A. (2016). Socioeconomic inequalities in psychological distress among urban adults: The moderating role of neighborhood social cohesion. PLOS One, 11, e0157119 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157119. CrossRef
Farver, J., Ghosh, C., & Garcia, C. (2000). Children’s perceptions of their neighborhoods. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21, 139–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(99)00032-5. CrossRef
Fortin, N. M. (2015). Gender role attitudes and women’s labor market participation: opting-out, AIDS, and the persistent appeal of housewifery. Annals of Economics and Statistics, 117/118, 379–401. https://doi.org/10.15609/annaeconstat2009.117-118.379. CrossRef
Frasquilho, D., de Matos, M. G., Marques, A., Gaspar, T., & Caldas-de-Almeida, J. M. (2016). Distress and unemployment: the related economic and noneconomic factors in a sample of unemployed adults. International Journal of Public Health, 61, 821–828. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-016-0806-z. CrossRef
Galea, S., Ahern, J., Nandi, A., Tracy, M., Beard, J., & Vlahov, D. (2007). Urban neighborhood poverty and the incidence of depression in a population-based cohort study. Annals of Epidemiology, 17, 171–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2006.07.008. CrossRef
Hammarström, A., Gustafsson, P. E., Strandh, M., Virtanen, P., & Janlert, U. (2011). It’s no surprise! Men are not hit more than women by the health consequences of unemployment in the Northern Swedish Cohort. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 39, 187–193. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494810394906. CrossRef
Hawkins, J. D., Oesterle, S., Brown, E. C., Abbott, R. D., & Catalano, R. F. (2014). Youth problem behaviors 8 years after implementing the communities that care prevention system: a community-randomized trial. JAMA Pediatrics, 168, 122–129. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4009. CrossRef
Hawkins, J. D., Smith, B. H., Hill, K. G., Kosterman, R., Catalano, R. F., & Abbott, R. D. (2003). Understanding and preventing crime and violence: Findings from the Seattle Social Development Project. In T. P. Thornberry & M. D. Krohn (Eds.), Taking stock of delinquency: an overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies (pp. 255–312). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. CrossRef
Heinrichs, N., Rapee, R. M., Alden, L. A., Bögels, S., Hofmann, S. G., Ja Oh, K., & Sakano, Y. (2006). Cultural differences in perceived social norms and social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1187–1197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2005.09.006. CrossRef
Hertzman, C., & Power, C. (2003). Health and human development: understandings from life-course research. Developmental Neuropsychology, 24, 719–744. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326942dn242&3_10. CrossRef
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Hultman, B., & Hemlin, S. (2008). Self-rated quality of life among the young unemployed and the young in work in northern Sweden. Work, 30, 461–472.
Jukkala, T., Makinen, I. H., Kislitsyna, O., Ferlander, S., & Vagero, D. (2008). Economic strain, social relations, gender, and binge drinking in Moscow. Social Science and Medicine, 66, 663–674. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.10.017. CrossRef
Lee, J. O., Jones, T. M., Kosterman, R., Rhew, I. C., Lovasi, G. S., Hill, K. G., & Hawkins, J. D. (2017). The association of unemployment from age 21 to 33 with substance use disorder symptoms at age 39: the role of childhood neighborhood characteristics. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 174, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.01.005. CrossRef
Ludwig, J., Duncan, G. J., Gennetian, L. A., Katz, L. F., Kessler, R. C., Kling, J. R., & Sanbonmatsu, L. (2013). Long-term neighborhood effects on low-income families: Evidence from moving to opportunity. American Economic Review, 103, 226–231. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.103.3.226. CrossRef
McLeod, J. D., & Almazan, E. P. (2003). Connections between childhood and adulthood. In J. Mortimer & M. J. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 391–411). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. CrossRef
Monteiro, N. M., Balogun, S. K., & Oratile, K. N. (2014). Managing stress: The influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping among university students in Botswana. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 19, 153–173. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2014.908784. CrossRef
Moore, T. H. M., Kapur, N., Hawton, K., Richards, A., Metcalfe, C., & Gunnell, D. (2017). Interventions to reduce the impact of unemployment and economic hardship on mental health in the general population: A systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 47, 1062–1084. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291716002944. CrossRef
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2015). Mplus user’s guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Newman, D. L., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Magdol, L., Silva, P. A., & Stanton, W. R. (1996). Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance, and new case incidence from ages 11 to 21. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 552–562. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006x.64.3.552. CrossRef
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2004). Gender differences in risk factors and consequences for alcohol use and problems. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 981–1010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2004.08.003. CrossRef
Oesterle, S. (2013). Pathways to young adulthood and preventive interventions targeting young adults.. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Paul, K. I., & Moser, K. (2009). Unemployment impairs mental health: Meta-analyses. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74, 264–282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2009.01.001. CrossRef
Reinherz, H. Z., Giaconia, R. M., Hauf, A. M. C., Wasserman, M. S., & Paradis, A. D. (2000). General and specific childhood risk factors for depression and drug disorders by early adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 223–231. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200002000-00023. CrossRef
Robins, L., Helzer, J. E., Croghan, J., Williams, J. B. W., & Spitzer, R. L. (1981). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule (Version III). Rockville: National Institute of Mental Health.
Sareen, J., Afifi, T. O., McMillan, K. A., & Asmundson, G. J. G. (2011). Relationship between household income and mental disorders: findings from a population-based longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 419–427. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.15. CrossRef
Sroufe, L. A. (2007). The place of development in developmental psychopathology. In M. A. S. (Ed.) Multilevel dynamics in developmental psychopathology: the Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (Vol. 34, pp. 285–299). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum. .
Stein, M. B., & Stein, D. J. (2008). Social anxiety disorder. Lancet, 371, 115–1125. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60488-2.
Sweet, S., Sarkisian, N., Matz-Costa, C., & Pitt-Catsouphes, M. (2016). Are women less career centric than men? Structure, culture, and identity investments. Community, Work and Family, 19, 481–500. https://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2015.1078287. CrossRef
Taylor, P., Parker, K., Kochhar, R., Fry, R., Funk, C., Patten, E., & Motel, S. (2012). Young, underemployed and optimistic: coming of age, slowly, in a tough economy. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.
Theall, K. P., Shirtcliff, E. A., Dismukes, A. R., Wallace, M., & Drury, S. S. (2017). Association between neighborhood violence and biological stress in children. JAMA Pediatrics, 171, 53–60. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.2321. CrossRef
Tucker, J. S., Pollard, M. S., De La Haye, K., Kennedy, D. P., & Green, H. D. (2013). Neighborhood characteristics and the initiation of marijuana use and binge drinking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 128, 83–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.08.006. CrossRef
Wanberg, C. R. (2012). The individual experience of unemployment. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 369–396. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100500. CrossRef
Yoshihama, M., Gillespie, B., Hammock, A. C., Belli, R. F., & Tolman, R. M. (2005). Does the life history calendar method facilitate the recall of intimate partner violence? Comparison of two methods of data collection. Social Work Research, 29, 151–163. https://doi.org/10.1093/swr/29.3.151. CrossRef
- Young Adult Unemployment and Later Depression and Anxiety: Does Childhood Neighborhood Matter?
Jungeun Olivia Lee
Tiffany M. Jones
Daniel A. Hackman
Joan P. Yoo
- Springer US